영어정답(2017-10-06 / 129.1KB / 3,264회)

2016 국회직 8급 영어 해설 성기건 (2017-10-06 / 389.4KB / 3,907회)

2016년도 8급 공개경쟁채용시험 영 어 책형 가 - 1 - 영 어 1. Choose the word that best fits in the blank. Currently, honeybees are disappearing and no one knows why. What scientists realize, however, is that the _______ of the disappearances will be widespread. It won’t just be harder to raise flowers, but it will also be more difficult to produce a food supply rich in fruits and vegetables. ① confluence ② achievements ③ ramifications ④ management ⑤ termination 2. Choose the one that is closest in meaning to the underlined word. Since most provinces had Roman military posts, it seemed natural to make the military commander the governor. This was not an ideal solution. Backed by an army, an unscrupulous governor could easily take advantage of his power and enrich himself. ① felicitous ② ungrudging ③ benevolent ④ valiant ⑤ unprincipled 3. Which of the following is not grammatically correct? Confirmation that a severed head is a good match with an unidentified torso, and that a bent leg found on the Chatsworth Estate in Derbyshire actually (A)belonging to a different body, sounds like the plot of a thriller, but this is the work of restorers (B)preparing a star exhibit for a British Museum show on Sicily. One of the leading attractions of Sicily: Culture and Conquest, the first major British exhibition (C)to examine the early history of the island, will be the reunited marble head and limbless body of a Greek warrior. It is now thought that the impressive statue of a stumbling soldier, a rare piece dating from 470 BC, was designed to inspire and entertain people, much as a Hollywood epic might do today. Part of a 3D narrative tableau, it once told the story of a recent conflict, like (D)frozen footage from an action blockbuster. “The ancient Greeks were subtle in their storytelling,” said British Museum curator Peter Higgs. “While the Egyptians and Babylonians tended to depict themselves (E)trampling their enemy underfoot, the Greeks showed themselves fighting. It was very much propaganda, like a cartoon or an epic film. They also had guides at these key sites, who would take people around and explain the relevance of the statues.” ① A ② B ③ C ④ D ⑤ E 4. Which of the following best completes the blank? Though the historical task is always limited by our distance from the past, historians must never cease in their pursuit of truth. History is not an exact science. Historians will never reach anything close to a modern certainty about everything that happened in a bygone era, but, as Joyce Appleby, Lynn Hunt, and Margaret Jacob have argued in Telling the Truth about History, . A significant amount of historical knowledge can be ascertained through the diligent investigation of the sources available to us. When the historian’s vocation to pursue truth is combined with the reality that we can never produce a complete account of the past, we get what Hoffer calls “the historian’s paradox.” History may be “impossible,” but “something happened out there, long ago, and we have the ability, if we have the faith, to learn what that something is.” ① this should not stop them from trying ② internal accounts should be considered ③ scientific approaches should be banned ④ that will be helpful in the pursuit of truth ⑤ the emphasis should not be on historical facts 5. Which of the following is the most logical sequence of the three parts to complete the passage? As movie theaters have grown into multiplexes and megaplexes, crowd control has become a major concern. [A] They deliberately build lobbies and corridors that cannot hold as many people as the auditoriums, thus making holdout lines necessary. In turn, ticket holders may be enticed to shop or eat while stuck outside in the holdout line. [B] The most well-known measure is the ubiquitous holdout line which prevents ticket holders for the next showing of that weekend’s most popular movie from entering the building until their particular auditorium has been cleared out and cleaned. Since the 1980s, some theater chains have developed a policy of co-locating their theaters in shopping centers. [C] An overcrowded megaplex can be rather disagreeable, and in an emergency can be extremely perilous. Therefore, all major theater chains have implemented crowd control measures. ① A - B – C ② A - C – B ③ B - C - A ④ C - A – B ⑤ C - B – A 2016년도 8급 공개경쟁채용시험 영 어 책형 가 - 2 - 6. Which of the following best completes the blank? Many people associate facts with science, but accumulating facts is not what science is primarily about. A telephone book is an impressive catalog of factual information, but it has little to do with science. It is true that facts, in the form of verifiable observations and repeatable experimental results, are the prerequisites of science. What really advances science, however, is some new theory that ties together a number of observations that previously seemed unrelated. The cornerstones of science are the explanations that apply to the greatest variety of phenomena. People like Newton, Darwin, and Einstein stand out in the history of science not because they discovered a great many facts, but because their theories had _____________________________. ① many supporters ② such broad explanatory power ③ little to do with our lives ④ brought about changes in our lives ⑤ many different versions 7. Which of the following is true, according to the passage? When you picture a “grammar nazi,” what does that person look like? Are they old or young? Male or female? Professorial or blue-collar? A new study suggests they could be any of those things. In an experiment involving 80 Americans from a range of backgrounds, linguists Julie Boland and Robin Queen found no significant links between a judgmental attitude towards “typos” and “grammos” and gender, age or level of education. Typos are mistakes that can be attributed to a slip of the finger, like “teh” or “abuot”. Grammos are errors involving knowledge of the rules of language —for example “there” for “their,” or “you’re” instead of “your”. So you can’t tell if someone hunts down misprints and writes letters to editors just by looking at them. If you know something about the way they experience the world, though, you might be able to take an educated guess. Introverts, it turns out, are more likely to get annoyed at both typos and grammos. Not only that; they’ll probably not want to share their lives with you if you’re particularly error-prone. ① Typos and grammos reveal the level of education of a writer. ② The links between grammar nazis and age are newly found by a recent study. ③ Grammos are errors which are transparent in the writings of educated people. ④ It is possible to identify grammar nazis by understanding the way they experience the world. ⑤ Introverts tend to mingle with other people because they are usually afraid of being error-prone. 8. Which of the following best completes the blanks (A) and (B)? In the mid-1850s, Barcelona was on the brink of collapse. An industrial city with a busy port, it had grown increasingly dense throughout the industrial revolution, mostly spearheaded by the huge development of the textile sector. The city was living at a faster pace than the rest of Spain, and was ready to become a European capital. Yet its population of 187,000 still lived in a (A) area, confined by its medieval walls. With a density of 856 inhabitants per hectare(Paris had fewer than 400 at the time), the rising mortality rates were higher than those in Paris and London; life expectancy had dropped to 36 years for the rich and just 23 years for the working classes. The walls were becoming a health risk, almost literally (B) the people of Barcelona. (A) (B) ① comfortable protecting ② sparse attacking ③ safe contaminating ④ forgotten exterminating ⑤ cramped suffocating 9. Which of the following is true, according to the passage? “Without music life would be a mistake,” Nietzsche proclaimed in 1889. But although a great many beloved writers have extolled the power of music with varying degrees of Nietzsche’s bombast, no one has captured its singular enchantment more beautifully than Aldous Huxley (July 26, 1894–November 22, 1963). In his mid-thirties— just before the publication of Brave New World catapulted him into literary celebrity and a quarter century before his insightful writings about art and artists and his transcendent experience with hallucinogenic drugs—Huxley came to contemplate the mysterious transcendence at the heart of this most spiritually resonant of the arts. His meditations were eventually published as the 1931 treasure Music at Night and Other Essays. ① Nietzsche and Huxley had a chance to discuss music with each other. ② Huxley said that life would be a mistake without music. ③ Nietzsche published Brave New World in his mid-thirties. ④ Huxley’s writings about art and artists were written much later than Music at Night and Other Essays. ⑤ Huxley’s experience with hallucinogenic drugs made him extol the power of music. 2016년도 8급 공개경쟁채용시험 영 어 책형 가 - 3 - 10. Which of the following can be most closely associated with "Big Agra"? Thinking specifically about the production of food, “Big Agra” is often used to describe the major corporations that grow and market food. These megacorporations own giant cultivated tracts that use procedures intended to maximize the crop yield, harvest that crop(whether plants or animals) at the lowest price possible, and distribute the crop to markets in the United States and other countries. Maximizing crop yield involves the use of chemicals and pesticides—and cheap labor. “Big Agra” obviously has a stake in the battle over how the media frame stories that compare its foods with organic foods; the organic-food industry also has a stake in the battle. Accordingly, both sides attempt to influence how stories about their products are framed in the media because that can make a difference in their respective profits. Whether it is fast food or fresh spinach, they want to have an impact on what you buy and where you buy it. ① eco-friendliness ② high productivity ③ slow economy ④ healthy food ⑤ more job openings 11. Which of the following best completes the blank? The famous beer company Anheuser-Busch had launched Eagle Snacks in 1979. In 1995, after losing $25 million on sales of $400 million, it put Eagle Snacks on the block. No one made a serious bid for the business. The beer maker ultimately sold the Eagle Snacks brand name to P&G for a small sum. The adjacency trap, which the airlines and Anheuser-Busch fell into, is all too common. The problem typically starts when a company expands into some seemingly congruent business, then discovers that in that new market. Because it didn’t prepare for this, it gets distracted catching up ― either adding new capabilities it didn’t plan for(which also adds to incoherence) or simply trying to marshal its resources more effectively. Meanwhile, there are inevitably entrenched competitors, like Southwest Airlines or Frito-Lay, with the necessary capabilities already at a formidable level of effectiveness and scale. The company that sought adjacencies becomes a second-place competitor, pouring an increasing amount of money into a capability that only supports a narrow piece of its business. By that time, it’s too late to exit with any profitability ― the only question is whether to take substantial losses now or even more substantial losses later. ① its existing crew are not willing to work ② its existing capabilities system is not so different from those required ③ its existing resources are too scarce to maintain itself ④ its existing capabilities system is not adequate for success ⑤ its existing resources can be threatening to other competitors 12. Which of the following is the most logical sequence of the four parts to complete the passage? A study reported in the medical journal Lancet, based upon the work of researchers at Brigham Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, offers a telling information about the relationship between IGF-1 level and breast cancer. [A] In pre-menopausal women, on the other hand, the highest IGF-1 group had seven times more risk of breast cancer. “There is substantial indirect evidence of a relation between IGF-1 and risk of breast cancer,” the authors concluded. [B] It takes about three glasses(one and a half pints) of nonfat milk a day to achieve the same result in adult women. [C] Other research has shown that the consumption of both whole and nonfat milk raises IGF-1 levels in adults; in adolescent females, as little as a pint of milk a day can boost IGF-1 levels by 10 percent. [D] The authors estimated that the post-menopausal women in the study with the highest levels of IGF-1 in their blood had three times the risk of breast cancer than the women with the lowest IGF-1 levels. * IGF: Insulin-like Growth Factor ① A - C - D - B ② A - D - C - B ③ C - B - A - D ④ D - A - C - B ⑤ D - C - B - A 13. Choose the word that best fits in the blank. John’s conduct in church included making disgusting noises during the sermon and leering at women in the congregation whenever the Bible passages were even mildly suggestive. ① delicate ② delectable ③ laudable ④ insolent ⑤ tractable 14. Which of the following is not grammatically correct? ① The sales team saw the project through to its conclusion. ② The value of the dollar is certain to go up in January. ③ She determined ignoring his faults. ④ I owe this example to Georgia Green. ⑤ On the midterm exam, he made fewer mistakes than the other students. 2016년도 8급 공개경쟁채용시험 영 어 책형 가 - 4 - 15. Which of the following best completes the blanks (A) and (B)? If you’re sharing a living space with someone suffering from mild depression, you’re at risk of becoming progressively more depressed the longer you live with them — you pick up their negative vibes. Likewise, bank tellers and retail staff really can (A)___________ the mood of customers by smiling at them and asking them how they are. When customers respond in kind, which they usually do, that rubs off on the staff. It leads to a virtuous circle of reciprocated jollity and, more to the point if you’re a bank or shop manager, increased sales. Some retailers have taken this to heart: one high-end fast-food chain requires its staff to effuse ebullience. Recent studies have shown that such feelings can (B)__________ not just from one person to another, but across entire social worlds of friends and work colleagues. (A) (B) ① lift vary ② lift transmit ③ change vary ④ absorb leap ⑤ absorb transmit 16. Which of the following best completes the blank? Hotelling’s law was originally devised using the example of ice cream sellers on a beach. He showed that if there was only one seller who owned and operated two ice cream vendors on a beach, these would be placed at the optimum locations in order to cover the entire beach. On the other hand, if two different ice cream sellers owned and operated the outlets, they would be located next to each other in the middle of the beach. This is because each seller would seek to not only ‘share’ the beach but also potentially take customers away from its rival. This could only be done if it was located at the centre. Although the price of ice cream would be lower, the added distance the beachgoers would have to walk would be . Given the nature of the product this may be a critical aspect. More crucially, it may also lead to overcrowding in the middle. ① the cost of having that competition ② the advantage of the location ③ the result of having that ice cream ④ the law of selling ice cream ⑤ the way of competing with each other 17. Where does the given sentence best fit in the passage? In others, the control or guideline is minimal. Simply put, to improvise is to compose at the same time as performing ― to make it up as you go along. (A) It is a fundamental characteristic of jazz and is important in every jazz style. (B) Improvisation does not convey total freedom; it is not totally playing whatever one feels like playing. (C) In all jazz styles, there is structure on which to base the creative improvisation. (D) In some jazz styles, the structure is quite clear and controlling. (E) A structure might be an eight-bar phrase of thirty-two-bar chorus; it might be a specific chord progression that underlines a popular tune or a twelve-bar blues tune; or it might be the meter that the improviser adheres to. ① A ② B ③ C ④ D ⑤ E 18. Which of the following best completes the blanks (A) and (B)? The idealist theory of art, given its most persuasive formulation by R. G. Collingwood, distinguishes art from craft. Works of art serve no particular purpose. They are created through the artist’s involvement with a particular medium, such as oil paint or words. (A) , craft objects are created for a particular purpose, and the craftsperson begins with a plan rather than designing the object in the process of making it. This is not to say that works of art cannot contain elements of craft: clearly many great works of art do contain such craft elements. Collingwood explicitly states that the two categories art and craft are not mutually exclusive. (B) , no work of art is solely a means to an end. (A) (B) ① In addition Rather ② In addition In other words ③ Likewise In other words ④ In contrast Nevertheless ⑤ In contrast Rather 2016년도 8급 공개경쟁채용시험 영 어 책형 가 - 5 - 19. Which of the following best completes the blanks (A) and (B)? During the 1960s and 1970s the robbery rate in the United States increased sixfold, and the murder rate doubled; the rate of handgun ownership nearly doubled in that period (A)_______________. Handguns and criminal violence grew together (B)_______________, and national opinion leaders did not fail to remark on the coincidence. (A) (B) ① at all apiece ② as well apace ③ after all suddenly ④ in addition once ⑤ in short out 20. Which of the following best completes the blanks (A) and (B)? The earliest men, as you know, were (A) . They had to kill—or be killed—for there were carnivores all around them. At first, they had their own hands and teeth to kill with; then they invented primitive weapons. At a very early stage, they invented another kind of weapon—a sort of ‘secret weapon’. How the idea came into their heads, we do not know for certain: it may have arisen from the use of protective coloring, of camouflage, by the animals which they stalked and which stalked them. At any rate, they got the idea that if you imitated anything, you gained power over it. This idea was the beginning of the magic, and also the beginning of the (B) —music, poetry, painting, and drama. (A) (B) ① warriors ceremonies ② dancers exhibitions ③ agnostics genres ④ savages crafts ⑤ hunters arts 21. Which of the following best completes the blanks (A) and (B)? American literature begins with the orally transmitted myths, legends, tales, and lyrics(always songs) of Indian cultures. There was no written literature among the more than 500 different Indian languages and tribal cultures that existed in North America before the first Europeans arrived. (A) , Native American oral literature is quite diverse from tribe to tribe. And tribes maintained their own religions—worshipping gods, animals, plants, or sacred persons. Systems of government ranged from democracies to councils of elders to theocracies. These tribal variations enter into the oral literature as well. (B) , it is possible to make a few generalizations. Indian stories, for example, glow with reverence for nature as a spiritual as well as physical mother. Nature is alive and endowed with spiritual forces; main characters may be animals or plants, often totems associated with a tribe, group, or individual. The closest to the Indian sense of holiness in later American literature is Ralph Waldo Emerson’s transcendental "Over-Soul," which pervades all of life. (A) (B) ① However Thus ② Nonetheless That is ③ As a result Still ④ Consequently Therefore ⑤ Indeed Instead 2016년도 8급 공개경쟁채용시험 영 어 책형 가 - 6 - 22. Which of the following is the most appropriate title of the passage? In one early study featuring Donald as the stimulus, students participated in what they thought were two unrelated experiments. In the first, they were shown a number of trait words projected on a screen as part of a perception experiment. Half of the participants were shown the words adventurous, self-confident, independent, and persistent embedded in a set of ten traits. The other half were shown the words reckless, conceited, aloof, and stubborn. After completing the “perception” experiment, the participants moved on to the second study on “reading comprehension,” in which they read the short paragraph about Donald and rated him on a number of trait scales. The paragraph is intentionally ambiguous about whether Donald is an adventurous, appealing sort or a reckless, unappealing person. The investigators were interested in whether the words that participants encountered in the first experiment would lead them to apply different schemas and thus affect their evaluations of Donald. As the investigators expected, participants who had previously been exposed to the words adventurous, self-confident, independent, and persistent formed more favorable impressions of Donald than did those who had been exposed to the less flattering words. Thus participants’ schemas about traits like adventurousness and recklessness influenced the kind of inferences they made about Donald. The broader point is that information stored in the brain can influence how people construe new information. This is most likely to occur when the stimulus, like many of Donald’s actions, is ambiguous. In such cases, we must rely more heavily on top-down processes to compensate for the inadequacies of the information obtained from the bottom up. ① Schema: A Vehicle for Processing New Data ② Ambiguity Is All That Counts ③ Bottom-up Processes vs. Top-down Processes ④ Schema as the Core Component of True Knowledge ⑤ Perception Experiment: Why It Is Necessary 23. Where does the given sentence best fit in the passage? They are also given sets of possible answers, and they make their selection by pressing buttons on their console. Computers now play an essential role in many diagnostic investigations. (A) Moreover, the range of medical conditions is now so vast, and the doctor’s time so limited, that several clinical centers have begun to introduce computer-assisted diagnostic systems. (B) In an extension of this procedure, it is even possible in some centers for patients to begin the diagnostic process by themselves. (C) They are presented with a series of questions about their medical history and symptoms on a computer screen. (D) There is no time constraint, and they may change their answers at any time, or simply leave questions blank. (E) The answers are then stored in the computer, to be printed out when the doctor is ready to analyze them. ① A ② B ③ C ④ D ⑤ E 24. Which of the following best completes the blank? Groups are not entirely closed to new ideas and there are opportunities for minority influence. If the ideas of the majority are not strongly held and do not carry much personal or emotional weight, the group will be less closed to new ideas and minority opinions. Moreover, if the minority group is consistent in their positions, this has more impact than if they are not consistent. Further, majority influence seems to be most powerful in the immediate aftermath of the discussion and in public settings. As there is social cost to deviance, people tend to conform publicly. However, over time, perhaps when the source of the new ideas has slipped from memory, the new ideas are likely to show more influence. This may explain why totalitarian governments go to so much trouble to stifle dissent. They realize that _________________________________. ① minority groups are likely to create new ideas and opinions ② most of contemporary opinions are lack of rational judgment ③ majority opinions can often be subjected to strong pressures ④ unpopular opinions can make more impact after a lapse of time ⑤ majority influence can lead people to think in more limited ways 25. Which of the following best completes the blank? Researchers conducted a number of studies of people’s estimates of completion times. In one study, students were asked to predict as accurately as possible when they would turn in their theses. They were also asked to estimate what the completion date would be “if everything went as poorly as it possibly could.” Fewer than a third of the students finished by the time they had estimated. More remarkably, fewer than half finished by the time they had estimated under the assumption. Follow-up experiments laid the blame for people’s optimistic forecasts on the tendency . In one study, participants were asked to verbalize their thoughts as they were trying to estimate how long a task would take. Nearly all of their thoughts were about various plans and scenarios whereby the project would be finished. Only a precious few dealt with the participants’ track record on previous tasks. Thus the inside perspective(What steps are required to complete this project?) crowds out the potentially informative outside perspective(How often do I get such things done on time?). People have personal histories that would be helpful in accurately estimating completion times. They just don’t use them. When Buehler and his colleagues asked people how often they completed tasks by the time they initially expected, the average response was only a third of the time. ① to express their thoughts without considering their consequences ② to approach the task from an exclusively inside perspective ③ to depend upon outside information too much ④ to regard the completion of the task as the only condition of success ⑤ to estimate how long a task will take only by their experiences






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    괜히풀었어요. 9급준비하시는분들 걍 풀지마세요.
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    16 국회 8급 영어