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【영어 25문】 ①책형 【문 1】다음 글의 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? Anthropologists believe wisdom teeth, or the third set of molars, were the evolutionary answer to our ancestor’s early diet of coarse, rough food ⎯ like leaves, roots, nuts and meats ⎯ which required more chewing power and resulted in excessive wear of the teeth. The modern diet with its softer foods, along with marvels of modern technologies such as forks, spoons and knives, has made the need for wisdom teeth nonexistent. As a result, evolutionary biologists now classify wisdom teeth as vestigial organs, or body parts that have become functionless due to . ① dental decay ② evolution ③ hardness ④ their shape 【문 2】주어진 글 다음에 이어질 글의 순서로 가장 적절한 것은? In today's technology-driven world, almost everyone, at some point in their lives, has either used or had some sort of contact with a microwave oven. Like many of the great inventions of our past, the idea behind the microwave oven was accidentally stumbled upon in 1946. (A) Shortly after the accidental discovery, engineers at Raytheon went to work on Spencer's new idea, developing and refining it to be of practical use. (B) Dr. Percy Spencer was working as an engineer with the Raytheon Corporation at the time, when he discovered something very unusual one day while working on a radar-related research project. While testing a new vacuum tube known as a magnetron, he discovered that a candy bar in his pocket had melted. (C) Intrigued as he was, Spencer decided upon further experimentation. Later on, having pointed the tube at such objects as a bag of popcorn kernels and an egg, with similar results in both experiments (the popcorn popped and the egg exploded), he correctly concluded that the observed effects in each case were all attributed to exposure to low-density microwave energy. ① (Α) - (C) - (B) ② (B) - (A) - (C) ③ (Β) - (C) - (A) ④ (C) - (B) - (A) (A) (B) (C) ① dominant … celebrator … transparent ② dormant … celebrator … transformative ③ dominant … celebrity … transformative ④ dormant … celebrity … transparent "There may be a devilish Indian behind every tree." said Goodman Brown to himself; and ①he glanced fearfully behind him as he added, "What if the devil himself should be at my very elbow!" His head being turned back, ②he passed a crook of the road, and, looking forward again, beheld the figure of a man, in grave and decent attire seated at the foot of an old tree. He arose at Goodman Brown's approach and walked onward side by side with ③him. "You are late, Goodman Brown," said the man. "My wife kept me back a while," he replied, with a tremor in his voice, caused by the sudden appearance of ④him, though not wholly unexpected. 【문 3】다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 어법상 옳지 않은 것은? To "win hands down" which means to "win easily" or "win with little or no effort" has ①its origins in horse racing. In a close, photo-finish race, a jockey ② typically strikes his horse with a bat or the reins to force it to maintain or increase speed. When the horse is leading by several lengths and a win is assured, the jockey will usually cease striking the horse or let the reins ③go loose: In effect, he puts his "hands down." The expression ④was appeared in the mid-19th century; by the end of the century, it was being used outside of horse racing to mean "with no trouble at all." 【문 4】다음 밑줄 친 (A), (B), (C)에서 문맥에 맞는 낱말로 가장 적 절한 것은? In many ways, the differences between pairs of training shoe are marginal. Mr. Twitchell calls them fungible, "essentially interchangeable." But successive savvy advertising strategies turned a little Oregon sports outfitter into the globally (A)dominant / dormant sports giant Nike. Their swoosh logo is now one of the most recognizable images on the planet, rendering the actual name unnecessary. And while Nike may not have been the first company to seek (B)celebrator / celebrity plugs, its relationship with Michael Jordan is arguably the most successful endorsement in history. The release of the Just Do It motto in 1988 was a (C)transparent / transformative moment for the company, weaving their brand, seemingly forever, with the inspiring and dramatic physicality of sport. 【문 5】밑줄 친 he[him]가 가리키는 대상이 나머지 셋과 다른 하나는? 1교시 ①책형 전체 22-17 【영어 25문】 ①책형 【문 6】다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 문맥상 낱말의 쓰임이 적절하지 않은 것은? Our "ego" or self-conception could be pictured as a leaking balloon, forever requiring the helium of external love to remain ①inflated, and ever vulnerable to the smallest pinpricks of neglect. There is something at once sobering and absurd in the extent to which we are lifted by the attentions of others and sunk by their ②disregard. Our mood may ③brighten because a colleague greets us distractedly or our telephone calls go unreturned. And we are capable of thinking life ④ worthy of living because someone remembers our name or sends us a fruit basket. 【문 7】다음 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은? If a black hole has a non-zero temperature ― no matter how small ― the most basic and well-established physical principles would require it to emit radiation, much like a glowing poker. But black holes, as everyone knows, are black; they supposedly do not emit anything. This was the case until Hawking, in 1974, discovered something truly amazing. Black holes, Hawking announced, are not completely black. If one ignores quantum mechanics and invokes only the laws of classical general relativity, then as originally found some six decades previously, black holes certainly do not allow anything ― not even light ― to escape their gravitational grip. But the inclusion of quantum mechanics modifies this conclusion in a profound way, and Hawking found that black holes do emit radiation, quantum mechanically. ① What Happens inside Black Holes? ② Mystery of the Quantum World ③ The Birth of General Relativity ④ Is a Black Hole Really Black? 【문 8】다음 글에서 전체 흐름과 관계 없는 문장은? For the New World as a whole, the Indian population decline in the century or two following Columbus's arrival is estimated to have been as large as 95 percent. The main killers were Old World germs to which Indians had never been exposed, and against which they therefore had neither immune nor genetic resistance. ①Smallpox, measles, influenza, and typhus competed for top rank among the killers. ②For example, in 1837 the Mandan Indian tribe, with one of the most elaborate cultures in our Great Plains, contracted smallpox from a steamboat traveling up the Missouri River from St. Louis. ③The Mandan survived mainly by hunting, farming and gathering wild plants, though some food came from trade. ④The population of one Mandan village plummeted from 2,000 to fewer than 40 within a few weeks. 【문 9】다음 글의 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? Most of the world's great cities have grown randomly, little by little, in response to the needs of the moment; very rarely is a city planned for the remote future. The evolution of a city is like the evolution of the brain: it develops from a small center and slowly grows and changes, leaving many old parts still functioning. There is no way for evolution to remove _____________________________ and replace it with something of more modern manufacture. The brain must function during the renovation. That is why our brain stem is surrounded by the R-complex, then the limbic system and finally the cerebral cortex. The old parts are in charge of too many fundamental functions for them to be replaced altogether. So they wheeze along, out-of-date and sometimes counterproductive, but a necessary consequence of our evolution. *R-complex: (두뇌의) R영역 **limbic system: (두뇌의) 변연계 ***cerebral cortex: 대뇌피질 ① the arrangement of new city streets ② the invasion of an alien substance ③ the advantage of natural selection ④ the ancient interior of the brain 【문10】주어진 글 다음에 이어질 글의 순서로 가장 적절한 것은? The "denotation" of a word is what the word literally means. Blue, for instance, means "the color of the sky on a sunny day." (A) Likewise, We would like to have friends who are "true blue," to win a "blue ribbon", and to own "blue-chip stocks". But we might not like being called a "bluenose". (B) As you see above, even a simple word naming a color can have a wide range of possible meanings, depending on how it's used. This is what is meant by connotation, the implied(suggested) meaning of a word. (C) Beyond the denotation of the word, however, we also can find many other meanings in the name of the color. We usually do not like feeling blue, but we may enjoy hearing a great blues singer. ① (B) - (A) - (C) ② (B) - (C) - (A) ③ (C) - (A) - (B) ④ (C) - (B) - (A) 1교시 ①책형 전체 22-18 【영어 25문】 ①책형 【문11】주어진 글 다음에 이어질 글의 순서로 가장 적절한 것은? "Begin with the End in Mind" is based on the principle that all things are created twice. There's a mental or first creation, and a physical or second creation to all things. (A) If you want a family-centered home, you plan a family room where it would be a natural gathering place. You plan sliding doors and a patio for children to play outside. You work with ideas. You work with your mind until you get a clear image of what you want to build. (B) Take the construction of a home, for example. You design it in every detail before you ever hammer the first nail into place. You try to get a very clear sense of what kind of house you want. (C) Then you reduce it to blueprint and develop construction plans. All of this is done before the earth is touched. If not, then in the second creation, the physical creation, you will have to make expensive changes that may double the cost of your home. ① (A) - (C) - (B) ② (B) - (A) - (C) ③ (B) - (C) - (A) ④ (C) - (B) - (A) 【문12】주어진 글 다음에 이어질 글의 순서로 가장 적절한 것은? Observations are not always undertaken with a clear sense of what data may be relevant. On a long and rough sea voyage in 1882, many of the ship’s passengers were afflicted with seasickness. (A) James speculated that seasickness must be due to some temporary disturbance of the inner ear, a problem to which the deaf mutes were not sensitive at all. Later experimentation, some carried out by James, confirmed this suspicion. (B) This crucial clue about the causes of seasickness came thanks to James’ ability to see the importance of something interesting that others had overlooked. (C) One who was not was the American philosopher and psychologist, William James. James had the great good fortune to notice that 15 of the passengers, all of whom were deaf and mute, were completely unaffected. ① (A) - (C) - (B) ② (B) - (C) - (A) ③ (C) - (A) - (B) ④ (B) - (A) - (C) 【문13】다음 글의 내용을 한 문장으로 요약하고자 한다. 빈칸 (A)와 (B)에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? Umpires and other sports officials are the decision-makers and rulebook enforcers whose word is law on the field of play. Such authority comes with heavy responsibility to match. Sports officials must be unbiased masters of the rules and have thick skins. They must keep control of the conduct of games at all times, be good communicators, and stay cool in situations that can quickly grow heated ― both on the field and in the stands. For every winner in sports there is a loser, of course, and the outcome may ride on a few crucial calls. Was that three-and-two pitch a ball or a strike? Was that last-second basket a buzzer-beater or not? While instant replay provides a fallback in professional and big-time college sports, officials at other levels are on their own. The stakes can be higher than just one game. High school athletes may hope for college scholarships, and key calls against them could hurt their chances when scouts are on hand. As one veteran high school official put it, “You never know who’s in the stands.” ⇓ The roles of umpires are so ( A ) that they can have ( B ) influence on players' individual future plans as well as the play at the field. (A) (B) ① professional _ slight ② expansive _ significant ③ ambiguous _ valuable ④ comprehensive _ positive 【문14】다음 글의 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? Why would anyone be foolish enough to argue about the money supply? The more money, the merrier, right? Wrong. In slapstick movie, bumbling gangsters drop suitcases filled with bills, and bystanders dive past one another hoping to grab a few. The passer-bys always smile, but the bad guys wail and so do economists. Why do economists cry with the gangsters? A problem does not arise when just a few suitcases burst open. But if lots of luggage were to suddenly flood a town with bills, _________ might follow. If the amount of money overwhelms the capacity to produce goods, consumers, with more money to spend, bid up prices. The town is no wealthier than before; more bills do not bring a higher standard of living any more than if everyone added two zeroes to his or her salary. ① recession ② inflation ③ bankruptcy ④ unemployment 1교시 ①책형 전체 22-19 【영어 25문】 ①책형 【문15】다음 글의 (A), (B), (C)의 각 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 낱말의 쓰임이 적절한 것을 바르게 나열한 것은? Exactly how, when, why, and where the first maps came to be created is difficult to discover. Much of what was drawn in prehistoric and early historical times (A)[has / have] not survived, so what we find today may not be wholly representative of what was once there. There are other problems for the modern observer. Maps (B)[make / made] in prehistoric times cannot be accompanied by a title that explains the meaning of the drawing or that describes its content. However, we may be sure that in early times, just like today, maps were created for a variety of purposes and (C)[took / taken] a variety of forms. It may also be clear that, contrary to popular belief, of all the purposes to which maps have been put through the ages, the least important single purpose has been to find the way. Sea charts did not come into existence until the European Middle Ages, and topographical maps were not normally carried about by land travelers until the 18th century. (A) (B) (C) ① have - make - taken ② have - made - took ③ has - made - taken ④ has - made - took 【문16】글의 흐름으로 보아 주어진 문장이 들어가기에 가장 적절한 것은? Recordings at theaters around the world show that the pattern transcends different cultural habits and that different crowds all follow one universal curve showing how the sound rises over several seconds. When the curtain closes at any stage theater, the audience bursts into applause. ㉠ It’s usually a few clappers who hesitantly start on their own, and then others join in. ㉡ Applause is a funny thing in which each person tries to give credit to the performers, but also tries to blend into the crowd; you don’t want to clap before everyone else, or to go on after others have stopped. ㉢ In fact, if you study it, you’ll discover there is a pronounced pattern in the way an audience goes from silence to full volume of applause. ㉣ Even more remarkably, this curve is absolutely identical to a curve known from physics that describes how a group of atoms or molecules collectively go from one kind of behavior to another, rapidly and abruptly, because what one does depends very strongly on what others nearby do. ① ㉠ ② ㉡ ③ ㉢ ④ ㉣ 【문17】다음 글의 빈칸 (A), (B)에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? Fifty years ago, bees lived healthy lives in our cities and rural areas because they had plenty of flowers to feed on, fewer insecticides contaminating their floral food and fewer exotic diseases and pests. Wild bees nested successfully in undisturbed soil and twigs. (A), bees have trouble finding pollen and nectar sources because of the extensive use of herbicides that kill off so many flowering plants among crops and in ditches, roadsides and lawns. Flowers can be contaminated with insecticides that can kill bees directly or lead to chronic, debilitating effects on their health. (B), with the increase in global trade and transportation, blood-sucking parasites, viruses and other bee pathogens have been inadvertently transmitted to bees throughout the world. These parasites and pathogens weaken bees' immune systems, making them even more susceptible to effects of poor nutrition from lack of flowers, particularly in countries with high agricultural intensity and pesticide use. (A) (B) ① However … As a result ② However … In addition ③ Thus … By contrast ④ Thus … On the other hand 【문18】밑줄 친 (A), (B), (C)에서 문맥에 맞는 낱말로 가장 적절한 것은? Sea foam forms when the ocean is agitated by wind and waves. Each coastal region has (A)differing / diffusing conditions governing the formation of sea foams. Algal blooms are one common source of thick sea foams. When large blooms of algae decay offshore, great amounts of decaying algal matter often wash ashore. Foam forms as this organic matter is churned up by the (B)surface / surf. Most sea foam is not harmful to humans and is often an indication of a productive ocean ecosystem. But when large harmful algal blooms decay near shore, there are potential for impacts to human health and the environment. Along Gulf coast beaches during blooms of Karenia brevis, for example, popping sea foam bubbles are one way that algal toxins become airborne. The resulting aerosol can (C)irrigate / irritate the eyes of beach goers and poses a health risk for those with asthma or other respiratory conditions. (A) (B) (C) ① differing … surface … irrigate ② diffusing … surface … irritate ③ diffusing … surf … irrigate ④ differing … surf … irritate 1교시 ①책형 전체 22-20 【영어 25문】 ①책형 【문19】글의 흐름으로 보아, 주어진 문장이 들어가기에 가장 적절한 것은? However, elevated levels and/or long term exposure to air pollution can lead to more serious symptoms and conditions affecting human health. A variety of air pollutants have known or suspected harmful effects on human health and the environment. In most areas of Europe, these pollutants are principally the products of combustion from space heating, power generation or from motor vehicle traffic. ㉠ Pollutants from these sources may not only prove a problem in the immediate vicinity of these sources but can travel long distances. ㉡ Generally if you are young and in a good state of health, moderate air pollution levels are unlikely to have any serious short term effects. ㉢ This mainly affects the respiratory and inflammatory systems, but can also lead to more serious conditions such as heart disease and cancer. ㉣ People with lung or heart conditions may be more susceptible to the effects of air pollution. ① ㉠ ② ㉡ ③ ㉢ ④ ㉣ 【문20】다음 글의 빈칸 (A), (B)에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? Sea snakes are some of the most venomous creatures on Earth. Their venom is far deadlier than the venom of coral snakes, rattlesnakes, or even king cobras. Sea snakes use their venom to kill the fish they eat and to defend themselves against predators. It’s not necessarily a good thing, however, for a sea snake to use its venom to defend itself. Venom can take a lot of energy to make-energy that could be used for growing or hunting. (A) , the more often a sea snake or other venomous animal is attacked, the more likely it is to get hurt-even if it can defend itself. Like coral snakes, many sea snakes solve this problem by warning predators up front. (B) , the yellow-bellied sea snake has bright, splashy colors that tell predators not to try anything. Over millions of years, predators have evolved to pay attention to this warning. Only a few kinds of sharks and sea eagles dare attack sea snakes. This keeps sea snakes from constantly having to defend themselves and increases their chances of survival. (A) (B) ① However … In other words ② Also … By contrast ③ However … In addition ④ Also … For example 【문21】다음 글의 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? Despite what you might think, _____________________, according to research by psychologist Richard Wiseman. Instead, it's a result of the way lucky people think and act ⎯ which means that anyone can learn to be lucky! For instance, Wiseman found that lucky people always take notice of what's going on around them and stay open to new experiences and opportunities. Meanwhile, unlucky people tend to be tenser and too focused on certain tasks, which stops them from noticing opportunities they aren't explicitly looking for. So, next time you're heading to a party, don't go in with a goal in mind(no matter how much you want to attract someone). Instead, take things as they come and you never know what might happen. You could even make some awesome new friends. ① luck isn't matter of fate or destiny ② luck brings you closer relationships ③ luck can't be obtained at any costs ④ luck is the most precious asset for a person 【문22】다음 글의 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? Coral reefs are some of the most diverse and valuable ecosystems on Earth. Coral reefs support more species per unit area than any other marine environment, including about 4,000 species of fish, 800 species of hard corals and hundreds of other species. Scientists estimate that there may be another 1 to 8 million undiscovered species of organisms living in and around reefs. is considered key to finding new medicines for the 21st century. Many drugs are now being developed from coral reef animals and plants as possible cures for cancer, arthritis, human bacterial infections, viruses, and other diseases. Storehouses of immense biological wealth, reefs also provide economic and environmental services to millions of people. Coral reefs may provide goods and services worth $375 billion each year. This is an amazing figure for an environment that covers less than 1 percent of the Earth’s surface. ① This biodiversity ② Their beauty ③ Survival skill of coral reefs ④ Food chain 1교시 ①책형 전체 22-21 【영어 25문】 ①책형 【문23】다음 글의 목적으로 가장 적절한 것은? Dear Charles, It was a pleasure having lunch with you yesterday. I am very interested in the new household product you mentioned and how I might work with you develop it. I have seen nothing like it advertised in any of the trade journals, so it may be an original, one-of-a-kind product. If so, you will want to move fast to register it to protect your intellectual property rights in it. Let me know if you want to pursue this and I will have our patent associate contact you with a proposal. Let's get together again soon. Until then, Frank ① 새로 구입한 가정용품을 환불하려고 ② 새로 개발한 가정용품 구매를 요청하려고 ③ 새로 개발한 가정용품에 대해 표창하려고 ④ 새로 개발한 가정용품의 특허등록을 제안하려고 【문24】다음 글에서 필자가 주장하는 바로 가장 적절한 것은? I have always taught my children that politeness, learning, and order are good things, and that something good is to be desired and developed for its own sake. But at school they learned, and very quickly, that children earn Nature Trail tickets for running the quarter-mile track during lunch recess. Or Lincoln Dollars for picking up trash on the playground or for helping a young child find the bathroom ⎯ deeds that used to be called 'good citizenship.' Why is it necessary to buy the minimal cooperation of children with rewards or treats? What disturbs me is the idea that good behavior must be reinforced with incentives. Children must be taught to perform good deeds for their own sake, not in order to receive stickers, stars, and candy bars. ① 아이들은 예절에 관한 교육을 잘 받아야 한다. ② 금전적이거나 물질적인 보상은 아이를 망친다. ③ 아이들이 보상 없이도 선행하도록 교육시켜야 한다. ④ 효과적인 교육을 위해서는 적절한 칭찬을 해주어야 한다. 【문25】다음 글에서 밑줄 친 낱말의 쓰임이 문맥상 적절하지 않은 것은? Lead is a naturally occurring toxic metal found in the Earth’s crust. Its widespread use has resulted ①in extensive environmental contamination, human exposure and significant public health problems in many parts of the world. Young children are particularly vulnerable to the toxic effects of lead and can suffer profound and permanent ②adverse health effects, particularly affecting the development of the brain and nervous system. Lead also causes long-term harm in adults, including ③decreased risk of high blood pressure and kidney damage. ④Exposure of pregnant women to high levels of lead can cause miscarriage, stillbirth, premature birth and low birth weight, as well as minor malformations. 1교시 ①책형 전체 22-22






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