2022 국회직 8급 영어 해설 장필립 (2022-05-25 / 410.6KB / 94회)
2022년도 8급 공개경쟁채용시험 영 어 책형 가- 1 - 영 어 1. Choose the one that is closest in meaning to the underlined word. People see themselves differently from how they see others. They are immersed in their own sensations, emotions, and cognitions at the same time that their experience of others is dominated by what can be observed externally. This distinction in the information that people possess when perceiving themselves versus others affects how people evaluate their own and others’ behavior. People often view their own actions as caused by situational constraints, while viewing others’ actions as caused by those others’ internal dispositions. An example would be a person arriving late for a job interview and ascribing that lateness to bad traffic while his interviewer attributed it to personal irresponsibility. ① abhorrences ② indemnities ③ inducements ④ infatuations ⑤ temperaments 2. Choose the one that is closest in meaning to the underlined expression. The details of the latest deal were hammered out by the US Secretary of State and his Russian counterpart. ① settled ② canceled ③ criticized ④ renounced ⑤ argued about 3. Which of the following is NOT grammatically correct? Two partial solar eclipses—when the moon ①blocks part of the solar disc in the sky—will occur in 2022. The first will bevisible in southern South America, parts of Antarctica, andover parts of the Pacific and the Southern Oceans. On April 30, the moon will pass between the Earth and the sun, withthe maximum eclipse ②occurring at 20:41 UTC* , when up to64 percent of the sun’s disc will be covered by the moon. Tosee the greatest extent of the eclipse, viewers will have to③position in the Southern Ocean, west of the AntarcticPeninsula. However, eclipse chasers in the southernmost partsof Chile and Argentina will be able to see around 60 percent of the sun ④blotted out by the moon. Protective eyewear isneeded to safely view all phases of a partial solar eclipse. Eventhough the sun may not appear as ⑤bright in the sky, staringat it directly can seriously injure your eyes. * UTC: Universal Time Coordinated 4. Which of the following best fits in the blanks (A) and (B)? “There! That’s the life we lead. It’s enough to make one cry. One works and does one’s utmost; one wears oneself out, getting no sleep at night, and racks one’s brain over what todo for the best. And then what happens? To begin with, thepublic is ignorant and (A)_______. I give them the very best operetta, a dainty masque and first-rate music-hall artists. But do you suppose that’s what they want? They don’t appreciateanything of that sort. They want a clown; what they ask for is (B)_______.” (A) (B) ① assiduous - popularity ② sensible - sensation ③ boorish - vulgarity ④ peculiar - intelligence ⑤ bragging - improvisation 2022년도 8급 공개경쟁채용시험 영 어 책형 가- 2 - 5. Which of the following is the most appropriate title of the passage? Fluid materials such as clay and finger paints are excellent media through which children can express anger as well as curiosity about body parts and functions. With clay, children can tear and pound harmlessly, and they can also create human figures that often have anatomically correct parts. With clay, sand, or blocks, they can be safely destructive and will learn that their own destructive impulses are not necessarily harmful and should not frighten them. Sometimes the pleasure of creating is enhanced by the anticipation of destroying what one has created. With dolls, children can create family scenes and explore family-related anxieties. If they are allowed to communicate freely when using hand puppets, children can reveal some of their innermost feelings, in actions or words, since it is not they but the puppets who are communicating. Adults need to exert control over the behavior of young children, so they must place restrictions on free expression with materials. For example, clay can be pounded, pulled apart, or squashed but should not be thrown at the wall or at other children. However, adults should try to remember that if they are overly restrictive, the play will lose some of its emotional value for children. They should also realize that even a young child can make a distinction between knocking over a block structure that he or she has created and knocking over the furniture in the classroom. ① Various Kinds of Fluid Materials ② Individual Differences in Play ③ The Influence of Culture on Play ④ Developing Expressivity through Play ⑤ Pros and Cons of Using Fluid Materials in Play 6. Which of the following is the most logical sequence to completethe passage? The “lessons-of-history” is indeed a familiar phrase, somuch so that the lessons are sometimes learned too well. History never repeats itself exactly; no historical situation isthe same as any other; even two like events differ in that thefirst has no precedent, while the second has. But even in thisrespect, history can teach a lesson—namely that nothing ever stays the same. The only unchanging thing in human affairsis the constancy of change itself. The process of history isunique, but nonetheless intelligible. Each situation and event isdistinct, but each is connected to all the foregoing and succeedingones by a complex web of cause and effect, probability andaccident. (A) The unique present, just as each unique point in the past, isutterly unintelligible unless we understand the history of how it came to be. While history is a record of uniquehappenings, it is something more than chaos. (B) The present may be the consequence of accidents, or of irresistible forces, but in either case the present consequencesof past events are real and irreversible. (C) To perceive the elements of order in the chaotic record of past events is the great task of the historian. Events, people, groups and institutions fall into certain classes that exhibit at least partial regularities. ① (A)-(C)-(B) ② (B)-(A)-(C) ③ (B)-(C)-(A) ④ (C)-(A)-(B) ⑤ (C)-(B)-(A) 2022년도 8급 공개경쟁채용시험 영 어 책형 가- 3 - 7. According to the passage, which of the following would NOT be considered a transactive memory source? Search engines have changed the way we use the Internet, putting vast sources of information just a few clicks away. But a recent study shows that websites—and the Internet—are changing much more than technology itself. They are changing the way our memories function. Dr. Wegner’s latest study, “Google Effects on Memory: Cognitive Consequences of Having Information at Our Fingertips,” shows that when people have access to search engines, they remember fewer facts and less information because they know they can rely on “search” as a readily available shortcut. Wegner believes the new findings show that the Internet has become part of a transactive memory source, a method by which our brains compartmentalize information. First hypothesized by Wegner in 1985, transactive memory exists in many forms, as when a husband relies on his wife to remember a relative’s birthday. “It is this whole network of memory where you don’t have to remember everything in the world yourself,” he says. “You just have to remember who knows it.” Now computers and technology as well are becoming virtual extensions of our memory. ① Reminder apps that notify you of upcoming events ② A photo album of your childhood ③ GPS devices that help you find your way with saved routes ④ A written list of your passwords for different websites ⑤ Cell phones with your contact list 8. Which of the following is true according to the passage? It may happen that someone gets away, apparently unharmed, from the spot where he has suffered a shocking accident, for instance, a train collision. In the course of the following weeks, however, he develops a series of grave psychical and motor symptoms, which can be ascribed only to his shock or whatever else happened at the time of the accident. He has developed a “traumatic neurosis.” This appears quite incomprehensible and is therefore a novel fact. The time that elapsed between the accident and the first appearance of the symptoms is called the “incubation period,” a transparent allusion to the pathology of infectious disease. It is the feature one might term latency. ① The recurrence of suffering after a shocking accident is a well-known fact. ② A “traumatic neurosis” appears when one is infected by a virus. ③ The term latency does not have any relation to infectious disease. ④ A “traumatic neurosis” refers to the shock one feels right after an accident. ⑤ Latency refers to the period when the impact of the shocking events remains dormant. 9. Which of the following best fits in the blank? Being present to another person—a sustained, caring attention—can be seen as a basic form of compassion. Careful attentionto another person also enhances empathy, letting us catch moreof the fleeting facial expressions and other such cues that attune us to how that person actually feels in the moment. But if our attention “blinks,” . ① we may be more attentive to the person ② our empathy will be enhanced ③ we are less attuned to the behavior of the person ④ we may miss those signals ⑤ we do feel apathy for the person 10. Which of the following is NOT grammatically correct? “Love yourself and recognize the common humanity in theexperience,” says researcher David Sbarra. This is called“self-compassion.” People who express feelings of lovingthemselves ①and who recognize they are not alone and other people have felt what they feel have more resilience whendealing with a breakup. You know how ②frustrating it iswhen you’re freaked out and someone tells you to “relax.”That’s part of the problem with learning self-compassion after a breakup. Anxiety will keep you away from breaking throughto being kind and loving with yourself, but you can’t forceyourself away from the anxiety, and you certainly can’t beat yourself up further. Personality plays a big part in howyoureact, and ③women tending to handle it with more self-compassionthan men. Be kinder to yourself after a breakup, keeping your experience in perspective. Many people experience a painful anddifficult breakup, and you’re not alone. A breakup is part of the human experience, and ④realizing you are a part of acollective can help shift your perception to a healthier place. Dr. Sbarra also recommends ⑤remaining mindful, and in thepresent. Notice when you feel anger or jealousy, and accept and release it—don’t judge it, even if you struggle with releasingit. 2022년도 8급 공개경쟁채용시험 영 어 책형 가- 4 - 11. Which of the following best fits in the blanks (A) and (B)? Yet the paradox is that scientific methodology is the product of human hands and thus cannot reach some permanent truth. We build scientific theories to organize and manipulate the world, to reduce phenomena into manageable units. Science is based on reproducibility and manufactured objectivity. As strong as that makes its ability to generate claims about matter and energy, it also makes scientific knowledge (A)_________ to the existential, visceral nature or human life, which is unique and subjective and unpredictable. Science may provide the most useful way to organize empirical, reproducible data, but its power to do so is predicated on its (B)_________ to grasp the most central aspects of human life: hope, fear, love, hate, beauty, envy, honor, weakness, striving, suffering, virtue, etc. (A) (B) ① inapplicable - inability ② irrelevant - loathing ③ comparable - remnant ④ integral - mundanity ⑤ conform - merits 12. Which of the following is NOT grammatically correct? The capability ①to form memory is critical to the strategic adaptation of an organism ②to changing environmental demands. Observations ③indicating that sleep benefits memory ④date back to the beginning of experimental memory research, and since then ⑤has been fitted with quite different concepts. 13. Which of the following is NOT used appropriately in the context?For years, critics have argued about the ancient Greek playOedipus Rex. Some have argued that Oedipus knows nothingof his guilt until the end of the play, when it is revealed that he murdered his own father. Others have insisted that Oedipusis aware all along of his ①guilt. According to this point of view, Oedipus, the brilliant solver of riddles, could not possiblyhave ②ignored the mounting evidence that he was themurderer of the king. Just how or why this debate has ragedfor so many years remains a mystery. The correct interpretationis so obvious. Oedipus knows from the beginning that he is③innocent. He just pretends to be ignorant of the truth. For example, when a servant tells the story of the king’s murder, he uses the word ‘bandits.’ But when Oedipus repeats hisstory, he uses the ④singular form ‘bandit.’ Sophocles providesclues like this one all the way through the play. Thus, it’shard to understand why anyone would think that Oedipus didnot know the truth about his ⑤crime. 14. Choose the one that is closest in meaning to the underlinedword. Is talent a bad thing? Are we all equally talented? No andno. The ability to quickly climb the learning curve of any skill is obviously a very good thing, and, like it or not, some of usare better at it than others. So why, then, is it such a badthing to favor “naturals” over “strivers”? What’s the downsideof television shows like America’s Got Talent, The X Factor, and Child Genius? Why shouldn’t we separate children asyoung as seven or eight into two groups: those few childrenwho are “gifted and talented” and the many, many more whoaren’t? What harm is there, really, in a talent showbeingnamed a “talent show”? In my view, the biggest reason apreoccupation with talent can be harmful is simple: By shiningour spotlight on talent, we risk leaving everything else in theshadows. We inadvertently send the message that these other factors—including grit—don’t matter as much as they really do. ① deliberately ② incoherently ③ concomitantly ④ surreptitiously ⑤ unintentionally 2022년도 8급 공개경쟁채용시험 영 어 책형 가- 5 - 15. Which of the following is NOT grammatically correct? If AI is given more agency and takes over what humans used to do, ①how do we then attribute moral responsibility? Who is responsible for the harms and benefits of the technology when humans delegate agency and decisions to AI? The first problem is that an AI system can take actions and make decisions that have ethical consequences, but is not aware of what it does and not capable of moral thought and ②hence cannot hold morally responsible for what it does. Machines can be agents but not moral agents ③since they lack consciousness, free will, emotions, the capability to form intentions, and the like. For example, on an Aristotelian view, only humans can perform voluntary actions and deliberate about their actions. If this is true, the only solution is to make humans responsible for what the machine does. ④Humans then delegate agency to the machine, but retain the responsibility. However, this solution faces several problems. An AI system may make its decisions and actions very quickly, for example, in high-frequency trading or in a self-driving car, ⑤which gives the human too little time to make the final decision or to intervene. How can humans take responsibility for such actions and decisions? 16. Which of the following best fits in the blank? People rely on to be “normal”—amounts that are typical, expected, and not unusual. Normal rain and snow melt are necessary for consistent agriculture, to feed Earth’s 7.3 billion humans. All plants and animals are adapted to a normal amount of moisture for their environment. However, “normal” does not always happen. ① circulation ② precipitation ③ sewage ④ drought ⑤ irrigation 17. What is the passage mainly about? Trying new things requires a willingness to take risks. However, risk taking is not binary. I’d bet that you’recomfortable taking some types of risk and find other typesquite uncomfortable. You might not even see the risks that arecomfortable for you to take, discounting their riskiness, but arelikely to amplify the risk of things that make you moreanxious. For example, you might love flying down a ski slopeat lightning speed or jumping out of airplanes, and don’t viewthese activities as risky. If so, you’re blind to the fact that you’re taking on significant physical risks. Others, like me whoare not physical risk takers, would rather sip hot chocolate inthe ski lodge or buckle themselves tightly into their airplaneseats. Alternately, you might feel perfectly comfortable withsocial risks, such as giving a speech to a large crowd. Thisdoesn’t seem risky at all to me. But others, who might beperfectly happy jumping out of a plane, would never think togive a toast at a party. ① Taking both physical and social risks benefits us. ② We should separate risk into two categories: physical risk andsocial risk. ③ Taking physical risks poses a great challenge to the author. ④ Perception of riskiness differs from person to person. ⑤ The willingness to take risks is a prerequisite for success. 18. Which of the following best fits in the blanks (A), (B), and (C)?All I could do was to offer you an opinion upon one minor point—a woman must have money and a room of her own if she is to write fiction. I am going to develop in your presenceas fully and freely as I can the train of thought which led meto think so. Perhaps if I lay bare the ideas, the prejudices, that lie behind this statement, you will find that they have some(A)_______ upon women and some upon fiction. At any rate, when a subject is highly controversial—and any question about sex is that—one cannot hope to tell the truth. One can onlyshow how one came to hold whatever opinion one does hold. One can only give one’s audience the chance of (B)_______ their own conclusions as they observe the limitations, the prejudicesand the idiosyncrasies of the speaker. Fiction here is likely tocontain more truth than fact. Therefore, I propose, making useof all the liberties and (C)_______ of a novelist, to tell you thestory of the two days that preceded my coming here. (A) (B) (C) ① bearing - drawing - licenses ② relieving - writing - imaginations ③ showing - drowning - creativities ④ relevance - throwing - obligations ⑤ giving - collecting - jobs 2022년도 8급 공개경쟁채용시험 영 어 책형 가- 6 - 19. Which of the following is true according to the passage? Have human beings permanently changed the planet? That seemingly simple question has sparked a new battle between geologists and environmental advocates over what to call the time period we live in. According to the International Union of Geological Sciences, we are officially in the Holocene epoch, which began 11,700 years ago after the last major ice age. But that label is outdated, some experts say. They argue for “Anthropocene”—from anthropo, for “man,” and cene, for “new”—because humankind has caused mass extinctions of plant and animal species, polluted the oceans and altered the atmosphere, among other lasting impacts. However, many stratigraphers (scientists who study rock layers) criticize the idea, saying clear-cut evidence for a new epoch simply isn’t there. According to them, when we start naming geologic-time terms, we need to define what exactly the boundary is, where it appears in the rock strata. Anthropocene is more about pop culture than hard science. The crucial question is specifying exactly when human beings began to leave their mark on the planet: The atomic era, for instance, has left traces of radiation in soils around the globe, while deeper down in the rock strata, agriculture’s signature in Europe can be detected as far back as 900 A.D. The “Anthropocene,” a stratigrapher says, “provides eye-catching jargon, but from the geologic side, I need the bare-bones facts that fit the code.” Some Anthropocene proponents concede that difficulty. But don’t get bogged down in the mud, they say, just stipulate a date and move on. Will Steffen, who heads Australia National University’s Climate Change Institute, says that the new name sends a message: “It will be another strong reminder to the general public that we are now having undeniable impacts on the environment at the scale of the planet as a whole, so much so that a new geological epoch has begun.” ① The geologists do not want the environmentalists to have an edge over them by favoring the action of renaming the time period. ② The stratigraphers need to consider the culture in renaming the time period of the Earth. ③ The environmental advocates believe that human beings will get aware of their rampant activities which cause destruction if the time period of the Earth is renamed. ④ The geologists believe that the changes caused by human beings have been going on for a short time. ⑤ Some Anthropocene proponents agree with stratigraphers that it is difficult to find samples in the mud. 20. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage? Many people around the world work to consider consumer ethics and make ethical consumer choices in their everydaylives in response to the troubling conditions that plague global supply chains and the human-made climate crisis. In a systemof consumer signs, those who make the ethical choice topurchase fair trade, organic, locally grown and sustainablegoods are also often seen as morally superior to those whodon’t know, or don’t care to make these kinds of purchases. Inthe landscape of consumer goods, being an ethical consumer awards one with heightened cultural capital and a higher social status in relation to other consumers. For example, buyingahybrid vehicle signals to others that one is concerned about environmental issues, and neighbors passing by the car in thedriveway might even view the car’s owner more positively. However, someone who can’t afford to replace their 20-year-oldcar may care about the environment just as much, but theywould be unable to demonstrate this through their patterns of consumption. It is likely that those they encounter will assumethem to be poor and undereducated. They may experiencedisrespect and disregard on a daily basis, despite howtheybehave toward others. ① Someone who does not replace his polluting diesel car withahybrid model is not an ethical consumer. ② What we buy is often related to our cultural and educational capital, and consumption patterns can reinforce existing social hierarchies. ③ Increasing consumption of goods is a desirable goal of anethical consumer. ④ Consumption is the means of practicing a truly ethical life. ⑤ People with more cultural capital are likely to be morallysuperior to those with low levels of cultural capital. 2022년도 8급 공개경쟁채용시험 영 어 책형 가- 7 - 21. Which of the following best fits in the blank? Inventing Eastern Europe was a project of philosophical and geographical synthesis carried out by the men and women of the Enlightenment. Obviously, the lands of Eastern Europe were not in themselves invented or fictitious; those lands and the people who lived in them were always quite real, and did indeed lie relatively to the east of other lands that lay relatively to the west. The project of invention was not merely a matter of endowing those real lands with invented or mythological attributes, though such endowment certainly flourished in the eighteenth century. The Enlightenment's accounts were not flatly false or fictitious; on the contrary, in an age of increasingly ambitious traveling and more critical observation, those lands were more frequently visited and thoroughly studied than ever before. The work of invention lay in the synthetic association of lands, which drew upon both fact and fiction, to produce the general rubric of Eastern Europe. That rubric represented an aggregation of general and associative observations over a diverse domain of lands and peoples. It is in that sense that Eastern Europe is a cultural construction, that is, of the Enlightenment. ① a fictitious idea ② an unconscious projection ③ a geographical mapping ④ an intellectual invention ⑤ a delirious dream 22. Where does the given sentence best fit in the passage? Humans have symbolic language, elaborate social and political institutions, codes of law, literature and art, ethics, and religion; humans build roads and cities, travel by motorcars, ships, and airplanes, and communicate by means of telephones, computers, and televisions. Chimpanzees are the closest relatives of Homo sapiens, our species. (A) There is a precise correspondence bone by bone between the skeletons of a chimpanzee and a human. Humans bear young like apes and other mammals. (B) Humans have organs and limbs similar to birds, reptiles, and amphibians; these similarities reflect the common evolutionary origin of vertebrates. (C) However, it does not take much reflection to notice the distinct uniqueness of our species. (D) Conspicuous anatomical differences between humans and apes include bipedal gait and an enlarged brain. Much more conspicuous than the anatomical differences are the distinct behaviors and institutions. (E) ① (A) ② (B) ③ (C) ④ (D) ⑤ (E) 23. Which of the following is NOT grammatically correct? If you’re not into sport, you’re probably planning to avoiduniversity sports teams like the plague, ①determined to avoidreliving the horrible memories of sports classes in school ②etching in your memory. Don’t rule out ③playing sports at university at some level, though. Not only are there a vast array of possible sports to play at university, but there arealso a wide range of ability levels, ④catering for everyonefrom the very sporty to the complete novice. If you do find asports club that suits you, here are some of the ways it will improve your university experience and not just by ⑤helpingyou work off last night’s pizza. 24. Which of the following is the most appropriate title of thepassage? Identifying sleep patterns is difficult due to the lack of regular, high quality surveys. A 2004 study, however, foundthat average sleep duration is 7 hours, with two-thirds of thepeople surveyed sleeping 5.5-8.5 hours per night. About a thirdreported at least one episode of difficulty sleeping on amajority of nights. Whether sleep duration has decreased ishard to determine. According to one study (1983-2005), average adult sleep duration increased by 50 minutes, theprevalence of short sleep (less than 6 hours) decreased from15% to 10%, and the prevalence of long sleep (greater than 9hours) increased from 16% to 28%. Evidence on trends inchildren’s sleep is inconclusive. However, a more recent studyfound that children’s sleep increased by about 1 hour over thepast century. Even if sleep has not worsened, expertsemphasize that insufficient sleep duration is an important public health issue. ① Are We Really Sleep-Deprived? ② How are Sleep Disorders Diagnosed? ③ What are the Different Types of Sleep Disorders? ④ Why Do We Need Sufficient Sleep? ⑤ What are the Consequences of Sleep Deprivation? 2022년도 8급 공개경쟁채용시험 영 어 책형 가- 8 - 25. Which of the following does NOT fit in the passage? Cartography is both a highly technical and a somewhat artistic pursuit, combining the tools of mathematics and engineering with those of graphic design. ①Maps should be accurate, portraying matter as it really exists rather than as distorted, improperly located, or mislabeled information. They should be visually easy to use, prominently displaying the material a user needs without clutter from unnecessary information. ②This is why road maps, for example, usually do not show mountains and hills except in the simplest ways. ③Until the 1970s, most maps were being drawn with ink pens and rulers, but now they are composed on computers and printed by machine. To do so would add many extra lines to a map that is already filled with lines representing roads. ④In converting geographic data from their original form on Earth’s surface to a simplified form on a map, we must make many decisions about how this information should be represented. ⑤No matter how we draw a map, we cannot possibly make it show the world exactly as it is in all its detail, nor would we want it to. Scale and projection are two fundamental properties of maps that determine how information is portrayed.