2019학년도 대학수학능력시험 문제 및 정답 1 8 1번부터 17번까지는 듣고 답하는 문제입니다. 1번부터 15번까지는 한 번만 들려주고, 16번부터 17번까지는 두 번 들려줍니다. 방송을 잘 듣고 답을 하시기 바랍니다. 1. 대화를 듣고, 남자의 마지막 말에 대한 여자의 응답으로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. ① No. You can’t study with us. ② Okay. I’ll do the report by myself. ③ Sure. I’ll call you when I’m done. ④ Yes. I’m pleased to join your team. ⑤ Sorry. You have to finish by tomorrow. 2. 대화를 듣고, 여자의 마지막 말에 대한 남자의 응답으로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. ① Be careful. The roads are slippery. ② I agree. The seats are very comfortable. ③ Wonderful. Let’s attend the program together. ④ Great. I’ll register my son for the program. ⑤ I’m sorry. Your son has to wait longer. 3. 다음을 듣고, 남자가 하는 말의 목적으로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. ① 경기 취소를 공지하려고 ② 팬클럽 가입을 권유하려고 ③ 경기장 개장을 홍보하려고 ④ 웹 사이트 점검을 안내하려고 ⑤ 시상식 일정 변경을 사과하려고 4. 대화를 듣고, 여자의 의견으로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. ① 실패한 실험을 분석하면 실험에 성공할 수 있다. ② 과학 수업에서는 이론과 실습이 병행되어야 한다. ③ 과학자가 되기 위해서는 인문학적 소양도 필요하다. ④ 실험 일지는 실험 보고서 작성에 도움이 된다. ⑤ 실험을 할 때마다 안전 교육을 해야 한다. 5. 대화를 듣고, 두 사람의 관계를 가장 잘 나타낸 것을 고르시오. ① 모델 － 사진작가 ② 기증자 － 박물관 직원 ③ 영화 관람객 － 티켓 판매원 ④ 인테리어 디자이너－건축가 ⑤ 고객 － 가구점 직원 6. 대화를 듣고, 그림에서 대화의 내용과 일치하지 않는 것을 고르시오. 7. 대화를 듣고, 남자가 여자에게 부탁한 일로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. ① 발표 주제 정하기 ② 식용 곤충 조사하기 ③ 설문 조사 결과 분류하기 ④ 사진 촬영하기 ⑤ 유인물 배부하기 8. 대화를 듣고, 여자가 드론 비행 대회에 참가할 수 없는 이유를 고르시오. ① 부모님이 방문하셔서 ② 취업 면접에 가야 해서 ③ 졸업식에 참석해야 해서 ④ 파트너를 구하지 못해서 ⑤ 드론을 갖고 있지 않아서 9. 대화를 듣고, 남자가 지불할 금액을 고르시오. [3점] ① $120 ② $140 ③ $160 ④ $180 ⑤ $200 10. 대화를 듣고, International Fireworks Festival에 관해 언급되지 않은 것을 고르시오. ① 개최 일시 ② 개최 장소 ③ 참가국 ④ 주제 ⑤ 교통편 11. 2018 Upcycling Workshop에 관한 다음 내용을 듣고, 일치하지 않는 것을 고르시오. ① 3일간 진행될 것이다. ② 세미나실에서 열릴 것이다. ③ 패션 디자이너가 가르칠 것이다. ④ 모든 재료가 제공된다. ⑤ 참가 연령에 제한이 없다. 2019학년도 대학수학능력시험 문제지 1 제 3 교시 홀수형 이 문제지에 관한 저작권은 한국교육과정평가원에 있습니다. 2 홀수형 2 8 12. 다음 표를 보면서 대화를 듣고, 여자가 구매할 도마를 고르시오. Cutting Boards at Camilo’s Kitchen Model Material Price Handle Size ① A plastic $ 25 ☓ medium ② B maple $ 35 ◯ small ③ C maple $ 40 ☓ large ④ D walnut $ 45 ◯ medium ⑤ E walnut $ 55 ◯ large 13. 대화를 듣고, 여자의 마지막 말에 대한 남자의 응답으로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. [3점] Man: ① Absolutely! You should go and see a doctor. ② No problem. I’ll visit you on my business trip. ③ Sure. You can check the directions before driving. ④ Okay. I’ll ask my team so I can take the medicine. ⑤ Right. Taking a trip is a great way to relieve stress. 14. 대화를 듣고, 남자의 마지막 말에 대한 여자의 응답으로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. Woman: ① I agree. The actors performed well in the musical. ② You’re right. Let’s wait for the reviews of the musical. ③ Good. Now, we should rewrite the script of the musical. ④ Great. I need a new musical instrument for our performance. ⑤ Thanks. Then, I’ll read the novel before I watch the musical. 15. 다음 상황 설명을 듣고, Steve가 Cathy에게 할 말로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. [3점] Steve: ① You should highlight your volunteer experience as a translator. ② How about volunteering together for the translation club? ③ Why don’t you help me write a self-introduction letter? ④ You need to spend more time practicing translation. ⑤ You’d better become more qualified as a volunteer. [16～17] 다음을 듣고, 물음에 답하시오. 16. 여자가 하는 말의 주제로 가장 적절한 것은? ① why traditional foods are popular ② misconceptions about organic foods ③ unexpected origins of common foods ④ when foods spread across countries ⑤ importance of eating fresh foods 17. 언급된 음식이 아닌 것은? ① Caesar salad ② bagels ③ kiwis ④ potatoes ⑤ buffalo wings 18. 다음 글의 목적으로 가장 적절한 것은? ① 요리 대회 일정을 안내하려고 ② 요리 대회 심사 결과를 확인하려고 ③ 요리법 변경 가능 여부를 문의하려고 ④ 새로운 요리법 개발을 요청하려고 ⑤ 요리 대회 불참을 통보하려고 19. 다음 글에 드러난 Dave의 심경 변화로 가장 적절한 것은? The waves were perfect for surfing. Dave, however, just could not stay on his board. He had tried more than ten times to stand up but never managed it. He felt that he would never succeed. He was about to give up when he looked at the sea one last time. The swelling waves seemed to say, “Come on, Dave. One more try!” Taking a deep breath, he picked up his board and ran into the water. He waited for the right wave. Finally, it came. He jumped up onto the board just like he had practiced. And this time, standing upright, he battled the wave all the way back to shore. Walking out of the water joyfully, he cheered, “Wow, I did it!” ① frustrated → delighted ② bored → comforted ③ calm → annoyed ④ relieved → frightened ⑤ pleased → upset 20. 다음 글에서 필자가 주장하는 바로 가장 적절한 것은? War is inconceivable without some image, or concept, of the enemy. It is the presence of the enemy that gives meaning and justification to war. ‘War follows from feelings of hatred’, wrote Carl Schmitt. ‘War has its own strategic, tactical, and other rules and points of view, but they all presuppose that the political decision has already been made as to who the enemy is’. The concept of the enemy is fundamental to the moral assessment of war: ‘The basic aim of a nation at war in establishing an image of the enemy is to distinguish as sharply as possible the act of killing from the act of murder’. However, we need to be cautious about thinking of war and the image of the enemy that informs it in an abstract and uniform way. Rather, both must be seen for the cultural and contingent phenomena that they are. * contingent: 불확정적인 ① 전쟁과 적을 추상적이고 획일적으로 개념화하는 것을 경계해야 한다. ② 적에 따라 다양한 전략과 전술을 수립하고 적용해야 한다. ③ 보편적 윤리관에 기초하여 적의 개념을 정의해야 한다. ④ 전쟁 예방에 도움이 되는 정치적 결정을 해야 한다. ⑤ 어떠한 경우에도 전쟁을 정당화하지 말아야 한다. 이제 듣기 문제가 끝났습니다. 18번부터는 문제지의 지시에 따라 답을 하시기 바랍니다. Dear Mr. Reese, A few days ago, I submitted my application and recipe for the 2nd Annual DC Metro Cooking Contest. However, I would like to change my recipe if it is possible. I have checked the website again, but I could only find information about the contest date, time, and prizes. I couldn’t see any information about changing recipes. I have just created a great new recipe, and I believe people will love this more than the one I have already submitted. Please let me know if I can change my submitted recipe. I look forward to your response. Best Regards, Sophia Walker 이 문제지에 관한 저작권은 한국교육과정평가원에 있습니다. 홀수형 3 3 8 21. 밑줄 친 refining ignorance가 다음 글에서 의미하는 바로 가장 적절한 것은? Although not the explicit goal, the best science can really be seen as refining ignorance. Scientists, especially young ones, can get too obsessed with results. Society helps them along in this mad chase. Big discoveries are covered in the press, show up on the university’s home page, help get grants, and make the case for promotions. But it’s wrong. Great scientists, the pioneers that we admire, are not concerned with results but with the next questions. The highly respected physicist Enrico Fermi told his students that an experiment that successfully proves a hypothesis is a measurement; one that doesn’t is a discovery. A discovery, an uncovering ― of new ignorance. The Nobel Prize, the pinnacle of scientific accomplishment, is awarded, not for a lifetime of scientific achievement, but for a single discovery, a result. Even the Nobel committee realizes in some way that this is not really in the scientific spirit, and their award citations commonly honor the discovery for having “opened a field up,” “transformed a field,” or “taken a field in new and unexpected directions.” * pinnacle: 정점 ① looking beyond what is known towards what is left unknown ② offering an ultimate account of what has been discovered ③ analyzing existing knowledge with an objective mindset ④ inspiring scientists to publicize significant discoveries ⑤ informing students of a new field of science 22. 다음 글의 요지로 가장 적절한 것은? With the industrial society evolving into an information-based society, the concept of information as a product, a commodity with its own value, has emerged. As a consequence, those people, organizations, and countries that possess the highest-quality information are likely to prosper economically, socially, and politically. Investigations into the economics of information encompass a variety of categories including the costs of information and information services; the effects of information on decision making; the savings from effective information acquisition; the effects of information on productivity; and the effects of specific agencies (such as corporate, technical, or medical libraries) on the productivity of organizations. Obviously many of these areas overlap, but it is clear that information has taken on a life of its own outside the medium in which it is contained. Information has become a recognized entity to be measured, evaluated, and priced. * entity: 실재(물) ① 정보화된 사회일수록 개인 정보 보호가 필요하다. ② 정보의 효율적 교환은 조직의 생산성을 향상시킨다. ③ 정보 처리의 단순화는 신속한 의사 결정에 도움이 된다. ④ 정보 기반 사회에서 정보는 독자적 상품 가치를 지닌다. ⑤ 정보 기반 사회에서는 정보를 전달하는 방식이 중요하다. 23. 다음 글의 주제로 가장 적절한 것은? [3점] We argue that the ethical principles of justice provide an essential foundation for policies to protect unborn generations and the poorest countries from climate change. Related issues arise in connection with current and persistently inadequate aid for these nations, in the face of growing threats to agriculture and water supply, and the rules of international trade that mainly benefit rich countries. Increasing aid for the world’s poorest peoples can be an essential part of effective mitigation. With 20 percent of carbon emissions from (mostly tropical) deforestation, carbon credits for forest preservation would combine aid to poorer countries with one of the most cost-effective forms of abatement. Perhaps the most cost-effective but politically complicated policy reform would be the removal of several hundred billions of dollars of direct annual subsidies from the two biggest recipients in the OECD ― destructive industrial agriculture and fossil fuels. Even a small amount of this money would accelerate the already rapid rate of technical progress and investment in renewable energy in many areas, as well as encourage the essential switch to conservation agriculture. * mitigation: 완화 ** abatement: 감소 *** subsidy: 보조금 ① reforming diplomatic policies in poor countries ② increasing global awareness of the environmental crisis ③ reasons for restoring economic equality in poor countries ④ coping with climate change by reforming aid and policies ⑤ roles of the OECD in solving international conflicts 24. 다음 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은? A defining element of catastrophes is the magnitude of their harmful consequences. To help societies prevent or reduce damage from catastrophes, a huge amount of effort and technological sophistication are often employed to assess and communicate the size and scope of potential or actual losses. This effort assumes that people can understand the resulting numbers and act on them appropriately. However, recent behavioral research casts doubt on this fundamental assumption. Many people do not understand large numbers. Indeed, large numbers have been found to lack meaning and to be underestimated in decisions unless they convey affect (feeling). This creates a paradox that rational models of decision making fail to represent. On the one hand, we respond strongly to aid a single individual in need. On the other hand, we often fail to prevent mass tragedies or take appropriate measures to reduce potential losses from natural disasters. * catastrophe: 큰 재해 ① Insensitivity to Mass Tragedy: We Are Lost in Large Numbers ② Power of Numbers: A Way of Classifying Natural Disasters ③ How to Reach Out a Hand to People in Desperate Need ④ Preventing Potential Losses Through Technology ⑤ Be Careful, Numbers Magnify Feelings! 이 문제지에 관한 저작권은 한국교육과정평가원에 있습니다. 4 홀수형 4 8 25. 다음 표의 내용과 일치하지 않는 것은? Top Ten Origin Countries of International Students (School Years 1979-1980 and 2016-2017) School Year 1979-1980 Country Number Iran 51,000 Taiwan 18,000 Nigeria 16,000 Canada 15,000 Japan 12,000 Hong Kong 10,000 Venezuela 10,000 Saudi Arabia 10,000 India 9,000 Thailand 7,000 Other countries 129,000 Total 286,000 School Year 2016-2017 Country Number China 351,000 India 186,000 South Korea 59,000 Saudi Arabia 53,000 Canada 27,000 Vietnam 22,000 Taiwan 22,000 Japan 19,000 Mexico 17,000 Brazil 13,000 Other countries 311,000 Total 1,079,000 ∙Note: Detail may not add to total shown because of rounding. The tables above show the top ten origin countries and the number of international students enrolled in U.S. colleges and universities in two school years, 1979-1980 and 2016-2017. ① The total number of international students in 2016-2017 was over three times larger than the total number of international students in 1979-1980. ② Iran, Taiwan, and Nigeria were the top three origin countries of international students in 1979-1980, among which only Taiwan was included in the list of the top ten origin countries in 2016-2017. ③ The number of students from India was over twenty times larger in 2016-2017 than in 1979-1980, and India ranked higher than China in 2016-2017. ④ South Korea, which was not included among the top ten origin countries in 1979-1980, ranked third in 2016-2017. ⑤ Although the number of students from Japan was larger in 2016-2017 than in 1979-1980, Japan ranked lower in 2016-2017 than in 1979-1980. 26. Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings에 관한 다음 글의 내용과 일치 하지 않는 것은? Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, an American author born in Washington, D.C. in 1896, wrote novels with rural themes and settings. While she was young, one of her stories appeared in The Washington Post. After graduating from university, Rawlings worked as a journalist while simultaneously trying to establish herself as a fiction writer. In 1928, she purchased an orange grove in Cross Creek, Florida. This became the source of inspiration for some of her writings which included The Yearling and her autobiographical book, Cross Creek. In 1939, The Yearling, which was about a boy and an orphaned baby deer, won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction. Later, in 1946, The Yearling was made into a film of the same name. Rawlings passed away in 1953, and the land she owned at Cross Creek has become a Florida State Park honoring her achievements. * grove: 과수원 ① Washington, D.C.에서 태어난 미국 작가이다. ② 그녀의 이야기 중 하나가 The Washington Post에 실렸다. ③ 대학교를 졸업한 후 저널리스트로 일했다. ④ The Yearling이라는 소설은 다른 제목으로 영화화되었다. ⑤ Cross Creek에 소유했던 땅은 Florida 주립 공원이 되었다. 27. Flying Eagle Zipline Ride에 관한 다음 안내문의 내용과 일치하지 않는 것은? ① 13세 이상부터 탈 수 있다. ② 집라인의 길이는 500미터이다. ③ 체중 제한이 있다. ④ 분실한 귀중품에 대해 책임을 지지 않는다. ⑤ 사전 예약이 필요하다. 28. Wireless Charging Pad 사용에 관한 다음 안내문의 내용과 일치하는 것은? ① 스마트폰의 화면을 아래로 향하게 두어야 한다. ② 스마트폰을 충전 패드 중앙에 놓지 않아도 된다. ③ LED 빛이 흰색이면 스마트폰이 완전히 충전되지 않은 것이다. ④ 스마트폰과 충전 패드 사이에 어떤 것도 놓지 않아야 한다. ⑤ 충전 패드는 방수가 된다. Wireless Charging Pad － Instructions － Wireless Smartphone Charging: 1. Connect the charging pad to a power source. 2. Place your smartphone on the charging pad with the display facing up. 3. Place your smartphone on the center of the charging pad (or it will not charge). Charge Status LED: ∙Blue Light: Your smartphone is charging. If there’s a problem, the blue light will flash. ∙White Light: Your smartphone is fully charged. Caution: ∙Do not place anything between your smartphone and the charging pad while charging. ∙The charging pad is not water-resistant. Keep it dry. Flying Eagle Zipline Ride Soar through the treetops over Lost Forest on our thrilling Flying Eagle Zipline! Feel the thrill of flying like an eagle! ∙Age requirement: 13 years old and over ∙Price: ￡20 ∙Zipline length: 500 metres ∙Duration: 30 minutes (including safety instruction) ∙Restrictions: － People with back problems or serious heart conditions － Weight: over 125 kg － Height: under 120 cm ※ We do not take responsibility for lost valuables. ※ No advanced reservations are necessary. Please visit our website at www.flyingeaglezip.co.uk for more information. 이 문제지에 관한 저작권은 한국교육과정평가원에 있습니다. 홀수형 5 5 8 29. 다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 어법상 틀린 것은? [3점] “Monumental” is a word that comes very close to ① expressing the basic characteristic of Egyptian art. Never before and never since has the quality of monumentality been achieved as fully as it ② did in Egypt. The reason for this is not the external size and massiveness of their works, although the Egyptians admittedly achieved some amazing things in this respect. Many modern structures exceed ③ those of Egypt in terms of purely physical size. But massiveness has nothing to do with monumentality. An Egyptian sculpture no bigger than a person’s hand is more monumental than that gigantic pile of stones ④ that constitutes the war memorial in Leipzig, for instance. Monumentality is not a matter of external weight, but of “inner weight.” This inner weight is the quality which Egyptian art possesses to such a degree that everything in it seems to be made of primeval stone, like a mountain range, even if it is only a few inches across or ⑤ carved in wood. * gigantic: 거대한 ** primeval: 원시 시대의 30. 다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 문맥상 낱말의 쓰임이 적절하지 않은 것은? Europe’s first Homo sapiens lived primarily on large game, particularly reindeer. Even under ideal circumstances, hunting these fast animals with spear or bow and arrow is an ① uncertain task. The reindeer, however, had a ② weakness that mankind would mercilessly exploit: it swam poorly. While afloat, it is uniquely ③ vulnerable, moving slowly with its antlers held high as it struggles to keep its nose above water. At some point, a Stone Age genius realized the enormous hunting ④ advantage he would gain by being able to glide over the water’s surface, and built the first boat. Once the ⑤ laboriously overtaken and killed prey had been hauled aboard, getting its body back to the tribal camp would have been far easier by boat than on land. It would not have taken long for mankind to apply this advantage to other goods. * exploit: 이용하다 ** haul: 끌어당기다 [31～34] 다음 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. 31. Finkenauer and Rimé investigated the memory of the unexpected death of Belgium’s King Baudouin in 1993 in a large sample of Belgian citizens. The data revealed that the news of the king’s death had been widely socially shared. By talking about the event, people gradually constructed a social narrative and a collective memory of the emotional event. At the same time, they consolidated their own memory of the personal circumstances in which the event took place, an effect known as “flashbulb memory.” The more an event is socially shared, the more it will be fixed in people’s minds. Social sharing may in this way help to counteract some natural tendency people may have. Naturally, people should be driven to “forget” undesirable events. Thus, someone who just heard a piece of bad news often tends initially to deny what happened. The social sharing of the bad news contributes to realism. * consolidate: 공고히 하다 ① biased ② illegal ③ repetitive ④ temporary ⑤ rational 32. Minorities tend not to have much power or status and may even be dismissed as troublemakers, extremists or simply ‘weirdos’. How, then, do they ever have any influence over the majority? The social psychologist Serge Moscovici claims that the answer lies in their behavioural style, i.e. the way . The crucial factor in the success of the suffragette movement was that its supporters were consistent in their views, and this created a considerable degree of social influence. Minorities that are active and organised, who support and defend their position consistently, can create social conflict, doubt and uncertainty among members of the majority, and ultimately this may lead to social change. Such change has often occurred because a minority has converted others to its point of view. Without the influence of minorities, we would have no innovation, no social change. Many of what we now regard as ‘major’ social movements (e.g. Christianity, trade unionism or feminism) were originally due to the influence of an outspoken minority. * dismiss: 일축하다 ** weirdo: 별난 사람 *** suffragette: 여성 참정권론자 ① the minority gets its point across ② the minority tones down its voice ③ the majority cultivates the minority ④ the majority brings about social change ⑤ the minority cooperates with the majority 이 문제지에 관한 저작권은 한국교육과정평가원에 있습니다. 6 홀수형 6 8 33. Heritage is concerned with the ways in which very selective material artefacts, mythologies, memories and traditions become resources for the present. The contents, interpretations and representations of the resource are selected according to the demands of the present; an imagined past provides resources for a heritage that is to be passed onto an imagined future. It follows too that the meanings and functions of memory and tradition are defined in the present. Further, heritage is more concerned with meanings than material artefacts. It is the former that give value, either cultural or financial, to the latter and explain why they have been selected from the near infinity of the past. In turn, they may later be discarded as the demands of present societies change, or even, as is presently occurring in the former Eastern Europe, when pasts have to be reinvented to reflect new presents. Thus heritage is . [3점] ① a collection of memories and traditions of a society ② as much about forgetting as remembering the past ③ neither concerned with the present nor the future ④ a mirror reflecting the artefacts of the past ⑤ about preserving universal cultural values 34. The human species is unique in its ability to expand its functionality by inventing new cultural tools. Writing, arithmetic, science ― all are recent inventions. Our brains did not have enough time to evolve for them, but I reason that they were made possible because . When we learn to read, we recycle a specific region of our visual system known as the visual word-form area, enabling us to recognize strings of letters and connect them to language areas. Likewise, when we learn Arabic numerals we build a circuit to quickly convert those shapes into quantities ― a fast connection from bilateral visual areas to the parietal quantity area. Even an invention as elementary as finger-counting changes our cognitive abilities dramatically. Amazonian people who have not invented counting are unable to make exact calculations as simple as, say, 6—2. This “cultural recycling” implies that the functional architecture of the human brain results from a complex mixture of biological and cultural constraints. [3점] * bilateral: 양측의 ** parietal: 정수리(부분)의 *** constraint: 제약 ① our brains put a limit on cultural diversity ② we can mobilize our old areas in novel ways ③ cultural tools stabilize our brain functionality ④ our brain regions operate in an isolated manner ⑤ we cannot adapt ourselves to natural challenges 35. 다음 글에서 전체 흐름과 관계 없는 문장은? When photography came along in the nineteenth century, painting was put in crisis. The photograph, it seemed, did the work of imitating nature better than the painter ever could. ① Some painters made practical use of the invention. ② There were Impressionist painters who used a photograph in place of the model or landscape they were painting. ③ But by and large, the photograph was a challenge to painting and was one cause of painting’s moving away from direct representation and reproduction to the abstract painting of the twentieth century. ④ Therefore, the painters of that century put more focus on expressing nature, people, and cities as they were in reality. ⑤ Since photographs did such a good job of representing things as they existed in the world, painters were freed to look inward and represent things as they were in their imagination, rendering emotion in the color, volume, line, and spatial configurations native to the painter’s art. * render: 표현하다 ** configuration: 배치 [36～37] 주어진 글 다음에 이어질 글의 순서로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. 36. Researchers in psychology follow the scientific method to perform studies that help explain and may predict human behavior. This is a much more challenging task than studying snails or sound waves. (A) But for all of these difficulties for psychology, the payoff of the scientific method is that the findings are replicable; that is, if you run the same study again following the same procedures, you will be very likely to get the same results. (B) It often requires compromises, such as testing behavior within laboratories rather than natural settings, and asking those readily available (such as introduction to psychology students) to participate rather than collecting data from a true cross-section of the population. It often requires great cleverness to conceive of measures that tap into what people are thinking without altering their thinking, called reactivity. (C) Simply knowing they are being observed may cause people to behave differently (such as more politely!). People may give answers that they feel are more socially desirable than their true feelings. * replicable: 반복 가능한 ① (A) － (C) － (B) ② (B) － (A) － (C) ③ (B) － (C) － (A) ④ (C) － (A) － (B) ⑤ (C) － (B) － (A) 이 문제지에 관한 저작권은 한국교육과정평가원에 있습니다. 홀수형 7 7 8 37. Clearly, schematic knowledge helps you ― guiding your understanding and enabling you to reconstruct things you cannot remember. (A) Likewise, if there are things you can’t recall, your schemata will fill in the gaps with knowledge about what’s typical in that situation. As a result, a reliance on schemata will inevitably make the world seem more “normal” than it really is and will make the past seem more “regular” than it actually was. (B) Any reliance on schematic knowledge, therefore, will be shaped by this information about what’s “normal.” Thus, if there are things you don’t notice while viewing a situation or event, your schemata will lead you to fill in these “gaps” with knowledge about what’s normally in place in that setting. (C) But schematic knowledge can also hurt you, promoting errors in perception and memory. Moreover, the types of errors produced by schemata are quite predictable: Bear in mind that schemata summarize the broad pattern of your experience, and so they tell you, in essence, what’s typical or ordinary in a given situation. [3점] ① (A) － (C) － (B) ② (B) － (A) － (C) ③ (B) － (C) － (A) ④ (C) － (A) － (B) ⑤ (C) － (B) － (A) [38～39] 글의 흐름으로 보아, 주어진 문장이 들어가기에 가장 적절한 곳을 고르시오. 38. The advent of literacy and the creation of handwritten scrolls and, eventually, handwritten books strengthened the ability of large and complex ideas to spread with high fidelity. The printing press boosted the power of ideas to copy themselves. Prior to low-cost printing, ideas could and did spread by word of mouth. While this was tremendously powerful, it limited the complexity of the ideas that could be propagated to those that a single person could remember. ( ① ) It also added a certain amount of guaranteed error. ( ② ) The spread of ideas by word of mouth was equivalent to a game of telephone on a global scale. ( ③ ) But the incredible amount of time required to copy a scroll or book by hand limited the speed with which information could spread this way. ( ④ ) A well-trained monk could transcribe around four pages of text per day. ( ⑤ ) A printing press could copy information thousands of times faster, allowing knowledge to spread far more quickly, with full fidelity, than ever before. * fidelity: 충실 ** propagate: 전파하다 39. A round hill rising above a plain, therefore, would appear on the map as a set of concentric circles, the largest at the base and the smallest near the top. A major challenge for map-makers is the depiction of hills and valleys, slopes and flatlands collectively called the topography. This can be done in various ways. One is to create an image of sunlight and shadow so that wrinkles of the topography are alternately lit and shaded, creating a visual representation of the shape of the land. ( ① ) Another, technically more accurate way is to draw contour lines. ( ② ) A contour line connects all points that lie at the same elevation. ( ③ ) When the contour lines are positioned closely together, the hill’s slope is steep; if they lie farther apart, the slope is gentler. ( ④ ) Contour lines can represent scarps, hollows, and valleys of the local topography. ( ⑤ ) At a glance, they reveal whether the relief in the mapped area is great or small: a “busy” contour map means lots of high relief. [3점] * concentric: 중심이 같은 ** scarp: 가파른 비탈 *** relief: (토지의) 고저, 기복 40. 다음 글의 내용을 한 문장으로 요약하고자 한다. 빈칸 (A), (B)에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? Biological organisms, including human societies both with and without market systems, discount distant outputs over those available at the present time based on risks associated with an uncertain future. As the timing of inputs and outputs varies greatly depending on the type of energy, there is a strong case to incorporate time when assessing energy alternatives. For example, the energy output from solar panels or wind power engines, where most investment happens before they begin producing, may need to be assessed differently when compared to most fossil fuel extraction technologies, where a large proportion of the energy output comes much sooner, and a larger (relative) proportion of inputs is applied during the extraction process, and not upfront. Thus fossil fuels, particularly oil and natural gas, in addition to having energy quality advantages (cost, storability, transportability, etc.) over many renewable technologies, also have a “temporal advantage” after accounting for human behavioral preference for current consumption/return. * upfront: 선행 투자의 Due to the fact that people tend to favor more (A) outputs, fossil fuels are more (B) than renewable energy alternatives in regards to the distance between inputs and outputs. (A) (B) ① immediate …… competitive ② available …… expensive ③ delayed …… competitive ④ convenient …… expensive ⑤ abundant …… competitive 이 문제지에 관한 저작권은 한국교육과정평가원에 있습니다. 8 홀수형 8 8 [41～42] 다음 글을 읽고, 물음에 답하시오. Industrial capitalism not only created work, it also created ‘leisure’ in the modern sense of the term. This might seem surprising, for the early cotton masters wanted to keep their machinery running as long as possible and forced their employees to work very long hours. However, by requiring continuous work during work hours and ruling out non-work activity, employers had (a) separated out leisure from work. Some did this quite explicitly by creating distinct holiday periods, when factories were shut down, because it was better to do this than have work (b) promoted by the casual taking of days off. ‘Leisure’ as a distinct non-work time, whether in the form of the holiday, weekend, or evening, was a result of the disciplined and bounded work time created by capitalist production. Workers then wanted more leisure and leisure time was enlarged by union campaigns, which first started in the cotton industry, and eventually new laws were passed that (c) limited the hours of work and gave workers holiday entitlements. Leisure was also the creation of capitalism in another sense, through the commercialization of leisure. This no longer meant participation in traditional sports and pastimes. Workers began to (d) pay for leisure activities organized by capitalist enterprises. Mass travel to spectator sports, especially football and horse-racing, where people could be charged for entry, was now possible. The importance of this can hardly be exaggerated, for whole new industries were emerging to exploit and (e) develop the leisure market, which was to become a huge source of consumer demand, employment, and profit. * discipline: 통제하다 ** enterprise: 기업(체) *** exaggerate: 과장하다 41. 윗글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은? ① What It Takes to Satisfy Workers ② Why Workers Have Struggled for More Leisure ③ The Birth and Evolution of Leisure in Capitalism ④ How to Strike a Balance Between Work and Leisure ⑤ The Light and Dark Sides of the Modern Leisure Industry 42. 밑줄 친 (a)～(e) 중에서 문맥상 낱말의 쓰임이 적절하지 않은 것은? [3점] ① (a) ② (b) ③ (c) ④ (d) ⑤ (e) [43～45] 다음 글을 읽고, 물음에 답하시오. (A) Olivia and her sister Ellie were standing with Grandma in the middle of the cabbages. Suddenly, Grandma asked, “Do you know what a Cabbage White is?” “Yes, (a) I learned about it in biology class. It’s a beautiful white butterfly,” Olivia answered. “Right! But it lays its eggs on cabbages, and then the caterpillars eat the cabbage leaves! So, why don’t you help me to pick the caterpillars up?” Grandma suggested. The two sisters gladly agreed and went back to the house to get ready. * caterpillar: 애벌레 (B) The caterpillars wriggled as they were picked up while Cabbage Whites filled the air around them. It was as if the butterflies were making fun of Olivia; they seemed to be laughing at (b) her, suggesting that they would lay millions more eggs. The cabbage patch looked like a battlefield. Olivia felt like she was losing the battle, but she fought on. (c) She kept filling her bucket with the caterpillars until the bottom disappeared. Feeling exhausted and discouraged, she asked Grandma, “Why don’t we just get rid of all the butterflies, so that there will be no more eggs or caterpillars?” * wriggle: 꿈틀거리다 (C) Soon, armed with a small bucket each, Olivia and Ellie went back to Grandma. When they saw the cabbage patch, they suddenly remembered how vast it was. There seemed to be a million cabbages. Olivia stood open-mouthed at the sight of the endless cabbage field. She thought they could not possibly pick all of the caterpillars off. Olivia sighed in despair. Grandma smiled at her and said, “Don’t worry. We are only working on this first row here today.” Relieved, (d) she and Ellie started on the first cabbage. (D) Grandma smiled gently and said, “Why wrestle with Mother Nature? The butterflies help us grow some other plants because they carry pollen from flower to flower.” Olivia realized (e) she was right. Grandma added that although she knew caterpillars did harm to cabbages, she didn’t wish to disturb the natural balance of the environment. Olivia now saw the butterflies’ true beauty. Olivia and Ellie looked at their full buckets and smiled. * pollen: 꽃가루 43. 주어진 글 (A)에 이어질 내용을 순서에 맞게 배열한 것으로 가장 적절한 것은? ① (B) － (D) － (C) ② (C) － (B) － (D) ③ (C) － (D) － (B) ④ (D) － (B) － (C) ⑤ (D) － (C) － (B) 44. 밑줄 친 (a)～(e) 중에서 가리키는 대상이 나머지 넷과 다른 것은? ① (a) ② (b) ③ (c) ④ (d) ⑤ (e) 45. 윗글에 관한 내용으로 적절하지 않은 것은? ① 할머니는 Olivia와 Ellie에게 도움을 요청했다. ② Olivia와 Ellie는 양배추밭에 있는 애벌레를 잡지 않았다. ③ Olivia에게 양배추밭은 마치 전쟁터 같았다. ④ Olivia와 Ellie는 양배추밭이 얼마나 드넓은지 새삼 깨달았다. ⑤ 할머니는 Olivia에게 자연의 섭리를 일깨워주었다. * 확인 사항 ◦답안지의 해당란에 필요한 내용을 정확히 기입(표기)했는지 확인 하시오. 이 문제지에 관한 저작권은 한국교육과정평가원에 있습니다.