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국회직 9급
2019.11.07 16:28

2019 국회직 9급 영어 문제 해설 (1)

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 2019년도 9급 공개경쟁채용시험 영 어 책형 가 - 6 - 영 어 1. 다음 밑줄 친 부분의 의미와 가장 가까운 단어는? The commonest and most conspicuous acts of animal altruism are done by parents, especially mothers, towards their children. ① salient ② pertinent ③ concealed ④ contingent ⑤ rudimentary 2. 다음 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 옳지 않은 것은? The neoliberal attack on the population remains intact, ① though less so in the United States than in Europe. Automation is not a major factor, and industrialization isn’t ending, ② just being off-shored. Financialization has of course exploded during the neoliberal period, and the general practices, pretty much global in character, ③designed to enhance private and corporate power. ④ That sets off a vicious cycle which in turn yields legislation and administrative practices that carry the process forward. There are countervailing forces, and they might become more powerful. The potential is there, as we can see from the Sanders campaign and even the Trump campaign, if the white working class ⑤ to which Trump appeals can become organized to focus on their real interests instead of being in thrall to their class enemy. 3. 다음 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 옳지 않은 것은? At the time of writing, it remains unclear ① what this administration’s plans are in regard to immigration policing more generally. All names are fictitious names ② to protect the identities of our undocumented research collaborators. These facts run contrary to the common belief that the undocumented ③ does not pay taxes on their wages. On the contrary, undocumented workers pay billions of dollars annually in income taxes ④ using false documents. Many undocumented workers also have a legitimate Individual Taxpayer Identification Number ⑤ with which they pay income taxes. 4. 다음 밑줄 친 부분의 의미와 가장 가까운 단어는? The US Congress concluded that, unless the law was reauthorized, “racial and language minority citizens will be deprived of the opportunity to exercise their right to vote, or will have their votes diluted, undermining the significant gains made by minorities in the last 40 years.” ① callous ② restricted ③ belligerent ④ contentious ⑤ preposterous 5. 다음 빈칸에 들어갈 가장 적절한 표현은? Many baby birds are fed in the nest by their parents. They all gape and scream, and the parent drops a worm or other morsel in the open mouth of one of them. The loudness with which each baby screams is, ideally, proportional to how hungry he is. Therefore, if the parent always gives the food to the loudest screamer, they should all tend to get their fair share, since when one has had enough he will not scream so loudly. At least that is what would happen in the best of all possible worlds, if individuals did not cheat. But in the light of our selfish gene concept we must expect that individuals _________________________________. ① will feed their babies ② will get their fair share ③ will not scream so loudly ④ will tell lies about how hungry they are ⑤ will always give the food to the loudest screamer 2019년도 9급 공개경쟁채용시험 영 어 책형 가 - 7 - 6. 다음 빈칸 (A)와 (B)에 들어갈 가장 적절한 단어는? Last week, the World Wildlife Fund released their annual Living Planet Report, which estimated that wildlife populations (including mammals, reptiles, amphibians, birds, and fish) have fallen by 60% between 1970 and 2014. This represents a staggering and tragic loss of non-human life and ecological heritage. But the loss of wildlife means more than that, according to the WWF. “Our health, food and security depend on (A) _____________,” the report says, and “without healthy natural systems researchers are asking whether continuing human development is possible.” Mike Barrett, one of the authors of the report, puts it more bluntly in an interview with The Guardian: “This is far more than just being about losing the wonders of nature, desperately sad though that is. This is actually now (B) ____________ the future of people. Nature is not a ‘nice to have’―it is our life-support system.” (A) (B) ① instrumentality negating ② relativity enhancing ③ dissimilarity preserving ④ productivity eradicating ⑤ biodiversity jeopardizing 7. 다음 빈칸에 들어갈 가장 적절한 표현은? Consider the results of one well-known psychological study. People were read a word describing a personal attribute that confirmed, countered, or avoided gender stereotypes. They were then given a name and asked to judge whether it was male or female. People responded more quickly when _________________________; so people were faster to the trigger when it was “strong John” and “gentle Jane” than when it was “strong Jane” and “gentle John.” Only when subjects were actively asked to try to counter the stereotype and had a sufficiently low “cognitive constraint” (i.e., enough time) were they able to overcome these automatic responses. ① they were asked to try to counter the stereotype than when they were not ② the stereotypical attribute matched the name than when it did not ③ the word was neutral to gender stereotypes than when it was not ④ they avoided gender stereotypes than when they did not ⑤ the sufficient time was given than when it was not 8. 다음 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은? Science holds its theories to be ‘true and proven’ under specific circumstances. Science can never state anything with absolute certainty. This causes a problem for us all. We need to hold certain ideas as true and proven in order to carry out our work. Often we come to an arrangement where, for operational reasons, we accept certain things without continually questioning their status, for example we accept that the force of gravity means that objects fall to earth at a rate of 9.81㎨. We understand that this is an average measurement. For school science it is often rounded to 10㎨. The reality of acceleration due to gravity is that this figure will vary according to local conditions, for example it is less off the South coast of India than in the Pacific region. Your mass is approximately 1 per cent less off the coast of India when compared to the average. ① Seeking Absolute Truth ② Science as a Social System ③ What To Be Done in Science ④ The Relativity in Scientific Truth ⑤ The Structure of Scientific Revolutions 9. 다음 빈칸 (A), (B), (C)에 들어갈 가장 적절한 단어는? This is a really important part of representation―giving people who struggle to play games the ability to join in, and to be visible on screen. (A) _________ and inclusivity are different parts of the same message. It’s why charities like Special Effect in the UK and Able Gamers in the US are so vital, building hardware and peripherals to (B) _________ disabled players, and advocating for better support throughout the industry. Games are now a (C) __________ element of childhood and teenage life, it is isolating for people with different abilities or backgrounds to find they can’t play, and can’t have avatars that represent them. It is isolating not to be thought of or considered in the culture you desperately want to consume and be part of. In a media-saturated environment, where messages of belonging are constantly transmitted via TV, social media and smartphones, inclusivity is a life buoy. If you do not see yourself on Netflix, on Instagram, in games, in forums, where are you? Do you mean anything? It matters. (A) (B) (C) ① Accessibility assist habitual ② Allegation encourage benign ③ Commitment exclude manic ④ Counterculture pursue terse ⑤ Misrepresentation involve widespread 2019년도 9급 공개경쟁채용시험 영 어 책형 가 - 8 - 10. 다음 글의 내용과 일치하지 않는 것은? In a study published Wednesday, researchers from Sorbonne Paris Cite University, said the consumption of sugary soft drinks―including 100% fruit juice―was “significantly associated with the risk of overall cancer.” Artificially -sweetened drinks, like diet soda, were not associated with increased cancer risks, they found. The report’s authors followed 101,257 adults over a five-year period, monitoring their intake of sugary and artificially-sweetened beverages. Sugary drinks were defined as beverages that contained more than 5% sugar, which included fruit juices that had no added sugar. During the study, 2,193 cases of cancer were diagnosed among the participants, the equivalent of around 22 cases per 1,000 people. The majority of those cases were among people who regularly consumed sugary drinks. ① Sugary drinks like orange juice may increase the risk of contracting cancer. ② The researchers recorded the study participants’ intake of sugary and artificially-sweetened drinks for five years. ③ The researchers defined sugary drinks as beverages with more than 5% sugar. ④ Consuming orange juice with no added sugar for a long period of time may reduce the chance of getting a cancer. ⑤ During the study, about 2.2% of the study participants were diagnosed as cancer patients. 11. 다음 밑줄 친 부분의 의미와 가장 가까운 단어는? Though they vowed that no girl would ever come between them, Biff and Trevor could not keep acrimony from overwhelming their friendship after they both fell in love with the lovely Teresa. ① malice ② temerity ③ cordiality ④ sympathy ⑤ recollection 12. 다음 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 옳지 않은 것은? Michael Phelps is one of ① the most decorated athletes of all time. As the first Olympic swimmer to earn a spot on five Olympic teams and ② the oldest individual swimmer to earn Olympic gold, he’s earned himself the nickname the “Flying Fish.” Swimmers tend to have longer torsos and shorter legs than the average person. ③ Standing at 6 feet 4 inches, Phelps has the torso of a man who’s 6 feet 8 inches tall, and the legs of a man 8 inches shorter. Double-jointed elbows allow Phelps ④ to create more downward thrust in the water. His large hands also act like paddles. Paired with his extra-long wingspan, his arms serve like propellers to shoot ⑤ himself through the water. 13. 다음 밑줄 친 부분 중 문맥상 낱말의 쓰임이 적절하지 않은 것은? When students are asked about what they do when studying, they commonly report underlining, highlighting, or otherwise marking material as they try to learn it. We treat these techniques as ① equivalent, given that, conceptually, they should work the same way. The techniques typically appeal to students because they are simple to use, do not ② entail training, and do not require students to invest much time beyond what is already required for reading the material. The question we ask here is, will a technique that is so ③ complicated to use actually help students learn? To understand any benefits specific to highlighting and underlining, we do not consider studies in which active marking of text was ④ paired with other common techniques, such as note-taking. Although many students report combining multiple techniques, each technique must be evaluated ⑤ independently to discover which ones are crucial for success. 2019년도 9급 공개경쟁채용시험 영 어 책형 가 - 9 - 14. 다음 빈칸 (A), (B), (C)에 들어갈 가장 적절한 단어는? The present report has no other object than to call attention to the alarming fact that the Atlantic Ocean is becoming seriously polluted and that a continued (A) _________ use of the world’s oceans as an international dumping ground for (B) _________ human refuse may have (C) _________ effects on the productivity and very survival of plant and animal species. (A) (B) (C) ① sensible imperishable inviolable ② indiscriminate imperishable irrepairable ③ indiscriminate imperishable inviolable ④ indiscriminate decomposable irrepairable ⑤ sensible decomposable inviolable 15. 다음 빈칸에 들어갈 가장 적절한 표현은? In a classic study, baby rats were placed in a sensorially deprived environment. Another group was raised in a sensory-rich environment. The sensory-deprived group suffered stunted brain development. They couldn’t find their way through a simple maze and were prone to aggressive, violent social behavior. The sensory-rich rodents developed larger, better connected brains. They learned complex mazes quickly and played happily together. Rats are used in experiments like this because their nervous systems show many similarities to ours. So make every effort to create a brain-nourishing environment at home, beginning in the womb. Research by Dr. Thomas Verny and many others shows that your unborn baby will be positively influenced, for example, by listening to Mozart. Once they are born, take every opportunity ___________________________________. Lots of loving touch and cuddling is particularly important to your growing child’s neurological and emotional development. ① to make them get acquainted with the history of classical music ② to create a rich and refined sensory environment for your children ③ to enhance loving touch and cuddling without sensory stimulation ④ to ensure healthy brain development by providing a safe environment ⑤ to bring your children to the educational environment for physical development 16. 다음 빈칸에 들어갈 가장 적절한 단어는? The geologists who defined the fossil hallmarks of the Permian in the 1840s must have feared Lyell’s criticism, for they failed to mention the signs of mass extinction at the end of that period. It seems unlikely that they simply overlooked it. The Permian extinction obliterated ecosystems as complex as any on Earth today. On land, 10-foot-long saber-toothed reptiles succumbed, and grazing, root-grubbing, and insect-eating lizards _______________, along with the plants and bugs they ate. In the ocean, reefs teeming with life were reduced to bare skeletons. The Permian even finished off the lowly trilobite―perhaps the one celebrity species of the predinosaur era. ① evolved ② wrested ③ procured ④ vanished ⑤ flourished 17. 다음 빈칸에 들어갈 가장 적절한 표현은? Firefighters contained a major fire at Paris’ Notre Dame Cathedral on Monday. Throngs of tourists and locals gathered nearby to watch and take images of a massive fire that engulfed parts of the 12th-century landmark. Paris fire commander Jean-Claude Gallet said hundreds of firefighters were able to stop the flames from spreading to the north tower belfry, and __________________________________. Ma or renovations were underway to address cracks in the foundation which inspectors think is the probable cause of the fire. The many works of art inside the cathedral include three stained-glass rose windows. A Catholic relic, the crown of thorns, was placed on display for Lent, which begins this week. “Like all our countrymen, I’m sad tonight to see this part of us burn,” French President Emmanuel Macron said in a tweet; however, he said that the cathedral will be rebuilt through a national fundraising campaign. ① stunned spectators watched in horror ② the cathedral had closed to the public ③ cracks had started to appear in the foundation ④ the structure was saved from total destruction ⑤ some of the artwork had not actually been removed 2019년도 9급 공개경쟁채용시험 영 어 책형 가 - 10 - 18. 대화의 흐름으로 보아 빈칸에 들어갈 가장 적절한 표현은? A: David, I am having a problem with reading this chart. B: What’s wrong? A: I think I understand latitude and longitude, but I do not fully understand minutes and seconds. B: Well, “minutes” and “seconds” mean something different in nautical terms. ____________________________. A: What do you mean? B: Well, a nautical minute measures distance. ① They are not the same as ordinary ones ② They use the various navigational techniques ③ They are different depending on how to use GPS ④ People have trained students to draw their own charts ⑤ People have used the different technology since early human history 19. 글의 흐름으로 보아, 주어진 문장이 들어가기에 가장 적절한 곳 은? For example, due to the distortion, a freely moving object that we would observe to move in a straight line would be observed by the goldfish to move along a curved path. The goldfish’s picture of reality is different from ours, but can we be sure it is less real? ① The goldfish view is not the same as our own, but goldfish could still formulate scientific laws governing the motion of the objects they observe outside their bowl. ② Nevertheless, the goldfish could formulate scientific laws from their distorted frame of reference that would always hold true and that would enable them to make predictions about the future motion of objects outside the bowl. ③ Their laws would be more complicated than the laws in our frame. ④ However, simplicity is a matter of taste. ⑤ If a goldfish formulated such a theory, we would have to admit the goldfish’s view as a valid picture of reality. 20. 다음 빈칸 (A)와 (B)에 들어갈 가장 적절한 단어는? The surge in (A) ____________ rhetoric around the world is being accompanied by a rise in the introduction of protectionist measures by the world’s leading economies, the World Trade Organization has warned. The WTO said in a report released on Tuesday that between mid-October of last year and mid-May of 2016 G20 economies had introduced new protectionist trade measures at the fastest pace seen since the 2008 financial crisis, rolling out the equivalent of five each week. That trend coincided with a slowdown in global trade now in its fifth year. Moreover, it was contributing to the persistent slow growth in the global economy, the WTO said, and the fact it was coinciding with a(n) (B) ____________ in protectionist political rhetoric around the world ought to be worrying. (A) (B) ① hostile plummet ② democratic embargo ③ emotional initiative ④ banal restraint ⑤ antitrade increase

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