21 - 1 총 9쪽 40문항입니다 . 각 문항의 답을 하나만 고르시오 . [1-5] 밑줄 친 단어의 뜻과 가장 가까운 것을 고르시오. 1. There has been much erudite discussion about the origin of the reptile. ① insipid ② arresting ③ vehement ④ scholarly ⑤ mundane 2. This story has an evanescent touch of whimsy that is lost in translation. ① evaporating ② stifling ③ conjectural ④ lethargic ⑤ sham 3. After the most disheartening news of the king’s health, a report of his convalescence began to prevail in the camp. ① debility ② relapse ③ psychosis ④ recovery ⑤ breakdown 4. As a principle, it dominates writing as an ongoing practice and slights our customary attention to the finished product. ① ossifies ② lionizes ③ canonizes ④ disregards ⑤ epitomizes 5. The snow fell slow and thick and steady at the stadium yesterday afternoon and caked the coats and the hats of the disconsolate home fans. ① energetic ② hilarious ③ depressed ④ furious ⑤ ruthless 6. 다음 대화의 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? A: Was there ever anything you did as a child that got you into trouble? B: Oh, let’s see. One thing I did when I was about 10 was to skip my piano lessons. I got into pretty big trouble for that. A: You skipped your piano lessons? What do you mean? B: Well, my parents wanted me to take piano lessons. So they paid a piano teacher, Mrs. Collins, to come to our house and give me lessons. A: Your parents weren’t there? B: Not on Wednesday afternoon when I had my lesson. A: So what did you do when she came to your house? B: I . A: Oh, that’s terrible. So, did your parents find out? B: Yes. Mrs. Collins called up and asked my mom if there was a problem. Maybe she had misunderstood the time of the lesson or something because no one was home when she came for my lesson. A: Uh-oh. So what happened? B: Oh, I got yelled at by my mother and then father. I think I was grounded for a month or something. And I never had any more piano lessons after that. A: I’ll bet. ① had an argument with her ② just did not answer the door ③ forced her to take me to the festival ④ didn’t attend the after-school music class ⑤ asked her to help me with my music project [7-8] (A), (B), (C)의 각 네모 안에서 문맥에 맞는 낱말로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. 7. In the (A) demise / revival of interest in prose style that occurred in the 1960s and ’70s among teachers of composition, the loose sentence was singled out for attention again and renamed the cumulative sentence. Francis Christensen produced a (B) novel / trite appreciation of this structure, citing example after example from twentieth-century writers, primarily novelists. He argued that the cumulative sentence was especially characteristic of contemporary literate prose and that its patterns could be (C) curtailed / extended to the level of the passage, in paragraphs that opened with a topic that was then cumulatively modified, much as a main clause was modified by right-branching modifiers. (A) (B) (C) ① demise …… novel …… extended ② demise …… trite …… curtailed ③ revival …… novel …… curtailed ④ revival …… trite …… curtailed ⑤ revival …… novel …… extended 【영 어】 21 - 2 8. At about a quarter to six the Irishman led me to the spike. It was a (A) buoyant / grim , smoky yellow cube of brick, standing in a corner of the workhouse grounds. With its rows of tiny, barred windows, and a high wall and iron gates separating it from the road, it looked much like a prison. Already a long queue of ragged men had formed up, waiting for the gates to open. They were of all kinds and ages, the youngest a fresh-faced boy of sixteen, the oldest a doubled-up, toothless mummy of seventy-five. Some were hardened tramps, (B) recognizable / unidentifiable by their sticks and billies and dust-darkened faces; some were factory hands out of work, some agricultural labourers, one a clerk in collar and tie, two certainly imbeciles. Seen in the mass, lounging there, they were a disgusting sight; nothing villainous or dangerous, but a graceless, (C) comely / mangy crew, nearly all ragged and palpably underfed. They were friendly, however, and asked no questions. Many offered me tobacco ─ cigarette ends, that is. (A) (B) (C) ① grim …… unidentifiable …… comely ② buoyant …… unidentifiable …… mangy ③ grim …… recognizable …… mangy ④ buoyant …… recognizable …… mangy ⑤ grim …… recognizable …… comely 9. 빈칸 (A), (B), (C)에 들어갈 낱말로 가장 적절한 것은? It is evidently quite possible to cut off one’s own hand without feeling pain. People whose hand has become trapped in machinery have sometimes (A) it painlessly, distracted as they were by the need to disentangle themselves. Political protestors have also been known to set themselves on fire without feeling a thing, their pain blocked out by the intensity of their passion. Someone may smack a child quite lightly for some offence and he will cry, but you may smack him much harder in the course of a game only to evoke a (B) laugh. On the other hand, if you smack a child really hard in jest, he is quite likely to cry even so. Meanings can (C) physical responses, but they are constrained by them too. (A) (B) (C) ① amputated …… delighted …… mould ② severed …… gratifying …… ravage ③ eliminated …… pleasant …… ravage ④ amputated …… sorrowful …… mould ⑤ severed …… melancholy …… deform [10-11] 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 옳지 않은 것을 고르시오. 10. Examining the record of past research from the vantage of contemporary historiography, the historian of science may be tempted to exclaim that when paradigms change, the world ① itself changes with them. Led by a new paradigm, scientists adopt new instruments and look in new places. Even more important, during revolutions scientists see new and different things when ② looking with familiar instruments in places they have looked before. It is rather as if the professional community ③ had been suddenly transported to another planet where familiar objects are seen in a different light and are joined by unfamiliar ones as well. Of course, nothing of quite that sort does occur: there is no geographical transplantation; outside the laboratory everyday affairs usually ④ continued as before. Nevertheless, paradigm changes do cause scientists to see the world of their research-engagement differently. ⑤ In so far as their only recourse to that world is through what they see and do, we may want to say that after a revolution scientists are responding to a different world. 11. King Sejong was the much celebrated fourth monarch of the Joseon dynasty of Korea, traditionally ① dated from 1392 to Japan’s annexation of Korea in 1910. Sejong’s reign (1418 - 50) is depicted as a progressive era during ② that a self-confident, neo-Confucian civil and military bureaucracy ruled an agricultural society. Sejong was an ③ intellectually gifted, hands-on king. He promoted cultural, scientific and technological advances. His ④ consummated achievement was the invention of the Korean alphabet now known as hangeul. Hangeul ⑤ is a marvel among the world’s writing systems, an orthography of rarified elegance and mathematical consistency. 21 - 3 12. 다음 중 어법상 옳지 않은 것은? ① There is no question that we need to green our economies. ② Discarded plastic bags and agricultural pesticides ultimately find their way to the sea. ③ In recent decades, chemical accidents have repeatedly been the cause of worldwide horror and dismay. ④ Pictures of children’s disfigured faces and workers worn gas masks and white protective clothing toured the world. ⑤ Two years later, Europe became a victim once more when a warehouse near Basel belonging to the chemical giant Sandoz went up in flames. 13. 다음 중 어법상 옳은 것은? ① The rare reptile is found in a single forest in Brazil and nowhere else. ② My elder brother has eaten some of the cheese, the rest of which are kept for me in the refrigerator. ③ Its object is to bring to the point of acceptability of those products that might be sold in department stores and specialty shops. ④ Unable to complete a novel for several years, the writer was not certain that she should quit or continue with her work. ⑤ Benjamin Franklin was the editor of the largest newspaper in the colonies, a diplomatic representative to France and later to England, and he invented many useful devices. 14. 다음 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은? Hunters, spending their lives in the fields and woods, in a peculiar sense a part of Nature themselves, are often in a more favorable mood for observing her, in the intervals of their pursuits, than philosophers or poets even, who approach her with expectation. She is not afraid to exhibit herself to them. The traveller on the prairie is naturally a hunter. He who is only a traveller learns things at second-hand and by the halves, and is poor authority. We are most interested when science reports what those men already know practically or instinctively, for that alone is a true humanity, or account of human experience. ① Conditions for Productive Research in Natural Science ② Hunter, the Master of Understanding Nature ③ Benefits of Second-hand Learning ④ Why Hunting Should Be Banned in the Wilderness ⑤ Which Approach Is Preferred, Philosophical or Scientific? 15. 다음 글의 주제로 가장 적절한 것은? The greatest asset of the next President, perhaps, will be that the world wants the U.S. to be great, or at least inspiring. Similarly, Americans want their President to be great, or at least admirable. For all the dissent and despair, Americans are not yet cynics, and have not yet lost their capacity for enthusiasm. Voters are looking for a presidential hero, a figure who will not only accept the U.S. assumption that one man is equal to the task, but who will also be responsive to the people as well as responsible for them. Will they find them? If the present field does not look brilliant, history proves that Presidents, like monarchs, show their true qualities only once they are in power. At any rate, in seeking the ideal man for the White House, or at least an approximation of the ideal, the electorate can ultimately rely only on a little reason, and much instinct, and a great deal of luck ─ which is sometimes known as destiny. ① dilemmas that a U.S. President faces ② international expectations of a U.S. President ③ attributes that voters envision in a U.S. President ④ logical approaches to the U.S. President election ⑤ the ideal schooling for a U.S. President [16-17] 다음 글의 요지로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. 16. As a conceptual framework, semiotics teaches students to formulate cogent, well-supported interpretations. It emphasizes the examination of assumptions and of the way language shapes our apprehension of the world. And, because semiotics focuses on how beliefs are formulated within a social and political context (rather than just judging or evaluating those beliefs), it’s ideal for discussing sensitive or politically charged issues. As an approach used in literature, media and communications studies, anthropology, art and design coursework, sociology, law, and market research (to name only some of its more prominent field applications), semiotics has a cross-disciplinary appeal that makes it ideal for a writing class of students from a variety of majors and disciplines. We recognize that semiotics has a reputation for being highly technical or theoretical; rest assured that this book does not require students or instructors to have a technical knowledge of semiotics. ① Semiotics can be used to interpret culturally sensitive issues. ② Our apprehension of the world relies on correct semiotic interpretations. ③ Politicians should utilize a semiotic framework appropriate for their beliefs. ④ Using this book for a course does not entail any technical knowledge of semiotics. ⑤ The cross-disciplinary nature of semiotics allows for efficient market research. 21 - 4 17. Nicholas Goldberg asks where all the English majors have gone. The answer is simple: They’ve gone where they’ve always gone. They’ll probably become teachers or lawyers. The question many liberal arts majors may be asking themselves is this: Why did I get myself into debt by attending a “highly ranked” college if I’m going to end up being a teacher? After all, California State University schools are the best teacher prep colleges in the state. And liberal arts majors who decide to become lawyers may be asking themselves a similar question: Would it have been better to attend a state school instead of going into debt at a “highly ranked” college and actually have some money to attend law school? Getting into a “highly ranked” undergraduate school is good for bragging rights, but a good teacher is still a good teacher, and a good lawyer is still a good lawyer, no matter what colleges they attended. So to answer Goldberg’s question, the English majors are doing just fine. ① Teachers should be more highly valued than lawyers. ② Making money is just as important as attending college. ③ Liberal arts majors are better off not going to law school. ④ Highly ranked colleges do not always provide better education. ⑤ Majoring in English is fine as long as one does not go into debt. 18. 다음 글의 내용과 일치하는 것은? If we suppose our extraneous observer to be a being of pure reason, devoid of instincts himself and unaware of the way in which all instincts in general and aggression in particular can miscarry, he would be at a complete loss how to explain history at all. It is a mere commonplace to say that the ever-recurrent phenomena of history are caused by what common parlance so aptly terms “human nature.” Unreasoning and unreasonable human nature causes two nations to compete, though no economic necessity compels them to do so; it induces two political parties or religions with amazingly similar programs of salvation to fight each other bitterly, and it impels an Alexander or Napoleon to sacrifice millions of lives in his attempt to unite the world under his scepter. We have been taught to regard some of the persons who have committed these and similar absurdities with respect, even as “great” men, we are wont to yield to the political wisdom of those in charge, and we are all so accustomed to these phenomena that most of us fail to realize how abjectly stupid and undesirable the historical mass behavior of humanity actually is. ① Historical events, however commonplace they may be, have reasonable causes. ② It is economic rivalry that forces nations to fight against one another. ③ The unreasoning quality in human nature led great conquerors to seek world power. ④ Great men in history wanted to be respected, having minimized absurdities to gain political wisdom. ⑤ We generally recognize the time in which human beings act irrationally. [19-22] 글의 흐름으로 보아, 주어진 문장이 들어가기에 가장 적절한 곳을 고르시오. 19. The Malvern Festival, found by Sir Barry Jackson in 1929, provided a setting for the revival of twenty of Shaw’s plays. Saint J oan was probably George Bernard Shaw’s most successful play, and many regard it as his masterpiece. ( ① ) The award of the Nobel Prize for literature in 1926 was generally seen as a tribute to the author of Saint J oan. ( ② ) Some, including The Apple Car (1929) and In Good King Charles’s Golden Days (1939), had their first British production there. ( ③ ) His work reached an even wider audience when several of his plays were filmed, among them P ygmalion, Major Barbara and Caesar and Cleopatra. ( ④ ) The dramatist lived for another twenty-seven years after Saint J oan, dying at the age of ninety-four. ( ⑤ ) He continued writing plays until 1950. 20. As infected cells start to die off, newly made viruses are released and free to infect the neighboring cells. Structurally speaking, viruses are nothing more than a shell of protein (called a capsid) that surrounds the virus’s genetic material (called its genome). ( ① ) They are neither made of cells nor do they resemble them in any way. ( ② ) Viruses are like microscopic delivery agents whose goals are to protect its genome and successfully deliver it into the inside of a host cell. ( ③ ) Once there, the viral genome provides the necessary instructions for the production of millions of new virus particles by the host cell. ( ④ ) The massive presence of virus particles in the cell causes it to become unhealthy, which usually leads to its untimely death. ( ⑤ ) What follows is the systematic spread of the virus from cell to cell and the gradual destruction of tissue in its wake. 21 - 5 21. Under currently available procedures, transplanted hearts have an average lifespan of between 10 and 15 years, due to the damaging effects caused by the immunosuppressant drugs used to prevent them from being rejected. A baby born with severe heart defects is recovering well after becoming the first recipient of a pioneering new transplant technique carried out at Duke University in North Carolina, USA. Easton Sinnamon was born with several heart defects as well as a deficiency in his thymus. ( ① ) The thymus is a gland found behind the breastbone that plays a key role in the immune system by creating white blood cells known as T-cells. ( ② ) His condition left him in need of a heart transplant and a thymus tissue transplant. ( ③ ) However, researchers at Duke have been pioneering a technique of using donated thymus tissue to increase the possibility of a transplanted organ being accepted. ( ④ ) The thymus gland stimulates the production of T-cells, which attack foreign substances that enter the body. ( ⑤ ) Therefore, implanting tissue taken from the thymus gland of the same donor as the transplanted organ could help the body to accept it. 22. This pattern suggests that fertilization involving an X-bearing sperm will result in a female offspring and that fertilization involving a sperm with no X chromosome will result in a male offspring. In the early 1900s, attention turned to the cell to find a chromosomal explanation for the determination of maleness or femaleness. ( ① ) Some of the evidence for a chromosomal basis for sex determination came from work with the insect P rotenor. ( ② ) One darkly staining chromosome of P rotenor, called the X chromosome, is represented differently in males and females. ( ③ ) All somatic (body) cells of males have one X chromosome (XO), and all somatic cells of females have two X chromosomes (XX). ( ④ ) Similarly, half of all sperm contain a single X, and half contain no X, while all female gametes contain a single X. ( ⑤ ) This sex determination system explains the approximately 50:50 ratio of females to males in this insect species. [23-25] 주어진 글 다음에 이어질 글의 순서로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. 23. I only have to pass a few gates to reach the scruffy field called the Meadow. Separating the Meadow from the woods, in fact enclosing all of District 12, is a high chain-link fence topped with barbed-wire loops. (A) Right now, it’s silent as a stone. Concealed by a clump of bushes, I flatten out on my belly and slide under a two-foot stretch that’s been loose for years. There are several other weak spots in the fence, but this one is so close to home I almost always enter the woods here. (B) In theory, it’s supposed to be electrified twenty-four hours a day as a deterrent to the predators that live in the woods ─ packs of wild dogs, lone cougars, bears ─ that used to threaten our streets. (C) But since we’re lucky to get two or three hours of electricity in the evenings, it’s usually safe to touch. Even so, I always take a moment to listen carefully for the hum that means the fence is live. ① (A)-(C)-(B) ② (B)-(A)-(C) ③ (B)-(C)-(A) ④ (C)-(A)-(B) ⑤ (C)-(B)-(A) 24. As it turns out, goldfish can take to driving a car like a duck to water. (A) A team at Israel’s Ben-Gurion University taught six fish to move a wheeled tank towards a target, in return for a treat. In each case, a camera was positioned above the tank, and the fish was taught to ‘drive’ by moving its body around the tank. (B) Proving a fish can drive on land could lead to insights in helping astronauts navigate in an unfamiliar environment. “We [should] definitely shoot for that,” he says. (C) The camera monitored the fish’s movements, streaming the images to a computer, which then moved the wheels of the ‘fish-operated vehicle’ in a particular direction. Aside from making fairground games more difficult, the research has implications for a future exploring among the stars, says study author Dr. Ohad Ben-Shahar. ① (A)-(C)-(B) ② (B)-(A)-(C) ③ (B)-(C)-(A) ④ (C)-(A)-(B) ⑤ (C)-(B)-(A) 21 - 6 25. Let’s consider further what the data for a pattern looks like. If the pattern is a face, the data exists in at least two dimensions. (A) So a pattern of sound may be complex at any one instant, and these complex instants stretch out over time. Tactile inputs are also two-dimensional, since the skin is a two-dimensional sense organ, and such patterns may change over the third dimension of time. (B) Moreover, a single note of a complex instrument such as the piano consists of multiple frequencies. A single human voice consists of varying levels of energy in dozens of different frequency bands simultaneously. (C) We cannot say that the eyes necessarily come first, followed by the nose, and so on. The same thing is true for most sounds. A musical piece has at least two dimensions. There may be more than one instrument and/or voice making sounds at the same time. ① (A)-(C)-(B) ② (B)-(A)-(C) ③ (B)-(C)-(A) ④ (C)-(A)-(B) ⑤ (C)-(B)-(A) [26-28] 다음 글에서 전체 흐름과 관계 없는 문장을 고르시오. 26. Sapiens rule the world because only they can weave an intersubjective web of meaning: a web of laws, forces, entities and places that exist purely in their common imagination. This web allows humans alone to organise crusades, socialist revolutions and human rights movements. ① Other animals may also imagine various things. ② A cat waiting to ambush a mouse might not see the mouse, but may well imagine the shape and even taste of the mouse. ③ Yet to the best of our knowledge, cats are able to imagine only things that actually exist in the world, like mice. ④ Mice are typically distinguished from rats by their size. ⑤ They cannot imagine things that they have never seen or smelled or tasted ─ such as the US dollar, Google corporation or the European Union. Only Sapiens can imagine such chimeras. 27. The technical foundations of machine-to-machine communication were laid as early as the 1960s, thanks to US Department of Defense and NASA innovation. Although those early efforts were slow to influence society, Herzog captures them brilliantly with the story of the first transcontinental (hel)lo message. ① The first attempted internet message, “Hello,” only succeeded partially after the first three letters failed to transmit properly, resulting in “lo,” as adopted by Herzog in his documentary title. ② Computational technology’s roots ─ its metaphorical etymology ─ are laid out in Lo and Behold as the desire to communicate. ③ And this attends significantly to the reality of computational technology’s evolution over the past decades. ④ More than any other force, it is the charge to communicate in more sophisticated ways with our fellow humans and, thereafter, with our machine companions, that has pushed technology into uncharted waters. ⑤ Recently, NASA disposed of all the computers which were not as sophisticated as newly developed supercomputers. How interaction itself ─ interaction between machines, machine and human ─ has evolved over time constitutes a powerful narrative for understanding a technology that now strongly influences society. 28. Kierkegaard’s Fear and Trembling takes as its point of departure the biblical story of the “binding of Isaac” from Genesis 22, in which God tests Abraham by asking him to sacrifice his son Isaac on Mount Moriah. ① Kierkegaard’s book as a whole can best be described as a poetical and philosophical response to this biblical story. ② In the Genesis account Abraham shows his willingness to obey God, but at the last moment God sends an angel to stay his hand, and Abraham discovers a ram that he sacrifices in place of his son. ③ This story from the Hebrew Bible is reprised in the New Testament in Hebrews 11, where the “heroes of faith” are listed and described. ④ The reason for the pseudonym lies in Kierkegaard’s understanding of himself as a “Danish Socrates,” who attempted to help his contemporaries discover truth for themselves. ⑤ Abraham has a prominent place in this list of exemplars; his action in being willing to sacrifice Isaac is singled out by the author of Hebrews in verses 17-19 as a key part of Abraham’s story and a major reason why Abraham is a paradigm of faith. The book of Hebrews thus provides a clear illustration of the status Abraham enjoys for both Jews and Christians (as well as Muslims) as the “father of faith.” 21 - 7 [29-35] 다음 글의 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. 29. Are we alone in the Universe? It’s probably the most profound question science has yet to answer. But so far the search for extraterrestrial life has only found . However, over the next few years the search for alien life is about to seriously ramp up. All being well, the most powerful telescope ever built, the James Webb Space Telescope, will start sending back images to Earth by the end of March. Its sensors and tech will let scientists take a closer look at Earth-like exoplanets than ever before. In 2023, the Vera Rubin Observatory in Chile will open its shutters to survey the stars. This telescope will have the largest camera of any ever built and will enable astronomers to map and catalogue the Universe in unprecedented detail. But it’s not all about new tech. A handful of scientists have also hatched a plan to look for alien life in a completely new way. Instead of searching for signals, for traces of the ingredients for life, or the by-products of living creatures, these astronomers think we ought to be searching for something altogether bigger and therefore easier to find: alien technology. It sounds like the stuff of science fiction, but there’s some serious science behind it. ① shadows ② miracles ③ blueprints ④ shelters ⑤ pinnacles 30. Animal liberationists generally draw the line of moral consideration at the boundary of sentience or feeling. For Singer, this is somewhere between crustaceans and molluscs, leaving mussels on the menu but taking crab and lobster off. Environmental ethics, on the other hand, places far less emphasis on the individual organism, but demands moral consideration for inanimate things such as rivers and mountains, assuming pain and suffering to be a necessary part of nature. These ethical conflicts have practical consequences, in that liberationists are generally , whereas ecophilosophers argue that in some cases exploding populations of a certain species must be culled if they threaten a local environment as whole. Such conflicts have become especially pressing in cases where non-native predators or destructive herbivores threaten fragile ecologies. ① opposed to hunting ② insensitive to animal pain ③ interested in the bio-community ④ inclined to focus on inanimate objects ⑤ favorable to the control of foreign predators 31. I suppose now that my mother was locked in some dark world of sadness, but at the time, all I knew was that I had lost not only a father, but a mother as well. At eleven years old, with my sister just seven, I took over as head of the family. There was no choice. I bought our food at the market and cooked it as best as I could and tried to keep my sister and myself looking presentable. Because if it had become known that my mother could no longer care for us, the district would have taken us away from her and . I’d grown up seeing those home kids at school. The sadness, the marks of angry hands on their faces, the hopelessness that curled their shoulders forward. I could never let that happen to my sweet sister, who cried when I cried before she even knew the reason, who brushed and plaited my mother’s hair before we left for school, who still polished my father’s shaving mirror each night because he’d hated the layer of coal dust that settled on everything in the Seam. The community home would crush her like a bug. So I kept our predicament a secret. ① asked us to work for ourselves ② placed us in the community home ③ kept me from seeking my father’s inheritance ④ provided us with a new comfortable home ⑤ sent my sister to school in the village 32. A team from the University of California, Davis, has developed a genetically modified strain of lettuce that could help prevent astronauts from . Regular lettuce has already been grown successfully aboard the International Space Station (ISS), so the team decided to see if they could create a strain of the plant that produces a bone-stimulating chemical called human parathyroid hormone (PTH), which would help counter the bone-depleting effects of spending extended periods in the microgravity of space. Recent NASA studies carried out on Scott Kelly and Christina Koch (the first two astronauts to spend a year on the ISS) found that they lost more than 1 per cent of their bone density during each month of their stay. With a mission to Mars likely to last around three years, scientists are searching for ways to counter these effects. Medicine is one possibility and food is another, which may be more practical. ① losing bone density during long space journeys ② controlling the spaceship more effectively ③ examining the solidity of the bone for the counter effects ④ having hallucinations while piloting the ship ⑤ acquiring an unknown mutation in bone marrow 21 - 8 33. As everyone knew at the time, the release of the mega-hit movie Avengers: Endgame in 2019 did not in the least signal the conclusion of the most profitable cinematic franchise in history. For like the real-world universe it inhabits, the Marvel Cinematic Universe promises to expand indefinitely, with no end in sight. But as Maya Phillips notes in her aesthetic approach to the M.C.U., such an expansive and interconnected story line presents to its creators, requiring the development of a nontraditional narrative format attuned to the complex interplay of old comics and new movies that underlies the whole enterprise. Will the whole thing collapse under its own weight eventually? Stay tuned. ① artistic outlets ② special challenges ③ unexpected benefits ④ manageable burdens ⑤ golden opportunities 34. Can we really be sure that science can always trace effects back to their causes? It certainly tries to do that. Descartes wanted to explain the attraction among heavenly bodies in terms of the central dogma of his physics, that in the last analysis all phenomena were due to a chain of mechanical contacts, a domino effect on a cosmic scale. What keeps the Moon in its orbit around the Earth? In order to , Descartes could only hypothesize that there were particles of some invisible substance ─ the ether ─ between the Moon and the Earth, and that a huge vortex whose fulcrum is the Earth imprisoned the Moon. ① recalibrate his belief system ② be consistent with his dogma ③ repudiate the accepted theories ④ be distinguished from his peers ⑤ instantiate the less popular ideas 35. Pain and pleasure are simple ideas, incapable of definition. People are not liable to be mistaken in their feelings, but they are very frequently wrong in the names they give them, and in their reasonings about them. Many are of opinion that pain arises necessarily from the removal of some pleasure as they think pleasure does from the ceasing or diminution of some pain. For my part, I am rather inclined to imagine, that pain and pleasure, in their most simple and natural manner of affecting, are each of a positive nature, and by no means necessarily . ① influenced by sadness and despair ② defined by essential emotions of animate beings ③ impertinent to their own designations and meanings ④ irrelevant to changes caused by mutual interactions ⑤ dependent on each other for their existence [36-37] 다음 글을 읽고, 물음에 답하시오. Bob Dylan’s 1962 “Blowin’ in the Wind” mattered not at all because its melody and harmonies were ‘nice’ or because its 1963 cover version by Peter, Paul and Mary was so enormously popular, or because its lyrics (with their mentions of “cannonballs” and “a white dove,” and of “roads [that] a man [must] walk down before they call him a man”) later, after the protests of the Sixties began in earnest, made it as easily interpretable as an anti-war song as a song in support of the Civil Rights movement; (A) , the song mattered ─ and matters still ─ because it articulates existentialist questions that thinking persons know are important yet unanswerable. Likewise, ‘free jazz’ mattered in the Sixties not because of the extraordinary sounds produced by Ornette Coleman and John Coltrane but because of how, after the non-violent Civil Rights movement yielded to more forceful forms of expression, this musical style was appropriated by black separatists and used for political purposes scarcely imagined by its original practitioners. (B) , too, serialism mattered in the Sixties not because of the actual content of any specific twelve-tone pieces by Milton Babbitt or Charles Wuorinen, and not even because the idea behind the compositional method more or less jibed with the Space Age’s scientistic frame of mind; in the Sixties serialism mattered, to a degree that nowadays is hard to fathom, mostly because the ‘status’ afforded its ideology was so bitterly resented by the very community that bestowed it. 36. 윗글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은? ① An Unexpected Discrepancy in Popular Songs and Culture ② Effective Ways to Compose Everlasting Beloved Music ③ Why Songs Matter: Putting Them in Context ④ Styles: What Determines the Success of Music ⑤ The History of Serialism in the Sixties 37. 빈칸 (A), (B)에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? (A) (B) ① rather …… Likewise ② similarly …… Conversely ③ additionally …… Analogously ④ worse …… Namely ⑤ somehow …… Accordingly 21 - 9 [38-40] 다음 글을 읽고, 물음에 답하시오. The Scream is in fact a surprisingly simple work, in which Munch utilized a minimum of forms to achieve maximum expressiveness. It consists of three main areas: the bridge, which extends at a steep angle from the middle distance at the left to fill the foreground; a landscape of shoreline, lake or fjord, and hills; and the sky, which is activated with curving lines in tones of orange, yellow, red, and blue-green. (A) A passage in Munch’s diary written in Nice contains the probable inspiration for this scene as the artist remembered it: “I was walking along the road with two friends ─ the sun went down ─ I felt a gust of melancholy ─ suddenly the sky turned a bloody red. I stopped, leaned against the railing, tired to death ─ as the flaming skies hung like blood and sword over the blue-black fjord and the city ─ My friends went on ─ I stood there trembling with anxiety ─ and I felt a vast infinite scream [tear] through nature.” The figure on the bridge ─ who may even be symbolic of Munch himself ─ feels the cry of nature, a sound that is sensed internally rather than heard with the ears. (B) Yet, how can this sensation be conveyed in visual terms? Munch’s approach to the experience of synesthesia, or the union of senses (for example, the belief that one might taste a color or smell a musical note), results in the visual depiction of sound and emotion. As such, The Scream represents a key work for the Symbolist movement as well as an important inspiration for the Expressionist movement of the early twentieth century. Symbolist artists of diverse international backgrounds confronted questions regarding the nature of subjectivity and its visual depiction. As Munch himself put it succinctly in a notebook entry on subjective vision written in 1889, “It is not the chair which is to be painted but what the human being has felt in relation to it.” (C) Foreground and background blend into one another, and the lyrical lines of the hills ripple through the sky as well. The human figures are starkly separated from this landscape by the bridge. Its strict linearity provides a contrast with the shapes of the landscape and the sky. The two faceless upright figures in the background belong to the geometric precision of the bridge, while the lines of the foreground figure’s body, hands, and head take up the same curving shapes that dominate the background landscape. The screaming figure is thus linked through these formal means to the natural realm, which was apparently Munch’s intention. 38. 주어진 글 다음에 이어질 글의 순서로 가장 적절한 것은? ① (A)-(C)-(B) ② (B)-(A)-(C) ③ (B)-(C)-(A) ④ (C)-(A)-(B) ⑤ (C)-(B)-(A) 39. 윗글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은? ① Munch as the First Symbolist Artist ② The Memoir and Notes of Munch the Artist ③ Analysis of Munch’s Melancholy and Anxiety at Dusk ④ How Munch Was Inspired to Create The Scream ⑤ The Scream: Natural Scenes of Fjords and Hills 40. 윗글의 내용과 일치하는 것은? ① The bridge in The Scream is activated with curving lines. ② The human figure in the background in The Scream screams out in fear and trembling. ③ The Scream exemplifies the Symbolist movement. ④ Munch placed value on a chair as an object of his art, not on people’s feelings about it. ⑤ Foreground and background are starkly divided in The Scream. ※확인사항 ▷ 답안지의 해당란에 필요한 내용을 정확히 기입․표기 했는지 확인하시오 .