스터디 영어-A.pdf 영어-C.pdf 영어-나.pdf 영어-마.pdf 2017 국가직 9급 영어 해설 김범재.pdf 2017 국가직 9급 영어 해설 김성익.pdf 2017 국가직 9급 영어 해설 김세현.pdf 2017 국가직 9급 영어 해설 김신주.pdf 2017 국가직 9급 영어 해설 김재운.pdf 2017 국가직 9급 영어 해설 강수정.pdf 2017 국가직 9급 영어 해설 김종주.pdf 2017 국가직 9급 영어 해설 김한상.pdf 2017 국가직 9급 영어 해설 김형구.pdf 2017 국가직 9급 영어 해설 손진숙.pdf 2017 국가직 9급 영어 해설 박철우.pdf 2017 국가직 9급 영어 해설 성정혜.pdf 2017 국가직 9급 영어 해설 윤정호.pdf 2017 국가직 9급 영어 해설 이동기.pdf 2017 국가직 9급 영어 해설 이충권.pdf 2017 국가직 9급 영어 해설 이리라.pdf 2017 국가직 9급 영어 해설 이영규.pdf 2017 국가직 9급 영어 해설 이영신.pdf 2017 국가직 9급 영어 해설 잇올.pdf 2017 국가직 9급 영어 해설 장서영.pdf 2017 국가직 9급 영어 해설 정수현.pdf 2017 국가직 9급 영어 해설 정일현.pdf 2017 국가직 9급 영어 해설 조태정.pdf 2017 국가직 9급 영어 해설 최호철.pdf 2017 국가직 9급 영어 해설 한덕현.pdf 2017 국가직 9급 영어 해설 헤더진.pdf 영 어 A 책형 1 쪽 영 어 ※ 밑줄 친 부분과 의미가 가장 가까운 것을 고르시오. [문 1 ～ 문 2] 문 1. I absolutely detested the idea of staying up late at night. ① defended ② abhorred ③ confirmed ④ abandoned 문 2. I had an uncanny feeling that I had seen this scene somewhere before. ① odd ② ongoing ③ obvious ④ offensive ※ 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. [문 3～문 4] 문 3. A : May I help you? B : I bought this dress two days ago, but it's a bit big for me. A : ______________________________________________ B : Then I'd like to get a refund. A : May I see your receipt, please? B : Here you are. ① I'm sorry, but there's no smaller size. ② I feel like it fits you perfectly, though. ③ That dress sells really well in our store. ④ I'm sorry, but this purchase can't be refunded. 문 4. A : Every time I use this home blood pressure monitor, I get a different reading. I think I'm doing it wrong. Can you show me how to use it correctly? B : Yes, of course. First, you have to put the strap around your arm. A : Like this? Am I doing this correctly? B : That looks a little too tight. A : Oh, how about now? B : Now it looks a bit too loose. If it's too tight or too loose, you'll get an incorrect reading. A : __________________________________ B : Press the button now. You shouldn't move or speak. A : I get it. B : You should see your blood pressure on the screen in a few moments. ① I didn't see anything today. ② Oh, okay. What do I do next? ③ Right, I need to read the book. ④ Should I check out their website? 문 5. 어법상 옳은 것은? ① They didn't believe his story, and neither did I. ② The sport in that I am most interested is soccer. ③ Jamie learned from the book that World War I had broken out in 1914. ④ Two factors have made scientists difficult to determine the number of species on Earth. 문 6. 어법상 옳지 않은 것은? ① A few words caught in passing set me thinking. ② Hardly did she enter the house when someone turned on the light. ③ We drove on to the hotel, from whose balcony we could look down at the town. ④ The homeless usually have great difficulty getting a job, so they are losing their hope. ※ 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. [문 7～문 9] 문 7. Why might people hovering near the poverty line be more likely to help their fellow humans? Part of it, Keltner thinks, is that poor people must often band together to make it through tough times ― a process that probably makes them more socially astute. He says, "When you face uncertainty, it makes you orient to other people. You build up these strong social networks." When a poor young mother has a new baby, for instance, she may need help securing food, supplies, and childcare, and if she has healthy social times, members of her community will pitch in. But limited income is hardly a prerequisite for developing this kind of empathy and social responsiveness. Regardless of the size of our bank accounts, suffering becomes a conduit to altruism or heroism when our own pain compels us to be ____________________ other people's needs and to intervene when we see someone in the clutches of the kind of suffering we know so well. ① less involved in ② less preoccupied with ③ more attentive to ④ more indifferent to 문 8. The Soleil department store outlet in Shanghai would seem to have all the amenities necessary to succeed in modern Chinese retail: luxury brands and an exclusive location. Despite these advantages, however, the store's management thought it was still missing something to attract customers. So next week they're unveiling a gigantic, twisting, dragon-shaped slide that shoppers can use to drop from fifth-floor luxury boutiques to first-floor luxury boutiques in death-defying seconds. Social media users are wondering, half-jokingly, whether the slide will kill anyone. But Soleil has a different concern that Chinese shopping malls will go away completely. Chinese shoppers, once seemingly in endless supply, are no longer turning up at brick-and-mortar outlets because of the growing online shopping, and they still go abroad to buy luxury goods. So, repurposing these massive spaces for consumers who have other ways to spend their time and money is likely to require a lot of creativity. ___________________________________________. ① Luxury brands are thriving at Soleil ② Soleil has decided against making bold moves ③ Increasing the online customer base may be the last hope ④ A five-story dragon slide may not be a bad place to start 영 어 A 책형 2 쪽 문 9. It is easy to devise numerous possible scenarios of future developments, each one, on the face of it, equally likely. The difficult task is to know which will actually take place. In hindsight, it usually seems obvious. When we look back in time, each event seems clearly and logically to follow from previous events. Before the event occurs, however, the number of possibilities seems endless. There are no methods for successful prediction, especially in areas involving complex social and technological changes, where many of the determining factors are not known and, in any event, are certainly not under any single group's control. Nonetheless, it is essential to _______________________________________________. We do know that new technologies will bring both dividends and problems, especially human, social problems. The more we try to anticipate these problems, the better we can control them. ① work out reasonable scenarios for the future ② legitimize possible dividends from future changes ③ leave out various aspects of technological problems ④ consider what it would be like to focus on the present 문 10. 다음 글의 내용과 일치하는 것은? Taste buds got their name from the nineteenth-century German scientists Georg Meissner and Rudolf Wagner, who discovered mounds made up of taste cells that overlap like petals. Taste buds wear out every week to ten days, and we replace them, although not as frequently over the age of forty-five: our palates really do become jaded as we get older. It takes a more intense taste to produce the same level of sensation, and children have the keenest sense of taste. A baby's mouth has many more taste buds than an adult's, with some even dotting the cheeks. Children adore sweets partly because the tips of their tongues, more sensitive to sugar, haven't yet been blunted by trying to eat hot soup before it cools. ① Taste buds were invented in the nineteenth century. ② Replacement of taste buds does not slow down with age. ③ Children have more sensitive palates than adults. ④ The sense of taste declines by eating cold soup. 문 11. 밑줄 친 부분과 의미가 가장 가까운 것은? At this company, we will not put up with such behavior. ① modify ② record ③ tolerate ④ evaluate 문 12. 밑줄 친 부분 중 의미상 옳지 않은 것은? ① I'm going to take over his former position. ② I can't take on any more work at the moment. ③ The plane couldn't take off because of the heavy fog. ④ I can't go out because I have to take after my baby sister. 문 13. 다음 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은? Drama is doing. Drama is being. Drama is such a normal thing. It is something that we all engage in every day when faced with difficult situations. You get up in the morning with a bad headache or an attack of depression, yet you face the day and cope with other people, pretending that nothing is wrong. You have an important meeting or an interview coming up, so you talk through the issues with yourself beforehand and decide how to present a confident, cheerful face, what to wear, what to do with your hands, and so on. You've spilt coffee over a colleague's papers, and immediately you prepare an elaborate excuse. Your partner has just run off with your best friend, yet you cannot avoid going in to teach a class of inquisitive students. Getting on with our day-to-day lives requires a series of civilized masks if we are to maintain our dignity and live in harmony with others. ① Dysfunctions of Drama ② Drama in Our Daily Lives ③ Drama as a Theatrical Art ④ Dramatic Changes in Emotions 문 14. 다음 글의 요지로 가장 적절한 것은? How on earth will it help the poor if governments try to strangle globalization by stemming the flow of trade, information, and capital ― the three components of the global economy? That disparities between rich and poor are still too great is undeniable. But it is just not true that economic growth benefits only the rich and leaves out the poor, as the opponents of globalization and the market economy would have us believe. A recent World Bank study entitled "Growth Is Good for the Poor" reveals a one-for-one relationship between income of the bottom fifth of the population and per capita GDP. In other words, incomes of all sectors grow proportionately at the same rate. The study notes that openness to foreign trade benefits the poor to the same extent that it benefits the whole economy. ① Globalization deepens conflicts between rich and poor. ② The global economy grows at the expense of the poor. ③ Globalization can be beneficial regardless of one's economic status. ④ Governments must control the flow of trade to revive the economy. ※ 우리말을 영어로 잘못 옮긴 것을 고르시오. [문 15 ～ 문 16] 문 15. ① 이 편지를 받는 대로 곧 본사로 와 주십시오. → Please come to the headquarters as soon as you receive this letter. ② 나는 소년 시절에 독서하는 버릇을 길러 놓았어야만 했다. → I ought to have formed a habit of reading in my boyhood. ③ 그는 10년 동안 외국에 있었기 때문에 영어를 매우 유창하게 말할 수 있다. → Having been abroad for ten years, he can speak English very fluently. ④ 내가 그때 그 계획을 포기했었다면 이렇게 훌륭한 성과를 얻지 못했을 것이다. → Had I given up the project at that time, I should have achieved such a splendid result. 영 어 A 책형 3 쪽 문 16. ① 그 회의 후에야 그는 금융 위기의 심각성을 알아차렸다. → Only after the meeting did he recognize the seriousness of the financial crisis. ② 장관은 교통문제를 해결하기 위해 강 위에 다리를 건설해야 한다고 주장했다. → The minister insisted that a bridge be constructed over the river to solve the traffic problem. ③ 비록 그 일이 어려운 것이었지만, Linda는 그것을 끝내기 위해 최선을 다했다. → As difficult a task as it was, Linda did her best to complete it. ④ 그는 문자 메시지에 너무 정신이 팔려서 제한속도보다 빠르게 달리고 있다는 것을 몰랐다. → He was so distracted by a text message to know that he was going over the speed limit. 문 17. 빈칸 (A), (B)에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? The amount of information gathered by the eyes as contrasted with the ears has not been precisely calculated. Such a calculation not only involves a translation process, but scientists have been handicapped by lack of knowledge of what to count. A general notion, however, of the relative complexities of the two systems can be obtained by (A) the size of the nerves connecting the eyes and the ears to the centers of the brain. Since the optic nerve contains roughly eighteen times as many neurons as the cochlear nerve, we assume it transmits at least that much more information. Actually, in normally alert subjects, it is probable that the eyes may be as much as a thousand times as effective as the ears in (B) information. ＊cochlear : 달팽이관의 (A) (B) ① adding clearing up ② adding disseminating ③ comparing reducing ④ comparing sweeping up 문 18. 글의 흐름상 가장 어색한 문장은? Children's book awards have proliferated in recent years; today, there are well over 100 different awards and prizes by a variety of organizations. ① The awards may be given for books of a specific genre or simply for the best of all children's books published within a given time period. An award may honor a particular book or an author for a lifetime contribution to the world of children's literature. ② Most children's book awards are chosen by adults, but now a growing number of children's choice book awards exist. The larger national awards given in most countries are the most influential and have helped considerably to raise public awareness about the fine books being published for young readers. ③ An award ceremony for outstanding services to the publishing industry is put on hold. ④Of course, readers are wise not to put too much faith in award-winning books. An award doesn't necessarily mean a good reading experience, but it does provide a starting place when choosing books. 문 19. 주어진 문장이 들어갈 위치로 가장 적절한 곳은? This inequality is corrected by their getting in their turn better portions from kills by other people. Let us examine a situation of simple distribution such as occurs when an animal is killed in a hunt. One might expect to find the animal portioned out according to the amount of work done by each hunter to obtain it. ( ① ) To some extent this principle is followed, but other people have their rights as well. ( ② ) Each person in the camp gets a share depending upon his or her relation to the hunters. ( ③ ) When a kangaroo is killed, for example, the hunters have to give its main parts to their kinfolk and the worst parts may even be kept by the hunters themselves. ( ④ ) The net result in the long run is substantially the same to each person, but through this system the principles of kinship obligation and the morality of sharing food have been emphasized. 문 20. 주어진 글 다음에 이어질 글의 순서로 가장 적절한 것은? The most innovative of the group therapy approaches was psychodrama, the brainchild of Jacob L. Moreno. Psychodrama as a form of group therapy started with premises that were quite alien to the Freudian worldview that mental illness essentially occurs within the psyche or mind. (A) But he also believed that creativity is rarely a solitary process but something brought out by social interactions. He relied heavily on theatrical techniques, including role-playing and improvisation, as a means to promote creativity and general social trust. (B) Despite his theoretical difference from the mainstream viewpoint, Moreno's influence in shaping psychological consciousness in the twentieth century was considerable. He believed that the nature of human beings is to be creative and that living a creative life is the key to human health and well-being. (C) His most important theatrical tool was what he called role reversal ― asking participants to take on another's persona. The act of pretending "as if" one were in another's skin was designed to help bring out the empathic impulse and to develop it to higher levels of expression. ① (A) － (C) － (B) ② (B) － (A) － (C) ③ (B) － (C) － (A) ④ (C) － (B) － (A)
영어-2.pdf 영어-4.pdf 2016 국가직 9급 영어 해설 김영국.pdf 2016 국가직 9급 영어 해설 김정연.pdf 2016 국가직 9급 영어 해설 성기건.pdf 2016 국가직 9급 영어 해설 성정혜.pdf 2016 국가직 9급 영어 해설 손재석.pdf 2016 국가직 9급 영어 해설 김민수.pdf 2016 국가직 9급 영어 해설 김신주.pdf 2016 국가직 9급 영어 해설 김태은.pdf 2016 국가직 9급 영어 해설 박지나.pdf 2016 국가직 9급 영어 해설 서병석.pdf 2016 국가직 9급 영어 해설 손진숙.pdf 2016 국가직 9급 영어 해설 오동훈.pdf 2016 국가직 9급 영어 해설 이동기.pdf 2016 국가직 9급 영어 해설 이리라.pdf 2016 국가직 9급 영어 해설 이영규.pdf 2016 국가직 9급 영어 해설 이충권.pdf 2016 국가직 9급 영어 해설 장서영.pdf 2016 국가직 9급 영어 해설 장종재.pdf 2016 국가직 9급 영어 해설 한덕현.pdf 2016 국가직 9급 영어 해설 헤더진.pdf 영 어 2 책형 1 쪽 영 어 문 1. 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? The campaign to eliminate pollution will prove ________ unless it has the understanding and full cooperation of the public. ① enticing ② enhanced ③ fertile ④ futile 문 2. 밑줄 친 부분과 의미가 가장 가까운 것은? Up to now, newspaper articles have only scratched the surface of this tremendously complex issue. ① superficially dealt with ② hit the nail on the head of ③ seized hold of ④ positively followed up on ※ 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. [문 3～문 4] 문 3. A : I'd like to get a refund for this tablecloth I bought here yesterday. B : Is there a problem with the tablecloth? A : It doesn't fit our table and I would like to return it. Here is my receipt. B : I'm sorry, but this tablecloth was a final sale item, and it cannot be refunded. A : ______________________________________ B : It's written at the bottom of the receipt. ① Nobody mentioned that to me. ② Where is the price tag? ③ What's the problem with it? ④ I got a good deal on it. 문 4. A : Hello? Hi, Stephanie. I'm on my way to the office. Do you need anything? B : Hi, Luke. Can you please pick up extra paper for the printer? A : What did you say? Did you say to pick up ink for the printer? Sorry, ________________________________ B : Can you hear me now? I said I need more paper for the printer. A : Can you repeat that, please? B : Never mind. I'll text you. A : Okay. Thanks, Stephanie. See you soon. ① My phone has really bad reception here. ② I couldn't pick up more paper. ③ I think I've dialed the wrong number. ④ I'll buy each item separately this time. 문 5. 우리말을 영어로 잘못 옮긴 것은? ① 나의 이모는 파티에서 그녀를 만난 것을 기억하지 못했다. → My aunt didn't remember meeting her at the party. ② 나의 첫 책을 쓰는 데 40년이 걸렸다. → It took me 40 years to write my first book. ③ 학교에서 집으로 걸어오고 있을 때 강풍에 내 우산이 뒤집혔다. → A strong wind blew my umbrella inside out as I was walking home from school. ④ 끝까지 생존하는 생물은 가장 강한 생물도, 가장 지적인 생물도 아니고, 변화에 가장 잘 반응하는 생물이다. → It is not the strongest of the species, nor the most intelligent, or the one most responsive to change that survives to the end. 문 6. 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은? After analyzing a mass of data on job interview results, a research team discovered a surprising reality. Did the likelihood of being hired depend on qualifications? Or was it work experience? In fact, it was neither. It was just one important factor: did the candidate appear to be a pleasant person. Those candidates who had managed to ingratiate themselves were very likely to be offered a position; they had charmed their way to success. Some had made a special effort to smile and maintain eye contact. Others had praised the organization. This positivity had convinced the interviewers that such pleasant and socially skilled applicants would fit well into the workplace, and so should be offered a job. ① To Get a Job, Be a Pleasant Person ② More Qualifications Bring Better Chances ③ It Is Ability That Counts, Not Personality ④ Show Yourself As You Are at an Interview 문 7. 글의 내용과 일치하지 않는 것은? Most writers lead double lives. They earn good money at legitimate professions, and carve out time for their writing as best they can: early in the morning, late at night, weekends, vacations. William Carlos Williams and Louis-Ferdinand Céline were doctors. Wallace Stevens worked for an insurance company. T.S. Elliot was a banker, then a publisher. Don DeLilo, Peter Carey, Salman Rushdie, and Elmore Leonard all worked for long stretches in advertising. Other writers teach. That is probably the most common solution today, and with every major university and college offering so-called creative writing courses, novelists and poets are continually scratching and scrambling to land themselves a spot. Who can blame them? The salaries might not be big, but the work is steady and the hours are good. ① Some writers struggle for teaching positions to teach creative writing courses. ② As a doctor, William Carlos Williams tried to find the time to write. ③ Teaching is a common way for writers to make a living today. ④ Salman Rushdie worked briefly in advertising with great triumph. 영 어 2 책형 2 쪽 문 8. 글의 흐름상 가장 어색한 문장은? One of the largest celebrations of the passage of young girls into womanhood occurs in Latin American and Hispanic cultures. This event is called La Quinceañera, or the fifteenth year. ① It acknowledges that a young woman is now of marriageable age. The day usually begins with a Mass of Thanksgiving. ② By comparing the rites of passage of one culture with those of another, we can assess differences in class status. The young woman wears a full-length white or pastel-colored dress and is attended by fourteen friends and relatives who serve as maids of honor and male escorts. ③Her parents and godparents surround her at the foot of the altar. When the Mass ends, other young relatives give small gifts to those who attended, while the Quinceañera herself places a bouquet of flowers on the altar of the Virgin. ④Following the Mass is an elaborate party, with dancing, cake, and toasts. Finally, to end the evening, the young woman dances a waltz with her favorite escort. 문 9. 주어진 문장이 들어갈 위치로 가장 적절한 곳은? He dismally fails the first two, but redeems himself in the concluding whale episode, where he does indeed demonstrate courage, honesty, and unselfishness. Disney's work draws heavily from fairy tales, myths, and folklore, which are profuse in archetypal elements. ( ① ) Pinocchio is a good example of how these elements can be emphasized rather than submerged beneath a surface realism. ( ② ) Early in the film, the boy/puppet Pinocchio is told that in order to be a "real boy," he must show that he is "brave, truthful, and unselfish." ( ③ ) The three principal episodes of the movie represent ritualistic trials, testing the youth's moral fortitude. ( ④ ) As such, like most of Disney's works, the values in Pinocchio are traditional and conservative, an affirmation of the sanctity of the family unit, the importance of a Higher Power in guiding our destinies, and the need to play by society's rules. 문 10. 글의 내용과 일치하지 않는 것은? Stanislavski was fortunate in many ways. He was the son of a wealthy man who could give him the advantages of a broad education, the opportunity to see the greatest exponents of theatre art at home and abroad. He acquired a great reputation because he had set high goals and never faltered along the hard road leading to them. His personal integrity and inexhaustible capacity for work contributed to making him a professional artist of the first rank. Stanislavski was also richly endowed by nature with a handsome exterior, fine voice and genuine talent. As an actor, director and teacher, he was destined to influence and inspire the many who worked with him and under him or who had the privilege of seeing him on the stage. ① Stanislavski was born with attractive features. ② Stanislavski remained uninfluential on his colleagues throughout his life. ③ Stanislavski's father was affluent enough to support his education. ④ Stanislavski became a top-ranked artist by the aid of his upright character and untiring competence. ※ 밑줄 친 부분과 의미가 가장 가까운 것을 고르시오. [문 11 ～ 문 12] 문 11. It was personal. Why did you have to stick your nose in? ① hurry ② interfere ③ sniff ④ resign 문 12. Newton made unprecedented contributions to mathematics, optics, and mechanical physics. ① mediocre ② suggestive ③ unsurpassed ④ provocative 문 13. 어법상 옳은 것은? ① Jessica is a much careless person who makes little effort to improve her knowledge. ② But he will come or not is not certain. ③ The police demanded that she not leave the country for the time being. ④ The more a hotel is expensiver, the better its service is. 문 14. 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은? Character is a respect for human beings and the right to interpret experience differently. Character admits self-interest as a natural trait, but pins its faith on man's hesitant but heartening instinct to cooperate. Character is allergic to tyranny, irritable with ignorance and always open to improvement. Character is, above all, a tremendous humility before the facts ― an automatic alliance with truth even when that truth is bitter medicine. ① Character's Resistance to Truth ② How to Cooperate with Characters ③ The Ignorance of Character ④ What Character Means 문 15. 글의 주제로 가장 적절한 것은? Children who under-achieve at school may just have poor working memory rather than low intelligence. Researchers from a university surveyed more than 3,000 primary school children of all ages and found that 10 % of them suffer from poor working memory, which seriously impedes their learning. Nationally, this equates to almost 500,000 children in primary education being affected. The researchers also found that teachers rarely identify poor working memory and often describe children with this problem as inattentive or less intelligent. ① children's identification with teachers at school ② low intelligence of primary school children ③ influence of poor working memory on primary school children ④ teachers' efforts to solve children's working-memory problem 영 어 2 책형 3 쪽 문 16. 글의 내용과 일치하는 것은? A new study by Harvard researchers may provide a compelling reason to remove canned soup and juice from your dining table. People who ate one serving of canned food daily over the course of five days, the study found, had significantly elevated levels ― more than a tenfold increase ―of bisphenol-A, or BPA, a substance that lines most food and drink cans. Public health officials in the United States have come under increasing pressure to regulate it. Some of the research on BPA shows that it is linked to a higher risk of cancer, heart disease, and obesity. Some researchers, though, counter that its reputation as a health threat to people is exaggerated. The new study published in The Journal of the American Medical Association is the first to measure the amounts of BPA that are ingested when people eat food that comes directly out of a can. ① 하버드의 새로운 연구가 통조림 음식의 안전성을 입증하였다. ② 비스페놀 A와 암, 심장병, 비만의 연관성이 과장되었다는 데에 모든 학자들이 동의한다. ③ 통조림 음식으로부터 사람의 몸에 유입된 비스페놀 A의 양이 아직 측정되지 않았다. ④ 미국의 보건 관리들은 비스페놀 A를 규제하라는 압력을 점점 더 받고 있다. 문 17. 주어진 글 다음에 이어질 글의 순서로 가장 적절한 것은? All animals have the same kind of brain activation during sleep as humans. Whether or not they dream is another question, which can be answered only by posing another one: Do animals have consciousness? (A) These are three of the key aspects of consciousness, and they could be experienced whether or not an animal had verbal language as we do. When the animal's brain is activated during sleep, why not assume that the animal has some sort of perceptual, emotional, and memory experience? (B) Many scientists today feel that animals probably do have a limited form of consciousness, quite different from ours in that it lacks language and the capacity for propositional or symbolic thought. (C) Animals certainly can't report dreams even if they do have them. But which pet owner would doubt that his or her favourite animal friend has perception, memory, and emotion? ① (A) － (B) － (C) ② (A) － (C) － (B) ③ (B) － (C) － (A) ④ (C) － (B) － (A) 문 18. 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 옳은 것은? ①As the old saying go, you are what you eat. The foods you eat ②obvious affect your body's performance. They may also influence how your brain handles tasks. If your brain handles them well, you think more clearly, and you are more emotionally stable. The right food can ③ help you being concentrated, keep you motivated, sharpen your memory, speed your reaction time, reduce stress, and perhaps ④even prevent your brain from aging. ※ 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. [문 19～문 20] 문 19. There's a knock at your door. Standing in front of you is a young man who needs help. He's injured and is bleeding. You take him in and help him, make him feel comfortable and safe and phone for an ambulance. This is clearly the right thing to do. But if you help him just because you feel sorry for him, according to Immanuel Kant, ______________________. Your sympathy is irrelevant to the morality of your action. That's part of your character, but nothing to do with right and wrong. Morality for Kant wasn't just about what you do, but about why you do it. Those who do the right thing don't do it simply because of how they feel: the decision has to be based on reason, reason that tells you what your duty is, regardless of how you happen to feel. ① that wouldn't be a moral action at all ② your action is founded on reason ③ then you're exhibiting ethical behavior ④ you're encouraging him to be an honest person 문 20. A group of tribes and genera of hopping reptiles, small creatures of the dinosaur type, seem to have been pushed by competition and the pursuit of their enemies towards the alternatives of extinction or adaptation to colder conditions in the higher hills or by the sea. Among these distressed tribes there was developed a new type of scale ― scales that were elongated into quill-like forms and that presently branched into the crude beginnings of feathers. These quill-like scales lay over one another and formed a heat-retaining covering more efficient than any reptilian covering that had hitherto existed. So they permitted an invasion of colder regions that were otherwise uninhabited. Perhaps simultaneously with these changes there arose in these creatures a greater solicitude for their eggs. Most reptiles are apparently quite careless about their eggs, which are left for sun and season to hatch. But some of the varieties upon this new branch of the tree of life were acquiring a habit of guarding their eggs and ________________________________. With these adaptations to cold, other internal modifications were going on that made these creatures, the primitive birds, warm-blooded and independent of basking. ① hatching them unsuccessfully ② leaving them under the sun on their own ③ keeping them warm with the warmth of their bodies ④ flying them to scaled reptiles
영어_9급_A형.pdf 영어_9급_B형.pdf 2016 서울시 9급 영어 해설 강수정.pdf 2016 서울시 9급 영어 해설 김민수.pdf 2016 서울시 9급 영어 해설 김신주.pdf 2016 서울시 9급 영어 해설 김영국.pdf 2016 서울시 9급 영어 해설 성기건.pdf 2016 서울시 9급 영어 해설 성정혜.pdf 2016 서울시 9급 영어 해설 손재석.pdf 2016 서울시 9급 영어 해설 영스파.pdf 2016 서울시 9급 영어 해설 이리라.pdf 2016 서울시 9급 영어 해설 이영규.pdf 2016 서울시 9급 영어 해설 이충권.pdf 2016 서울시 9급 영어 해설 정수현.pdf 2016 서울시 9급 영어 해설 줄리아.pdf 2016 서울시 9급 영어 해설 한덕현.pdf Ⓐ - 3 ※ 다음 중 밑줄 친 단어와 뜻이 가장 가까운 것은? (1~3) 1. Parents must not give up on kids who act rebellious or seem socially awkward; this is a normal stage most youngsters go through and eventually outgrow. ① passive ② delirious ③ disobedient ④ sporadic 2. He was born to a wealthy family in New York in 1800 s. This circumstance allowed him to lead a prodigal existence for much of his life. ① perjury ② unstable ③ pernicious ④ lavish 3. Perhaps the brightest spot in the contemporary landscape of American higher education is the resurgence of interest in engaging students in civic life beyond campus. ① comeback ② disappearance ③ motivation ④ paucity 4. 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 가장 옳지 않은 것은? He acknowledged that ① the number of Koreans were forced ② into labor ③ under harsh conditions in some of the locations ④ during the 1940 s. 5. 다음 대화에서 어법상 가장 옳지 않은 것은? Ann : Your hair ① looks nice. Tori : I ② had it cut by the tall hairdresser in the new hair salon next to the cafeteria. Ann : Not that place where I ③ got my head to stick in the drier? Tori : ④ Must be, I suppose. Yes, that one. Ann : Huh, and they still let them open. ※ 어법상 빈칸에 들어가기에 가장 적절한 것은? (6~7) 6. Creativity is thinking in ways that lead to original, practical and meaningful solutions to problems or new ideas or forms of artistic expression. ① that generate ② having generated ③ to be generated ④ being generated 7. It was when I got support across the board politically, from Republicans as well as Democrats, I knew I had done the right thing. ① who ② whom ③ whose ④ that 8. 문맥상 빈칸에 들어갈 가장 적절한 것은? Usually several skunks live together; however, adult male striped skunks are during the summer. ① nocturnal ② solitary ③ predatory ④ dormant 9. 문맥상 빈칸에 들어갈 가장 적절한 것은? Language and spelling change. Crystal, one of the most prolific writers on English, has helped popularize that truth. If, as internet use suggests, people are now starting to write rhubarb as rubarb , that, he says, may one day become an acceptable . ① alternative ② obligation ③ risk ④ order 10. 다음 빈칸에 들어갈 표현으로 가장 적절한 것은? The reputation of Genghis Khan as may be worse than the reality. Much of our information comes from chroniclers of the time who often exaggerated the facts. It is possible that they were encouraged by their Mongol employers to exaggerate the tales of cruelty so that the Mongols appeared more frightening to their enemies. ① an exaggerating storyteller ② a courageous emperor ③ an influential figure ④ an utterly ruthless warrior 11. 다음 빈칸에 들어갈 가장 적절한 연결어를 고르면? Our brain processes and stores different kinds of information in different ways. Think about factual knowledge. Fact memory entails learning explicit information, such as names, faces, words and dates. It is related to our conscious thoughts and our ability to manipulate symbols and language. When fact memories are committed to long-term memory, they are usually filed along with the context in which they were learned: , when you think of your new friend Joe, you probably picture him at the basketball game where you met him. ① In short ② For instance ③ Above all ④ In addition 12. 문맥상 빈칸에 들어갈 가장 적절한 것은? As incredible as it sounds, there are some species of insects that will themselves to protect their nests. When faced with an intruder, the Camponotus cylindricus ant of Borneo will grab onto the invader and squeeze itself until it explodes. The ant s abdomen ruptures, releasing a sticky yellow substance that will be lethal for both the defender and the attacker, permanently sticking them together and preventing the attacker from reaching the nest. ① commit ② replace ③ expose ④ sacrifice 13. 문맥상 빈칸에 들어갈 가장 적절한 것을 고르면? E-waste is being produced on a scale never seen before. Computers and other electronic equipment become in just a few years, leaving customers with little choice but to buy newer ones to keep up. Thus, tens of millions of computers, TVs and cell phones are each year. ① efficient - documented ② obsolete - discarded ③ fascinating - reused ④ identical - thrown Ⓐ - 4 14. 다음 빈칸에 들어갈 가장 적절한 것을 고르면? In the last twenty years the amount of time Americans have spent at their jobs has risen steadily. Each year the change is small, amounting to about nine hours, or slightly more than one additional day of work. In any given year such a small increment has probably been . But the accumulated increase over two decades is substantial. ① dazzling ② vulnerable ③ imperceptible ④ compulsory ※ 다음 빈칸에 들어갈 단어를 순서대로 고르면? (15~16) 15. The country with the highest rate of crime in the world is Vatican City, with 1.5 crimes per resident. However, this high ratio is due to the country s tiny population of only around 840 people. It is likely that the vast majority of the crimes, which consist mainly of pick-pocketing and shop-lifting, are by outsiders. The Vatican has a special police force with 130 members responsible for criminal investigation, border control and protection of the pope. There is no prison in Vatican City, with the exception of a few detention cells to hold criminals before trial. The majority of criminals are by Italian courts. ① manipulated - sealed ② dominated - overruled ③ committed - tried ④ conducted - enforced 16. Albert Einstein s general theory of relativity is about to celebrate its 100th anniversary, and his revolutionary hypothesis has the test of time, despite numerous expert attempts to find . Einstein changed the way we think about the most basic things, which are space and time. And that opened our eyes to the universe, and how the most interesting things in it work, like black holes. ① withstood - flaws ② resisted - proofs ③ wasted - examples ④ squandered - pitfalls 17. 다음 글의 목적으로 가장 적절한 것은? Casa Heiwa is an apartment building where people can learn some important life skills and how to cope with living in a new environment. The building managers run a service that offers many programs to children and adults living in the building. For the children, there is a day-care center that operates from 7 a.m. until 6 p.m. There are also educational programs available for adults including computer processing and English conversation courses. ① to argue for a need for educational programs ② to recruit employees for an apartment building ③ to attract apartment residents toward programs ④ to recommend ways to improve the living standard 18. 다음 글을 문맥에 맞게 순서대로 배열한 것은? ㉠ Rosa Parks was arrested, jailed, convicted and fined. She refused to pay. Her experience set off a 382-day boycott of Montgomery city buses. ㉡ According to the segregation laws of the day, Rosa Parks, an African American, was required to sit in the back of the bus. She was accused of encroaching on the whites-only section, and the bus driver tried to convince her to obey the law. ㉢ Instead, Rosa Parks kept both her mien and her seat. At last, the driver warned her that he would send for the police. Go ahead and call them. Parks answered. ㉣ On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks took a city bus home from her job at a store in downtown Montgomery, Alabama. ① ㉡-㉠-㉣-㉢ ② ㉣-㉢-㉠-㉡ ③ ㉡-㉢-㉣-㉠ ④ ㉣-㉡-㉢-㉠ 19. 다음 글의 분위기로 가장 어울리는 것은? As Ryan Cox was waiting to pay for his coffee order at an Indiana, US fast food drive-through, he decided to try something he d seen on a TV news show ― he paid for the coffee order of the driver in the car behind. The small gesture made the young Indianapolis entrepreneur feel great, so he shared his experience on Facebook. An old friend suggested that rather than paying for people s coffee, Ryan put that money towards helping school students pay off their delinquent school lunch accounts. So the following week Ryan visited his nephew s school cafeteria and asked if he could pay off some accounts, and handed over ＄100. ① gloomy ② serene ③ touching ④ boring 20. 아래 글 바로 다음에 이어질 문장으로 가장 적절한 것을 고르면? The moon is different from the earth in many respects. First of all, there is no known life on the moon. And in terms of size, it is much smaller than the earth. You may think both of them have the same spherical shape. But strictly speaking, they are not the same. The moon is almost a perfect sphere; its diameter differs by no more than 1% in any direction. The faster an astronomical object spins, the more it becomes bulged at the equator and flattened at the poles. ① So spinning objects undergo some changes of their shape, except for the moon and the earth. ② Since the moon rotates more slowly than the earth, it is more nearly spherical. ③ Moreover, the moon s diameter has been varied for the last hundred years. ④ In fact, the moon s spherical shape is rather unexpected, considering its density and gravity.
영어-A.pdf 영어-C.pdf 2016 지방직 9급 영어 해설 이충권.pdf 2016 지방직 9급 영어 해설 강수정.pdf 2016 지방직 9급 영어 해설 강정구.pdf 2016 지방직 9급 영어 해설 김민수.pdf 2016 지방직 9급 영어 해설 김세현.pdf 2016 지방직 9급 영어 해설 김신주.pdf 2016 지방직 9급 영어 해설 김영국.pdf 2016 지방직 9급 영어 해설 성기건.pdf 2016 지방직 9급 영어 해설 성정혜.pdf 2016 지방직 9급 영어 해설 손진숙.pdf 2016 지방직 9급 영어 해설 영스파.pdf 2016 지방직 9급 영어 해설 이동기.pdf 2016 지방직 9급 영어 해설 이리라.pdf 2016 지방직 9급 영어 해설 이영규.pdf 2016 지방직 9급 영어 해설 장서영.pdf 2016 지방직 9급 영어 해설 전경식.pdf 2016 지방직 9급 영어 해설 한덕현.pdf 영 어 A 책형 1 쪽 영 어 ※ 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. [문 1～문 3] 문 1. The two cultures were so utterly ________________ that she found it hard to adapt from one to the other. ① overlapped ② equivalent ③ associative ④ disparate 문 2. Penicillin can have an ____________ effect on a person who is allergic to it. ① affirmative ② aloof ③ adverse ④ allusive 문 3. Last year, I had a great opportunity to do this performance with the staff responsible for _______________ art events at the theater. ① turning into ② doing without ③ putting on ④ giving up ※ 우리말을 영어로 잘못 옮긴 것을 고르시오. [문 4 ～ 문 5] 문 4. ① 오늘 밤 나는 영화 보러 가기보다는 집에서 쉬고 싶다. → I'd rather relax at home than going to the movies tonight. ② 경찰은 집안 문제에 대해서는 개입하기를 무척 꺼린다. → The police are very unwilling to interfere in family problems. ③ 네가 통제하지 못하는 과거의 일을 걱정해봐야 소용없다. → It's no use worrying about past events over which you have no control. ④ 내가 자주 열쇠를 엉뚱한 곳에 두어서 내 비서가 나를 위해 여분의 열쇠를 갖고 다닌다. → I misplace my keys so often that my secretary carries spare ones for me. 문 5. ① 그녀가 어리석은 계획을 포기하도록 설득해 줄래요? → Can you talk her out of her foolish plan? ② 그녀의 어머니에 대해서는 나도 너만큼 아는 것이 없다. → I know no more than you don't about her mother. ③ 그의 군대는 거의 2대 1로 수적 열세였다. → His army was outnumbered almost two to one. ④ 같은 나이의 두 소녀라고 해서 반드시 생각이 같은 것은 아니다. → Two girls of an age are not always of a mind. ※ 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. [문 6 ～ 문 7] 문 6. The planet is warming, from North Pole to South Pole, and everywhere in between. Globally, the mercury is already up more than 1 degree Fahrenheit, and even more in sensitive polar regions. And the effects of rising temperatures aren't waiting for some far-flung future. They're happening right now. Signs are appearing all over, and some of them are surprising. The heat is not only melting glaciers and sea ice; it's also shifting precipitation patterns and setting animals on the move. ① Preventive Measures Against Climate Change ② Melting Down of North Pole's Ice Cap ③ Growing Signs of Global Warming ④ Positive Effects of Temperature Rise 문 7. Few words are tainted by so much subtle nonsense and confusion as profit. To my liberal friends the word connotes the proceeds of fundamentally unrespectable and unworthy behaviors: minimally, greed and selfishness; maximally, the royal screwing of millions of helpless victims. Profit is the incentive for the most unworthy performance. To my conservative friends, it is a term of highest endearment, connoting efficiency and good sense. To them, profit is the ultimate incentive for worthy performance. Both connotations have some small merit, of course, because profit may result from both greedy, selfish activities and from sensible, efficient ones. But overgeneralizations from either bias do not help us in the least in understanding the relationship between profit and human competence. ① Relationship Between Profit and Political Parties ② Who Benefits from Profit ③ Why Making Profit Is Undesirable ④ Polarized Perceptions of Profit 문 8. 글의 내용과 일치하는 것은? Electric cars were always environmentally friendly, quiet, clean－but definitely not sexy. The Sesta Speedking has changed all that. A battery-powered sports car that sells for $ 120,000 and has a top speed of 125 m.p.h. (200 km/h), the Speedking has excited the clean-tech crowd since it was first announced. Some Hollywood celebrities also joined a long waiting list for the Speedking; magazines like Wired drooled over it. After years of setbacks and shake-ups, the first Sesta Speedkings were delivered to customers this year. Reviews have been ecstatic, but Sesta Motors has been hit hard by the financial crisis. Plans to develop an affordable electric sedan have been put on hold, and Sesta is laying off employees. But even if the Speedking turns out to be a one-hit wonder, it's been an exciting electric ride. ① Speedking is a new electric sedan. ② Speedking has received negative feedback. ③ Sesta is hiring more employees. ④ Sesta has suspended a new car project. 영 어 A 책형 2 쪽 문 9. 콜라비에 대한 설명 중 글의 내용과 일치하지 않는 것은? Kohlrabi is one of the vegetables many people avoid, mainly because of its odd shape and strange name. However, kohlrabi is delicious, versatile and good for you. Kohlrabi is a member of Brassica, which also includes broccoli and cabbage. Brassica plants are high in antioxidants, and kohlrabi is no exception. Plus kohlrabi contains fiber, useful amounts of vitamin C, together with vitamin B, potassium and calcium. Kohlrabi can be eaten raw: it's delicious when thinly sliced and mixed into salads. You can also roast chunks of it in the oven, or use it as the base for a soup. ＊brassica : 배추속(屬) ① 생김새와 이름이 이상하여 사람들이 좋아하지 않는다. ② 브로콜리와 양배추와 함께 배추속에 속한다. ③ 다른 배추속 식물과는 달리 항산화제가 적다. ④ 날것으로 먹거나 오븐에 구워먹을 수 있다. 문 10. 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? In an early demonstration of the mere exposure effect, participants in an experiment were exposed to a set of alphabets from the Japanese language. As most people know, Japanese alphabets look like drawings and are called ideograms. In the experiment, the duration of exposure to each ideogram was deliberately kept as short as 30 milliseconds. At such short durations of exposure－known as subliminal exposure－people cannot register the stimuli and hence, participants in the experiment were not expected to recall seeing the ideograms. Nevertheless, when participants were shown two sets of alphabets, one to which they had been previously exposed and another to which they hadn't, participants reported greater liking for the former even though they couldn't recall seeing them! These results have been replicated numerous times and across a variety of types of stimuli, so they are robust. What the mere exposure results show is that _______________________________________________. ① we can learn the Japanese language with extensive exposure. ② duration is responsible for the robust results across studies. ③ it is impossible to register the stimuli at short durations. ④ people develop a liking towards stimuli that are familiar. 문 11. 밑줄 친 부분에 공통으로 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? ○ The psychologist used a new test to ______________ overall personality development of students. ○ Snacks ______________ 25 % to 30 % of daily energy intake among adolescents. ① carry on ② figure out ③ account for ④ depend upon 문 12. 밑줄 친 ‘your dad's character’를 가장 잘 표현하는 것은? I began to get a pretty good sense of your father the first time I came to visit you at your house. Before my visit, he asked me some detailed questions about my physical needs. As soon as he learned about my heavy wheelchair, he began planning how he would build a ramp to the front door. The first day I came to the house, the ramp was ready, built with his own hands. Later on, when your dad found out about your younger brother's autism, he said one thing I will never forget. "If Sam can't learn in school," he told me, "I will take a couple of years off work and we will sail around the world. I will teach him everything he needs to know in those two years." That says everything about your dad's character. ＊autism : 자폐증 ① strict and stern ② funny and humorous ③ lazy and easygoing ④ considerate and thoughtful 문 13. 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? John : Excuse me. Can you tell me where Namdaemun Market is? Mira : Sure. Go straight ahead and turn right at the taxi stop over there. John : Oh, I see. Is that where the market is? Mira : ______________________________________ ① That's right. You have to take a bus over there to the market. ② You can usually get good deals at traditional markets. ③ I don't really know. Please ask a taxi driver. ④ Not exactly. You need to go down two more blocks. 문 14. 두 사람의 대화 중 가장 어색한 것은? ① A : Would you like to go to dinner with me this week? B : OK. But what's the occasion? ② A : Why don't we go to a basketball game sometime? B : Sure. Just tell me when. ③ A : What do you do in your spare time? B : I just relax at home. Sometimes I watch TV. ④ A : Could I help you with anything? B : Yes, I would like to. That would be nice. 영 어 A 책형 3 쪽 ※ 어법상 옳은 것을 고르시오. [문 15 ～ 문 16] 문 15. ① That place is fantastic whether you like swimming or to walk. ② She suggested going out for dinner after the meeting. ③ The dancer that I told you about her is coming to town. ④ If she took the medicine last night, she would have been better today. 문 16. ① The poor woman couldn't afford to get a smartphone. ② I am used to get up early everyday. ③ The number of fires that occur in the city are growing every year. ④ Bill supposes that Mary is married, isn't he? 문 17. 글의 흐름상 가장 어색한 문장은? Progress is gradually being made in the fight against cancer. ①In the early 1900s, few cancer patients had any hope of long-term survival. ② But because of advances in medical technology, progress has been made so that currently four in ten cancer patients survive. ③ It has been proven that smoking is a direct cause of lung cancer. ④ However, the battle has not yet been won. Although cures for some forms of cancer have been discovered, other forms of cancer are still increasing. 문 18. 주어진 문장이 들어갈 위치로 가장 적절한 곳은? But the truth is, after you successfully make it through this problem, there will be another problem to face. Some people are convinced that life is simply a series of problems to be solved. The sooner they get through with the problem they are facing, the sooner they will be happy. ( ① ) And after you overcome that obstacle, there will be something else to overcome and there's always another mountain to climb. ( ② ) That's why it is important to enjoy the journey, not just the destination. ( ③ ) In this world, we will never arrive at a place where everything is perfect and we have no more challenges. ( ④ ) As admirable as setting goals and reaching them may be, you can't get so focused on accomplishing your goals that you make the mistake of not enjoying where you are right now. ※ 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. [문 19～문 20] 문 19. I don't know how it is for women or for other guys, but when I was young, I had a fear of ________________. I thought it was a giant step toward death. So I did all I could to resist it because the idea was frightening to me. Then, one day I met Jane while I was shooting my first film. This changed everything. Jane, who was from Kentucky, was waitressing at that time, and I noticed her right away. She was really beautiful, and it took me all day to get up the nerve to ask her out. Just then a makeup man on the film snapped a photo of the two of us. About two years ago he sent it to me, saying, "Here you are asking a local girl for a date." He didn't know that that "local girl" became my wife. I still remember that day vividly. ① death ② marriage ③ making films ④ taking photos 문 20. One well-known difficulty in finding new things has been termed the 'oasis trap' by the cognitive psychologist David Perkins. Knowledge becomes centered in an 'oasis' of rich findings and it is just too risky and expensive to leave that still productive and well-watered zone. So people stick to _________________________. This is what happened to a certain extent in China over many centuries. The huge physical distances between centers of knowledge in China and the fact that the distant centers turned out to be little different from one another discouraged exploration. ① what they know ② the undiscovered world ③ their dream and imagination ④ how things are going to change
영어.pdf 2015 경찰 1차 영어 해설 김신주.hwp 2015 경찰 1차 영어 해설 김정연.pdf 2015 경찰 1차 영어 해설 김형섭.pdf 2015 경찰 1차 영어 해설 리스공.hwp 2015 경찰 1차 영어 해설 심상대.pdf 2015 경찰 1차 영어 해설 이동기.pdf 2015 경찰 1차 영어 해설 이리라.pdf 2015 경찰 1차 영어 해설 최종수.pdf 2015 경찰 1차 영어 해설 헤더진.pdf - 1 - 영 어 The dean s remarks made the point more obscure. ① impending precise ② unclear ③ compact ④ The prime minister was thoroughly dismayed by the lack of public support for his new project. dilapidated ① disseminated ② distorted ③ disappointed ④ Remember to go through the pockets before you put those trousers in the washing machine. ① ② experience search study ③ ④ use A: So what do you think about this car? B: I don't know. ( ) I think I need something bigger. A: No problem. Just think about it. ① I'll go for it. I'm of two minds about it. ② I can't afford buying this car. ③ This car is second to none. ④ A: Did you decide what to do in the future? B: Well, I m interested in working for an international volunteer organization. But I don’t know where to start to prepare for that. ( ) A: The first thing to do would be to study English harder because effective communication is important. Where is the organization located? ① What did you learn from the volunteer work? ② Can you tell me how to study English well? ③ What do you think I should do? ④ A journalist pointed out that the country has progressed from oppression to ( ), creating a constitution and holding national elections. colonization ① dictatorship ② sovereignty ③ autocracy ④ Culture shock is the feeling some people experience when they travel to a new country or part of the world ( ) the first time. Sometimes the food, style of dress, and other aspects of life in a new country are ( ) different that people have a hard time adjusting ( ) this new way of life. Culture shock can last for days, weeks, or even months. in - very - for for - so to ① ② – in - so - for for- very - in ③ ④ Drivers are advised to ( ) their driver's license on time ㉠ as they may be required to retake the written and driving tests past the ( ) date. ㉡ ㉠ ㉡ ① issue …… production ② renew …… expiration ③ revoke …… termination ④ suspend …… manufacture He is a man of impetuous temperament. impulsive ① lazy ② stubborn ③ ④ competitive The investigators say that they cannot rule ( ) the possibility of arson. We sent ( ) the wedding invitations last month. ① over up ② out ③ in ④ 한국 사과는 맛이 좋습니다. Korean apples are tasting wonderful. ① Korean apples are tasting wonderfully. ② Korean apples taste wonderfully. ③ Korean apples taste wonderful. ④ Surveillance cameras have been widely used in lots of places for security purposes. Their usefulness, ( ), is still under discussion. Those who support the use of surveillance cameras argue that they can serve as a deterrent to crime. ( those who have doubts about their uses are worried that surveillance cameras are not as effective in preventing crime as have been believed. Moreover, they are intruding upon people s privacy. ㉠ ㉡ ① likewise …… Hence ② nevertheless …… Consequently ③ however …… On the other hand ④ on the other hand …… However While lecturing to his literature class at Ain Shams University in Cairo, a British professor leaned back in his chair and showed the bottom of his foot to the astonished class. That kind of gesture in Muslim society was considered the worst kind of insult. The next day, the Cairo newspapers carried headlines that students had denounced British ( ) and demanded that the professor be sent home. ① ② teaching arrogance relationship ③ politeness ④ - 2 - 영 어 What a person considers to be private is that which cannot be searched or seized without probable cause; law protects the extent to which an individual's private property can be searched by the police. Hence, before law enforcement personnel can search or seize private property, they must have probable cause to believe that a crime has been committed or that the owner of the property has been involved in criminal activity, or both. Further, the law enforcement personnel is required to obtain a search warrant from a judicial officer before engaging in any form of search and seizure of private property. The basis for the warrant must be probable cause. Probable cause ranges between "more than mere suspicion”and "less than clear evidence.” A search warrant gives the police the legal authority to enter a private property without permission of the owner to search for evidence listed in the warrant in the places authorized by the warrant. the definition and range of probable cause ① the general procedure of criminal investigation ② different functions of a warrant in policing activity ③ the requirements to search and seize private property ④ Economists are debating whether donating substantial amounts of money to poorer nations is helpful in the long run. Most economists feel that, at best, aid has produced only mixed results. Despite the fact that the priority should be to create infrastructure such as roads, schools, and hospitals, what often happens is that incompetent and corrupt officials end up misusing or stealing the money. Another problem is that countries become too dependent on foreign aid. Some experts argue that overall, foreign aid has produced a brighter picture by reducing global poverty. By monitoring foreign aid expenditure, we can prevent its misuse and aim to provide support for poor countries so that they can eventually achieve economic empowerment and donate money to others in turn. ① 경제학자들은 빈국 원조가 한 가지의 확실한 결과를 가져왔다고 본다. ② 원조는 항상 도로 학교 병원 등 기반시설을 만드는데 먼저 사용된다 , , . ③ 원조의 문제 중 하나는 빈국이 외국원조에 너무 의존적이 된다는 것이다. ④ 원조 사용의 계획을 세워줌으로써 이것의 오용을 막을 수 있다. People are accustomed to thinking of lie detectors as foolproof. They assume that lie detectors are infallible simply because they are machines. However, in fact, nothing could be further from the truth. To begin with, those who administer the tests are not always licenced examiners, let alone qualified experts. Furthermore, many subjects react to a lie detector test in an unsteady condition. Consequently, their bodies behave as if they were lying even when telling the truth. In contrast, some people are smart enough to use relaxation techniques to remain calm when they are actually telling a string of lies. ① Two Types of Criminal Errors Made by Lie Detectors ② How to Frustrate Lie Detector Examiners? ③ The Fallacy of Human Assumption ④ In an aging society, new markets are likely to emerge, with a varie ty of new produc ts targe ting senior citizens. One noticeable trend is that senior consumers tend to choose more higher-priced goods than younger ones. F or exam ple, the dem and for high-quality cosmetics and clothes among senior citizens is growing at a rapid pace. Even in foods, organic products are setting the pace in the high-priced food market. It is evident that senior citizens are major consumers in these more expensive markets. problems of aging societies ① expanding consumption of organic products ② emerging high-priced markets in an aging society ③ demand for high-quality clothes ④ Conversationally and emotionally, weddings and funerals are two of the most difficult events to attend. Although weddings are festive, happy times, guests often know few people and therefore must have sharp conversational skills, especially for small talk. Funerals are even more difficult because you want to say something consoling to the family of the deceased but often cannot find the words. This article provides a guide for conversation at these events; you can shape the language to your own needs and feelings. ① 결혼식과 장례식에서 적절한 말을 하는 것 ② 결혼식과 장례식을 치를 때의 어려움 ③ 결혼식과 장례식의 적절한 복장 ④ 결혼식과 장례식에 사용되는 비용 When collecting data, many think it is desirable to minimize the messiness in data. However, it is not an easy task; by combining different types of information from different sources, which don't always ㉠align/alternate perfectly. Sometimes, you are better off not being obsessed with eliminating messiness. Suppose you need to measure the temperature in a crop field. If you have only one temperature sensor for the whole plot of land, it must be an accurate one; otherwise, it does not provide ㉡ reliable/unreliable data. In contrast, if you have a sensor for every square meter of land, incorrect data from a few sensors will not cause any problem. The aggregate of many readings will provide a more ㉢ comprehensive/apprehensive picture. ㉠ ㉡ ㉢ ① align reliable comprehensive ② align unreliable apprehensive ③ alternate unreliable comprehensive ④ alternate reliable apprehensive Career experts say the way you come across to the interviewer sends a powerful message about you and how much you care about the job search process. Your interviewer will form impressions about you from your posture, handshake, eye contact, clothes, shoes and accessories, usage of space, attentiveness, tone of voice, and facial expressions. Avoiding eye contact may appear that you are evading or trying to hide something. However, too much eye contact (direct staring) can seem intimidating. When you are practicing how to answer questions, make sure to get constructive feedback about nonverbals, work on improvements, and then use the right nonverbals during the job search process. ① 면접에서 언어구사력의 중요성 ② 면접에서 비언어적인 요소의 중요성 ③ 면접에서 눈맞춤의 중요성 ④ 면접에서 연습의 중요성
영어-사.pdf 영어-처.pdf 2015 국가직 9급 영어 해설 김범재.pdf 2015 국가직 9급 영어 해설 김신주.pdf 2015 국가직 9급 영어 해설 김영국.pdf 2015 국가직 9급 영어 해설 리스공.pdf 2015 국가직 9급 영어 해설 성기건.pdf 2015 국가직 9급 영어 해설 성정혜.pdf 2015 국가직 9급 영어 해설 손진숙.pdf 2015 국가직 9급 영어 해설 오동훈.pdf 2015 국가직 9급 영어 해설 이동기.pdf 2015 국가직 9급 영어 해설 이리라.pdf 2015 국가직 9급 영어 해설 이승훈.pdf 2015 국가직 9급 영어 해설 이영규.pdf 2015 국가직 9급 영어 해설 장종재.pdf 2015 국가직 9급 영어 해설 제석강.pdf 2015 국가직 9급 영어 해설 최종수.pdf 2015 국가직 9급 영어 해설 한덕현.pdf 영 어 사 책형 1 쪽 영 어 ※ 밑줄 친 부분에 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. [문 1 ～ 문 2] 문 1. The young knight was so ________ at being called a coward that he charged forward with his sword in hand. ① aloof ② incensed ③ unbiased ④ unpretentious 문 2. Back in the mid-1970s, an American computer scientist called John Holland _________ the idea of using the theory of evolution to solve notoriously difficult problems in science. ① took on ② got on ③ put upon ④ hit upon 문 3. 내용의 흐름상 적절하지 못한 문장은? Of equal importance in wars of conquest were the germs that evolved in human societies with domestic animals. ①Infectious diseases like smallpox, measles, and flu arose as specialized germs of humans, derived by mutations of very similar ancestral germs that had infected animals. ② The most direct contribution of plant and animal domestication to wars of conquest was from Eurasia's horses, whose military role made them the jeeps and Sherman tanks of ancient warfare on that continent. ③The humans who domesticated animals were the first to fall victim to the newly evolved germs, but those humans then evolved substantial resistance to the new disease. ④When such partly immune people came into contact with others who had had no previous exposure to the germs, epidemics resulted in which up to 99 percent of the previously unexposed population was killed. Germs thus acquired ultimately from domestic animals played decisive roles in the European conquests of Native Americans, Australians, South Africans, and Pacific islanders. 문 4. 다음 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은? Everyone knows what the Mona Lisa and Michelangelo's David look like － or do we? They are reproduced so often that we may feel we know them even if we have never been to Paris or Florence. Each has countless spoofs －David in boxer shorts or the Mona Lisa with a mustache. Art reproductions are ubiquitous. We can now sit in our pajamas while enjoying virtual tours of galleries and museums around the world via the Web and CD-ROM. We can explore genres and painters and zoom in to scrutinize details. The Louvre's Website offers spectacular 360-degree panoramas of artworks like the Venus de Milo. Such tours may become ever more multi-sensory by drawing on virtual reality technology, which includes things like goggles and gloves. Lighting and stage set designers, like architects, already use this technology in their work. ① Should We Ban Art Reproductions? ② Why Are Virtual Artworks So Popular? ③ Art : More Widely Accessible Than Ever! ④ Secrets of Vanished Galleries and Museums 문 5. 어법상 옳지 않은 것은? ① The main reason I stopped smoking was that all my friends had already stopped smoking. ② That a husband understands a wife does not mean they are necessarily compatible. ③ The package, having wrong addressed, reached him late and damaged. ④ She wants her husband to buy two dozen of eggs on his way home. 문 6. 어법상 옳은 것은? ① China's imports of Russian oil skyrocketed by 36 percent in 2014. ② Sleeping has long been tied to improve memory among humans. ③ Last night, she nearly escaped from running over by a car. ④ The failure is reminiscent of the problems surrounded the causes of the fatal space shuttle disasters. ※ 밑줄 친 부분에 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. [문 7 ～ 문 8] 문 7. A : What business is on your mind? B : Do you think that owning a flower shop has good prospects nowadays? A : It could. But have you prepared yourself mentally and financially? B : __________________________________________________. A : Good! Then you should choose a strategic place and the right segment too. You must do a thorough research to have a good result. B : I know that. It’s much easier to start a business than to run it well. ① I plan to go to the hospital tomorrow ② I can't be like that! I must strive to get a job ③ I'm ready to start with what I have and take a chance ④ I don't want to think about starting my own business 문 8. M : What's that noise? W : Noise? I don't hear anything. M : Listen closely. I hear some noise. _________________. W : Oh, let's stop and see. M : Look! A piece of glass is in the right front wheel. W : Really? Umm... You're right. What are we going to do? M : Don't worry. I got some experience in changing tires. ① I gave my customers sound advice ② Maybe air is escaping from the tire ③ I think the mechanic has an appointment ④ Oh! Your phone is ringing in vibration mode 영 어 사 책형 2 쪽 문 9. 다음 문장이 들어갈 위치로 가장 적절한 것은? We can in consequence establish relations with almost all sorts of them. Reptiles and fish may no doubt be found in swarms and shoals; they have been hatched in quantities and similar conditions have kept them together. In the case of social and gregarious mammals, the association arises not simply from a community of external forces but is sustained by an inner impulse. They are not merely like one another and so found in the same places at the same times; they like one another and so they keep together. This difference between the reptile world and the world of our human minds is one our sympathies seem unable to pass. ( A ) We cannot conceive in ourselves the swift uncomplicated urgency of a reptile's instinctive motives, its appetites, fears and hates. ( B ) We cannot understand them in their simplicity because all our motives are complicated; ours are balances and resultants and not simply urgencies. ( C ) But the mammals and birds have self-restraint and consideration for other individuals, a social appeal, a self-control that is, at its lower level, after our own fashion. ( D ) When they suffer they utter cries and make movements that rouse our feelings. We can make pets of them with a mutual recognition. They can be tamed to self-restraint towards us, domesticated and taught. ① A ② B ③ C ④ D 문 10. 주어진 글 다음에 이어질 글의 순서로 가장 적절한 것은? Thunderstorms are extremely common in many parts of the world, for example, throughout most of North America. Updrafts of warm air set off these storms. (A) This more buoyant air then rises and carries water vapor to higher altitudes. The air cools as it rises, and the water vapor condenses and starts to drop as rain. As the rain falls, it pulls air along with it and turns part of the draft downward. (B) An updraft may start over ground that is more intensely heated by the sun than the land surrounding the area. Bare, rocky, or paved areas, for example, usually have updrafts above them. The air in contact with the ground heats up and thus becomes lighter, more buoyant, than the air surrounding it. (C) The draft may turn upward again and send the rain churning around in the cloud. Some of it may freeze to hail. Sooner or later, the water droplets grow heavy enough to resist the updrafts and fall to the ground, pulling air in the form of downdrafts with them. ① (A) － (C) － (B) ② (B) － (A) － (C) ③ (B) － (C) － (A) ④ (C) － (A) － (B) ※ 밑줄 친 부분과 의미가 가장 가까운 것을 고르시오. [문 11 ～ 문 12] 문 11. He took out a picture from his drawer and kissed it with deep reverence, folded it meticulously in a white silk kerchief, and placed it inside his shirt next to his heart. ① carefully ② hurriedly ③ decisively ④ delightfully 문 12. The company cannot expect me to move my home and family at the drop of a hat. ① immediately ② punctually ③ hesitantly ④ periodically 문 13. 다음 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은? America gets 97 % of its limes from Mexico, and a combination of bad weather and disease has sent that supply plummeting and prices skyrocketing. A 40-lb. (18 kg) box of limes that cost the local restaurateurs about $ 20 late last year now goes for $ 120. In April, the average retail price for a lime hit 56 cents, more than double the price last year. Across the U.S., bars and restaurants are rationing their supply or, like Alaska Airlines, eliminating limes altogether. In Mexico, the value spike is attracting criminals, forcing growers to guard their limited supply of "green gold" from drug cartels. Business owners who depend on citrus are hoping that spring growth will soon bring costs back to normal. ① An Irreversible Change in Wholesale Price of Lime ② Mexican Lime Cartel Spreading to the U.S. ③ Americans Eat More Limes than Ever ④ A Costly Lime Shortage 문 14. 다음 문장이 들어갈 위치로 가장 적절한 것은? Print, however, with its standard format and type, introduced exact mass reproduction. Print transformed how knowledge itself was understood and transmitted. A manuscript is a unique and unreproducible object. ( A ) This meant that two readers separated by distance could discuss and compare identical books, right down to a specific word on a particular page. ( B ) With the introduction of consistent pagination, indexes, alphabetic ordering, and bibliographies (all unthinkable in manuscript), knowledge itself was slowly repackaged. ( C ) Textual scholarship became a cumulative science, as scholars could now gather manuscripts of, say, Aristotle's Politics and print a standard authoritative edition based on a comparison of all available copies. ( D ) This also led to the phenomenon of new and revised editions. ① A ② B ③ C ④ D 영 어 사 책형 3 쪽 문 15. 다음 글의 내용과 일치하는 것은? The WAIS-R is made up of eleven subtests, or scales. The subtests of the WAIS-R are arranged by the type of ability or skill being tested. The subtests are organized into two categories. Six subtests define the verbal scale, and five subtests constitute a performance scale. We can compute three scores: a verbal score, a performance score, and a total (or full-scale) score. The total score can be taken as an approximation of general intellectual ability. To administer the WAIS-R, you present each of the eleven subtests to your subject. The items within each subtest are arranged in order of difficulty. You start with relatively easy items, and then you progress to more difficult ones. You stop administering any one subtest when your subject fails a specified number of items in a row. You alternate between verbal and performance subtests. The whole process takes up to an hour and a half. ① The WAIS-R has eleven subtests, each of which has two main parts. ② Several subtests with higher scores among the eleven ones should be presented. ③ The items of each subtest in the WAIS-R begin from easy and continue on to more difficult ones. ④ Subjects take all of the verbal subtests first and then all of the performance subtests. 문 16. 밑줄 친 부분에 가장 적절한 것은? Language is saturated with implicit metaphors like "Events are objects and time is space." Indeed, space turns out to be a conceptual vehicle not just for time but for many kinds of states and circumstances. Just as a meeting can be moved from 3:00 to 4:00, a traffic light can go from green to red, a person can go from flipping burgers to running a corporation, and the economy can go from bad to worse. Metaphor is so widespread in language that it's hard to find expressions for abstract ideas that are not metaphorical. Does it imply that even our wispiest concepts are represented in the mind as hunks of matter that we move around on a mental stage? Does it say that rival claims about the world can never be true or false but can only be _____________________? Few things in life cannot be characterized in terms of variables and the causation of changes in them. ① proven to be always true in all circumstances ② irreversible and established truths that cannot be disputed ③ subject to scientific testings for their authenticity and clarity ④ alternative metaphors that frame a situation in different ways ※ 우리말을 영어로 잘못 옮긴 것을 고르시오. [문 17 ～ 문 18] 문 17. ① 가능한 모든 일자리를 알아보았음에도 불구하고, 그는 적당한 일자리를 찾지 못했다. → Despite searching for every job opening possible, he could not find a suitable job. ② 당신이 누군가를 믿을 수 있는지 알아보는 최선책은 그 사람을 믿는 것이다. → The best way to find out if you can trust somebody is to trust that person. ③ 미각의 민감성은 개인의 음식 섭취와 체중에 크게 영향을 미친다. → Taste sensitivity is largely influenced by food intake and body weight of individuals. ④ 부모는 그들의 자녀가 성장하고 학습하는 데 알맞은 환경을 제공할 책임이 있다. → Parents are responsible for providing the right environment for their children to grow and learn in. 문 18. ① 그는 자신의 정적들을 투옥시켰다. → He had his political enemies imprisoned. ② 경제적 자유가 없다면 진정한 자유가 있을 수 없다. → There can be no true liberty unless there is economic liberty. ③ 나는 가능하면 빨리 당신과 거래할 수 있기를 바란다. → I look forward to doing business with you as soon as possible. ④ 30년 전 고향을 떠날 때, 그는 다시는 고향을 못 볼 거라고 꿈에도 생각지 않았다. → When he left his hometown thirty years ago, little does he dream that he could never see it again. 문 19. 다음 글의 ㉠, ㉡에 들어갈 가장 적절한 것은? The chimpanzee －who puts two sticks together in order to get at a banana because no one of the two is long enough to do the job － uses intelligence. So do we all when we go about our business, "figuring out" how to do things. Intelligence, in this sense, is taking things for granted as they are, making combinations which have the purpose of facilitating their manipulation; intelligence is thought in the service of biological survival. Reason, ㉠ , aims at understanding; it tries to find out what is beneath the surface, to recognize the kernel, the essence of the reality which surrounds us. Reason is not without a function, but its function is not to further physical as much as mental and spiritual existence. ㉡ , often in individual and social life, reason is required in order to predict (considering that prediction often depends on recognition of forces which operate underneath the surface), and prediction sometimes is necessary even for physical survival. ㉠ ㉡ ① for example Therefore ② in the same way Likewise ③ consequently As a result ④ on the other hand However 문 20. 다음 글의 내용과 일치하지 않는 것은? East of the Mississippi, the land rises slowly into the foothills of the Appalachian Mountains. At the edge of the Canadian plains, the Canadian Shield, a giant core of rock centered on the Hudson and James Bays, anchors the continent. The stony land of the Shield makes up the eastern half of Canada and the northeastern United States. In northern Quebec, the Canadian Shield descends to the Hudson Bay. The heavily eroded Appalachian Mountains are North America's oldest mountains and the continent's second-longest mountain range. They extend about 1,500 miles from Quebec to central Alabama. Coastal lowlands lie east and south of the Appalachians. Between the mountains and the coastal lowlands lies a wide area of rolling hills. Many rivers cut through the Piedmont and flow across to the Atlantic Coastal Plain in the Carolinas. ① Centered on the Hudson and James Bays is a giant core of rock, the Canadian Shield. ② The Appalachian Mountains are North America's longest mountain range. ③ From Quebec to central Alabama, the Appalachian Mountains stretch. ④ The Piedmont is traversed by many rivers that flow toward the Plain.
영어_9급_A형.pdf 영어_9급_B형.pdf 2015 서울시 9급 영어 해설 김영국.pdf 2015 서울시 9급 영어 해설 김정연.pdf 2015 서울시 9급 영어 해설 김지현.pdf 2015 서울시 9급 영어 해설 박두일.pdf 2015 서울시 9급 영어 해설 성기건.pdf 2015 서울시 9급 영어 해설 성정혜.pdf 2015 서울시 9급 영어 해설 오동훈.pdf 2015 서울시 9급 영어 해설 이동기.pdf 2015 서울시 9급 영어 해설 이리라.pdf 2015 서울시 9급 영어 해설 이승훈.pdf 2015 서울시 9급 영어 해설 이영규.pdf 2015 서울시 9급 영어 해설 이영재.pdf 2015 서울시 9급 영어 해설 장종재.pdf 2015 서울시 9급 영어 해설 전홍철.pdf 2015 서울시 9급 영어 해설 한덕현.pdf - 3 - ※ 밑줄 친 부분의 의미와 가장 가까운 것은? (1~4) 1. South Korea s Ministry for Foreign Affairs and Trade came under fire for making hundreds of translation errors in overseas trade deals. ① became a mockery ② became notorious ③ caught flak ④ was investigated 2. Lawmakers in Nevada, New Mexico, Texas and Utah are trying to pass bills that would allow the states to circumvent daylight saving time laws. ① cramp ② maintain ③ codify ④ reestablish 3. Moscow s annexation of Crimea last year and its meddling in the conflict in eastern Ukraine have galvanized NATO and focused particular attention on its vulnerable Baltic members. ① spurred ② disparaged ③ appeased ④ justified 4. The frequency and severity of corporal punishment varies widely. Parents who sometimes smack their children also use other positive and punitive methods. ① typical ② physical ③ physiological ④ psychological ※ 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 옳지 않은 것은? (5~7) 5. The cartoon character SpongeBob SquarePants is ① in a hot water from a study ② suggesting that watching just nine minutes ③ of that program can cause short-term attention and learning problems ④ in 4-year-olds. 6. Most European countries failed ① to welcome Jewish refugees ②after the war, which caused ③many Jewish people ④ immigrate elsewhere. 7. It was ① a little past 3 p.m. when 16 people gathered and sat cross-legged in a circle, blushing at the strangers they knew they d ② be mingling with for the next two hours. Wearing figure-hugging tights and sleeveless tops in ③ a variety of shape and size, each person took turns sharing their names and native countries. ④ All but five were foreigners from places including the United States, Germany and the United Kingdom. 8. 어법상 밑줄 친 부분에 가장 적절한 것은? Most of the art in the museum is from Italy in the 19th century. ① is displayed ② displaying ③ displayed ④ are displayed 9. 다음 대화의 흐름으로 보아 밑줄 친 부분에 가장 적절한 것은? A : Do you have any vacancies? B:I m sorry. A : I should have made a reservation. B : That would have helped. ① How many people are there in your company? ② We re completely booked. ③ We have plenty of rooms. ④ What kind of room would you like? 10. 다음 대화에서 밑줄 친 carousel 이 잘못 쓰인 것은? A:I m new here at this airport. Where can I get my baggage? B : Please check at ① carousel number 2. Do you have anything special in your baggage? A : I have a 500 watt microwave with a ② carousel. B : You didn t have to bring it. Most of the hotels have microwaves. By the way, what are you planning to do first in your trip to Seattle? A:I d like to ride the ③ carousel at Miners Landing. Well, what kind of clothing will be the best here at this season? It s so chilly. B:I d recommend you to wear a ④ carousel, then. ※ 다음을 읽고 물음에 답하시오. (11~12) In books I had read-from time to time, when the plot called for it-someone would suffer from ( ㉠ ). A person would leave a not so very nice situation and go somewhere else, somewhere a lot better, and then long to go back where it was not very nice. How impatient I would become with such a person, for I would feel that I was in a not so nice situation myself, and how I wanted to go somewhere else. But now I, too, felt that I wanted to be back where I came from. I understood it, I knew where I stood there. If I ( ㉡ ) to draw a picture of my future then, it ( ㉢ ) a large gray patch surrounded by black, blacker, blackest. 11. 문맥상 ㉠에 들어가기 가장 적절한 것은? ① drowsiness ② hysteria ③ depression ④ homesickness 12. 어법상 ㉡과 ㉢에 들어가기 가장 적절한 표현을 순서대로 나열한 것은? ① would have, were ② had had, would have been ③ would have, was ④ have had, would be 13. 다음 괄호에 들어가기 적절한 것을 순서대로 나열한 것은? ( ) cats cannot see in complete darkness, their eyes are much more sensitive ( ) light than human eyes. ① Despite, to ② Though, at ③ Nonetheless, at ④ While, to Ⓐ - 4 - ※ 문맥상 밑줄에 들어가기 가장 적절한 것은? (14~16) 14. The source of this economic paralysis are somewhat different in the two countries. In Japan, a combination of highly constraining social patterns, consensus-based decision making and an ossified political process have suppressed new ideas and made the country resistant to change. In the U.S., there is no shortage of fresh thinking, debate and outrage-the paralysis is caused by of consensus on how problems should be tackled. In a rich nation like the U.S., it s easy to be fooled into thinking there s always more time for problems to get solved. So it has been in Japan. The Japanese are wealthy enough that they don t suffer too much from the prolonged period of stunted growth. ① a number ② a variety ③ a lack ④ a ground 15. In late-twentieth-century America, perhaps in the West as a whole, human life is conceived in terms of a basic unit, the autonomous, free, self-determining individual. This is a being understood as possessing a(n) selfhood, an inner entity known through a sense of immediacy and plenitude and constituted above all by a self-aware consciousness and an executive will. ① communal ② connected ③ dividual ④ undivided 16. Since William Shakespeare lived more than 400 years ago, and many records from that time are lost or never existed in the first place, we don t know everything about his life. For example, we know that he was baptized in Stratford-upon-Avon, 100 miles northwest of London, on April 26, 1564. But we don t know his exact birthdate, which must have been a few days earlier. However, we do know that Shakespeare s life revolved around two locations; Stratford and London. He grew up, had a family, and bought property in Stratford, but he worked in London, the center of English theater. As an actor, a playwright, and a partner in a leading acting company, he became both prosperous and well-known. , fans of Shakespeare have imagined and reimagined him according to their own tastes, just as we see with the 19th-century portrait of Shakespeare wooing his wife at the top of this page. ① Even without knowing everything about his life ② Because we know everything about him ③ Because it is impossible to understand him ④ Even though he was our contemporary poet 17. 다음 글의 종류로 적절한 것은? New York City s Department of Education plans to announce on Wednesday that it will lift the ban on cellphones in schools, a person familiar with the decision said Tuesday. The ban, which was put in place by former Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg, has been unpopular among parents, who worry about not being able to contact their children during school hours and in the time just before and after. According to a different news report, under the new policy, principals would decide, in consultation with teachers and parents, on a range of options for cellphone use. ① An advertisement ② A news article ③ A cellphone manual ④ A statement of legal disposal ※ 다음 글을 문맥에 맞게 순서대로 연결한 것은? (18~19) 18. ㉠ The Butterfly Defect addresses the widening gap between systemic risks and their effective management. ㉡ But rapid globalization has also created concerns because the repercussions of local events now cascade over national borders and the fallout of financial meltdowns and environmental disasters affects everyone. ㉢ Global hyperconnectivity and increased system integration have led to vast benefits, including worldwide growth in incomes, education, innovation, and technology. ㉣ It shows how the new dynamics of turbo-charged globalization has the potential and power to destabilize our societies. ① ㉠-㉢-㉡-㉣ ② ㉠-㉣-㉡-㉢ ③ ㉢-㉡-㉠-㉣ ④ ㉢-㉡-㉣-㉠ 19. ㉠ Speaking two languages rather than just one has obvious practical benefits in an increasingly globalized world. ㉡ Being bilingual, it turns out, makes you smarter. ㉢ It can have a profound effect on your brain, improving cognitive skills not related to language and even shielding against dementia in old age. ㉣ But in recent years, scientists have begun to show that the advantages of bilingualism are even more fundamental than being able to converse with a wider range of people. ① ㉠-㉡-㉢-㉣ ② ㉠-㉣-㉡-㉢ ③ ㉡-㉣-㉢-㉠ ④ ㉢-㉡-㉣-㉠ 20. 다음 글의 내용에 가장 가까운 것은? To act well, a person needs to determine which action-guiding statements are true, or likely to be true, and which false, or likely to be false. For it seems reasonable to suppose that a person who is acting in accordance with true statements, and not false ones likely to be true, has more chance of reaching acceptable goals. ① It can be unreliable to act in accordance with statements which are likely to be true. ② Acceptable results will be guaranteed to a person acting on the ground of true statements. ③ It is equally dangerous to act on the statements that are true and on those that are likely to be true. ④ Action is one thing, and statements another; the two have no mutual dependency.
영어-A.pdf 영어-C.pdf 2015 지방직 9급 영어 해설 이영재.pdf 2015 지방직 9급 영어 해설 장서영.pdf 2015 지방직 9급 영어 해설 전홍철.pdf 2015 지방직 9급 영어 해설 최종수.pdf 2015 지방직 9급 영어 해설 강수정.pdf 2015 지방직 9급 영어 해설 기승훈.pdf 2015 지방직 9급 영어 해설 김영국.pdf 2015 지방직 9급 영어 해설 김정연.pdf 2015 지방직 9급 영어 해설 김지현.pdf 2015 지방직 9급 영어 해설 리스공.pdf 2015 지방직 9급 영어 해설 박두일.pdf 2015 지방직 9급 영어 해설 성정혜.pdf 2015 지방직 9급 영어 해설 이동기.pdf 2015 지방직 9급 영어 해설 이리라.pdf 2015 지방직 9급 영어 해설 이영규.pdf 영 어 A 책형 1 쪽 영 어 문 1. 밑줄 친 부분과 의미가 가장 가까운 것은? There are some diseases your doctor will rule out before making a diagnosis. ① trace ② exclude ③ instruct ④ examine 문 2. 다음 중 어법상 옳은 것은? ① She supposed to phone me last night, but she didn't. ② I have been knowing Jose until I was seven. ③ You'd better to go now or you'll be late. ④ Sarah would be offended if I didn't go to her party. 문 3. 우리말을 영어로 옮긴 것 중 가장 어색한 것은? ① 제인은 보기만큼 젊지 않다. → Jane is not as young as she looks. ② 전화하는 것이 편지 쓰는 것보다 더 쉽다. → It's easier to make a phone call than to write a letter. ③ 너는 나보다 돈이 많다. → You have more money than I. ④ 당신 아들 머리는 당신 머리와 같은 색깔이다. → Your son's hair is the same color as you. 문 4. 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 표현으로 가장 적절한 것은? M : Would you like to go out for dinner, Mary? W : Oh, I'd love to. Where are we going? M : How about the new pizza restaurant in town? W : Do we need a reservation? M : I don't think it is necessary. W : But we may have to wait in line because it's Friday night. M : You are absolutely right. Then, I'll __________ right now. W : Great. ① cancel the reservation ② give you the check ③ eat some breakfast ④ book a table 문 5. 다음 글의 (A), (B), (C)에서 어법상 옳은 것을 모두 고른 것은? Pattern books contain stories that make use of repeated phrases, refrains, and sometimes rhymes. In addition, pattern books frequently contain pictures (A) that/what may facilitate story comprehension. The predictable patterns allow beginning second language readers to become involved (B) immediate/immediately in a literacy event in their second language. Moreover, the use of pattern books (C) meet/meets the criteria for literacy scaffolds by modeling reading, by challenging students' current level of linguistic competence, and by assisting comprehension through the repetition of a simple sentence pattern. (A) (B) (C) ① that immediate meet ② what immediately meets ③ that immediately meets ④ what immediate meet 문 6. 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 가장 적절한 것은? Culture travels, like people. There are Chinese and Zen gardens in cities from Sydney to Edinburgh to San Francisco. 'World Music' is enormously popular: the latest disco style breezily combines flamenco with jazz and Gaelic traditions. Dance troupes from Africa and South America routinely perform overseas. It would be impossible to disentangle strands of influence in the spaghetti western, samurai film, Hollywood action flick, Indian adventure story, and Hong Kong cinema. In the modern world, no culture, however 'primitive' and remote, remains ___________. The Huichol Indians, who live in mountain villages of Mexico, make their masks and bowls using glass beads imported from Japan and Czechoslovakia. ① isolated ② interconnected ③ multicultural ④ complex ※ 주어진 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. [문 7 ～ 문 8] 문 7. Depending on your values, different kinds of numbers may be important to you. To some, it's cholesterol count and blood pressure figures; to others, it's the number of years they've been married. To many, the sum total in the retirement account is the number-one number, and some people zero in on the amount left on their mortgage. But I contend that your per-hour worth should be among the top-of-mind numbers that are important to you ―no matter what your values or priorities are ― even if you don't earn your living on a per-hour rate. Knowing the value of your time enables you to make wise decisions about where and how you spend it so you can make the most of this limited resource according to your circumstances, goals, and interests. Obviously, the higher you raise your per-hour worth while upholding your priorities, the more you can propel your efforts toward meeting your goals, because you have more resources at your disposal ― you have either more money or more time, whichever you need most. ① Your Time Is Money ② Maintaining High Motivation ③ Part-time Jobs Are Better ④ Living Within Your Income 영 어 A 책형 2 쪽 문 8. Making mistakes is central to the education of budding scientists and artists of all kinds, who must have the freedom to experiment, try this idea, flop, try another idea, take a risk, be willing to get the wrong answer. One classic example is Thomas Edison's reply to a reporter who was lamenting Edison's ten thousand experimental failures in his effort to create the first incandescent light bulb. "I have not failed," he told the reporter. "I successfully discovered 10,000 elements that don't work." Most children, however, are denied the freedom to noodle around, experiment, and be wrong in ten ways, let alone ten thousand. The focus on constant testing to measure and standardize children's accomplishments has intensified their fear of failure. It is certainly important for children to learn to succeed; but it is just as important for them to learn not to fear failure. ① Getting It Right the First Time ② The Secret Inventions of Edison ③ Road to Creativity: Avoid Risks ④ Failure: Nothing to Be Afraid Of 문 9. 우리말을 영어로 옮긴 것 중 가장 어색한 것은? ① 그녀는 젊었을 때 더 열심히 일하지 않았던 것을 후회한다. → She regrets not having worked harder in her youth. ② 그는 경험과 지식을 둘 다 겸비한 사람이다. →He is a man of both experience and knowledge. ③ 분노는 정상적이고 건강한 감정이다. → Anger is a normal and healthy emotion. ④ 어떤 상황에서도 너는 이곳을 떠나면 안 된다. → Under no circumstances you should not leave here. 문 10. 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 표현으로 가장 적절한 것은? M : Excuse me. How can I get to Seoul Station? W : You can take the subway. M : How long does it take? W : It takes approximately an hour. M : How often does the subway run? W : _______________________. ① It is too far to walk ② Every five minutes or so ③ You should wait in line ④ It takes about half an hour ※ 밑줄 친 부분과 의미가 가장 가까운 것을 고르시오. [문 11 ～ 문 13] 문 11. Bringing presents for his children alleviated some of the guilt he felt for not spending enough time with them. ① relieved ② accumulated ③ provoked ④ accelerated 문 12. I am not made of money, you know! ① needy ② thrifty ③ wealthy ④ stingy 문 13. Experienced salespeople claim there is a difference between being assertive and being pushy. ① thrilled ② brave ③ timid ④ aggressive ※ 주어진 부분에 들어갈 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. [문 14 ～ 문 15] 문 14. A growing number of people are seeking medical attention for vitamin D deficiency, a common condition among those who spend a lot of time indoors. It is well known that vitamin D deficiency can affect one's muscles, bones and immunity and is even associated with cancer. Vitamin D is produced by the body in response to skin being exposed to sunlight. A lot of women, however, wear sunscreen before they go out, and this often makes it more difficult for their body to produce vitamin D ― as ___________________________. ① many types of sunscreen may contain beneficial substances ② sunscreen can block vitamin D-producing ultraviolet rays ③ their sunscreen is professionally prescribed ④ they exercise on a regular basis 문 15. Muzafer Sherif's research on the autokinetic effect is a good example of the role of ____________ in perception. People in his experiments were told that a spot of light projected on the wall would move and were instructed to estimate the amount of movement. Although the spot of light never actually moved, the people inevitably reported movement. When told that the spot of light would even trace out letters and words, participants began reporting words and sentences. Clearly what they thought would happen resulted in the addition of a considerable amount of information to their sensations. ① unification ② expectation ③ competition ④ quantification 영 어 A 책형 3 쪽 문 16. 다음 글의 (A)와 (B)에 들어갈 가장 적절한 것은? Mythology was an integral part of Egyptian culture for much of its timespan. Characters and events from myth permeate Egyptian art, architecture, and literature. Myths (A) many of the rituals performed by kings and priests. Educated Egyptians believed that a knowledge of myth was an essential weapon in the fight to survive the dangers of life and the afterlife. There is disagreement among Egyptologists about when mythical narratives first developed in Egypt. This dispute is partly due to the difficulty of deciding what should be counted as a myth. Today, the term myth is often used in an unfavorable way to refer to something that is exaggerated or untrue. In ancient cultures, myth did not have this (B) connotation; myths could be regarded as stories that contained poetic rather than literal truths. Some scholars separate myths from other types of traditional tale by classifying them as stories featuring deities. This simple definition might work quite well for Egypt, but not for all cultures. (A) (B) ① extinguished immoral ② bolstered literal ③ underpinned negative ④ corroborated political ※ 주어진 부분에 들어갈 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. [문 17 ～ 문 18] 문 17. We rarely get tired when ______________. For example, I recently took a vacation in the Canadian Rockies up around Lake Louise. I spent several days trout fishing along Coral Creek, fighting my way through brush higher than my head, stumbling over logs, struggling through fallen timber ― yet after eight hours of this, I was not exhausted. Why? Because I was excited, exhilarated. I had a sense of high achievement: six cutthroat trout. But suppose I had been bored by fishing, then how do you think I would have felt? I would have been worn out by such strenuous work at an altitude of seven thousand feet. ① we are doing something interesting and exciting ② we get a good night's sleep and a hearty meal ③ we do household chores for our family ④ we are elevated to high altitudes 문 18. The 'ten-thousand-hour rule' states that expertise requires at least ten thousand hours of practice. Clearly, though, time is not the only requirement. Years of one's life spent practicing the wrong things will not lead to expertise any more than spending the same amount of time watching television. Time is a basic prerequisite, but not ____________________________________. Layered upon time are a slew of other ingredients, life focus, precision, discipline, and desire. ① a sufficient one in itself ② a requisite for time ③ a tolerant one of others ④ a predictor of longevity 문 19. George Stephenson에 관한 다음 글의 내용과 일치하지 않는 것은? George Stephenson gained a reputation for working with the primitive steam engines employed in mines in the northeast of England and in Scotland. In 1814, Stephenson made his first locomotive, 'Blucher.' In 1821, Stephenson was appointed engineer for the construction of the Stockton and Darlington railway. It opened in 1825 and was the first public railway. In October 1829, the railway's owners staged a competition to find the best kind of locomotive to pull heavy loads over long distances. Stephenson's locomotive 'Rocket' was the winner, achieving a record speed of 36 miles per hour. The opening of the Stockton and Darlington railway and the success of 'Rocket' stimulated the laying of railway lines and the construction of locomotives all over the country. Stephenson became engineer on a number of these projects and also participated in the development of railways in Belgium and Spain. ① 탄광에 사용된 초기 증기 기관과 관련된 일을 하여 명성을 얻었다. ② 1814년에 그의 첫 번째 기관차를 만들었다. ③ 시속 36마일의 기관차를 개발하여 기관차 대회에서 준우승했다. ④ 벨기에와 스페인의 철도 개발에도 참여했다. 문 20. 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 가장 적절한 것은? There are many instances in our society in which it is entirely appropriate for people to play a power role over others. __________________, teachers, coaches, police, and parents all play this role. Any leader of a group of people has to have some kind of authority. Still, the right to wield power and the extent to which an authority should wield power must be questioned and negotiated lest the power be abusive and lead to injustice and unfairness. ① However ② Otherwise ③ For example ④ Nevertheless
영어-S.pdf 영어-T.pdf 2014 국가직 9급 영어 해설 강수정.pdf 2014 국가직 9급 영어 해설 김정연.pdf 2014 국가직 9급 영어 해설 김형구.pdf 2014 국가직 9급 영어 해설 닥터잉글리쉬.pdf 2014 국가직 9급 영어 해설 두형호.pdf 2014 국가직 9급 영어 해설 박지나.pdf 2014 국가직 9급 영어 해설 심상대.pdf 2014 국가직 9급 영어 해설 유수연.pdf 2014 국가직 9급 영어 해설 이동기.pdf 2014 국가직 9급 영어 해설 이리라.pdf 2014 국가직 9급 영어 해설 제석강.pdf 2014 국가직 9급 영어 해설 한덕현.pdf 2014 국가직 9급 영어 해설 헤더진.pdf 영 어 S 책형 1 쪽 영 어 문 1. 밑줄 친 부분에 가장 적절한 것은? Before she traveled to Mexico last winter, she needed to ______________ her Spanish because she had not practiced it since college. ① make up to ② brush up on ③ shun away from ④ come down with 문 2. 밑줄 친 부분과 의미가 가장 가까운 것은? I was told to let Jim pore over computer printouts. ① examine ② distribute ③ discard ④ correct 문 3. 밑줄 친 부분과 의미가 가장 가까운 것은? Johannes Kepler believed that there would one day be "celestial ships with sails adapted to the winds of heaven" navigating the sky, filled with explorers "who would not fear the vastness" of space. And today those explorers, human and robot, employ as unerring guides on their voyages through the vastness of space the three laws of planetary motion that Kepler uncovered during a lifetime of personal travail and ecstatic discovery. ① faultless ② unreliable ③ gutless ④ unscientific 문 4. 밑줄 친 부분에 가장 적절한 것은? Visitors at Disneyland pay a high admission price and wait hours for rides that last no more than five minutes. Why do they respond so well to a situation that might otherwise cause great ㉠ ? One reason is that the theme park provides extra service wherever they can. They lend cameras at no ㉡ to their guests at designated photo sites. People remember the fun picture with Mickey Mouse and forget the long lines. Clean facilities and friendly staff also go far to ㉢ the negative experiences. ㉠ ㉡ ㉢ ① dissemination chance evoke ② dissemination charge erase ③ dissatisfaction charge erase ④ dissatisfaction chance evoke 문 5. 우리말을 영어로 잘못 옮긴 것은? ① 그녀는 등산은 말할 것도 없고, 야외에 나가는 것을 좋아하지 않는다. → She does not like going outdoor, not to mention mountain climbing. ② 그녀는 학급에서 가장 예쁜 소녀이다. → She is more beautiful than any other girl in the class. ③ 그 나라는 국토의 3/4이 바다로 둘러싸여 있는 소국이다. → The country is a small one with the three quarters of the land surrounding by the sea. ④ 많은 학생들이 졸업 후 취직을 위해 열심히 공부한다. → A number of students are studying very hard to get a job after their graduation. 문 6. 밑줄 친 부분에 가장 적절한 것은? A : I saw the announcement for your parents' 25th anniversary in yesterday's newspaper. It was really neat. Do you know how your parents met? B : Yes. It was really incredible, actually, very romantic. They met in college, found they were compatible, and began to date. Their courtship lasted all through school. A : No kidding! That's really beautiful. I haven't noticed anyone in class that I could fall in love with! B : _________________________. Oh, well, maybe next semester! ① Me neither ② You shouldn't blame me ③ It is up to your parents ④ You'd better hang about with her 문 7. 밑줄 친 부분에 가장 적절한 것은? A : Did you see Steve this morning? B : Yes. But why does he _________________? A : I don't have the slightest idea. B : I thought he'd be happy. A : Me too. Especially since he got promoted to sales manager last week. B : He may have some problem with his girlfriend. ① have such a long face ② step into my shoes ③ jump on the bandwagon ④ play a good hand 문 8. 어법상 옳은 것은? ① While worked at a hospital, she saw her first air show. ② However weary you may be, you must do the project. ③ One of the exciting games I saw were the World Cup final in 2010. ④ It was the main entrance for that she was looking. 문 9. 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 옳은 것은? Compared to newspapers, magazines are not necessarily up-to-the-minute, since they do not appear every day, but weekly, monthly, or even less frequently. Even externally they are different from newspapers, mainly because magazines ①resemble like a book. The paper is thicker, photos are more colorful, and most of the articles are relatively long. The reader experiences much more background information and greater detail. There are also weekly news magazines, ② which reports on a number of topics, but most of the magazines are specialized to attract various consumers. For example, there are ③women's magazines cover fashion, cosmetics, and recipes as well as youth magazines about celebrities. Other magazines are directed toward, for example, computer users, sports fans, ④those interested in the arts, and many other small groups. 영 어 S 책형 2 쪽 문 10. 밑줄 친 부분에 가장 적절한 것은? Until recently many experts assumed that under the influence of universal literacy and mass media, regional dialects were being leveled. _____________. Local identity and other social forces exert a stronger influence than even TV on how dialects evolve. The Inland North, the Midland, Canada, and the South are now more different from each other than ever. ① Absolutely true ② Too much so ③ Not so ④ Well enough 문 11. 밑줄 친 부분에 가장 적절한 것은? Body type was useless as a predictor of how the men would fare in life. So was birth order or political affiliation. Even social class had a limited effect. But having a warm childhood was powerful. It's not that the men who flourished had perfect childhoods. Rather, as Vaillant puts it, "What goes right is more important than what goes wrong." The positive effect of one loving relative, mentor or friend can _________ the negative effects of the bad things that happen. ① augment ② convene ③ vanquish ④ reinforce 문 12. 주어진 글 다음에 이어질 글의 순서로 가장 적절한 것은? It's amazing what a little free beer can accomplish. Samso, then known for its dairy and pig farms, would become Denmark's showcase for sustainable power, eventually going carbon-free. How that would happen, however, was far from clear, since the government initially offered no funding, tax breaks or technical expertise. (A) So Hermansen showed up at every community or club meeting to give his pitch for going green. He pointed to the blustery island's untapped potential for wind power and the economic benefits of making Samso energy-independent. And he sometimes brought free beer. (B) It worked. The islanders exchanged their oil-burning furnaces for centralized plants that burned leftover straw or wood chips to produce heat and hot water. They bought shares in new wind turbines, which generated the capital to build 11 large land-based turbines, enough to meet the entire island's electricity needs. Today Samso isn't just carbon-neutral—it actually produces 10 % more clean electricity than it uses, with the extra power fed back into the grid at a profit. (C) Given that almost all its power came from oil or coal—and the island's 4,300 residents didn't know a wind turbine from a grain silo—Samso seemed an odd choice. Soren Hermansen, though, saw an opportunity. The appeal was immediate, and when a renewable-energy project finally secured some funding, he volunteered to be the first—and only—staffer. ① (A) － (B) － (C) ② (B) － (A) － (C) ③ (C) － (B) － (A) ④ (C) － (A) － (B) 문 13. 밑줄 친 부분에 가장 적절한 것은? The emphasis on decoding, translated mainly as phonemic awareness and knowledge of the alphabetic principle, has led schools to search for packaged or commercially produced reading programs that help students master the skills of decoding. According to the teachers we work with, this highly scripted approach to reading instruction has produced many students who know how to sound out words, but that is where the process of reading ends for them. While the students can decode and even become fluent oral readers, they do not truly comprehend the material; they cannot read between the lines, infer meaning, or detect the author's bias, among other things. Reading ___________________. ① is basically decoding since phonemic and alphabetical knowledge is added to the general decoding process ② is much more complex than simply mastering phonemic awareness and alphabet recognition ③ can be more efficiently learned together with peers than either alone or with teachers ④ can be mastered when learners know how to sound out words fluently 문 14. 다음 문장이 들어갈 위치로 가장 적절한 것은? For example, some cultural groups were often portrayed as gangsters, while others were usually shown as the `good guys' who arrested them. One of the challenges we face in the world today is that a lot of the information we get about other people and places comes from the advertising and entertainment we see in the media. ( A ) You can't always trust these types of information. ( B ) To the people who make television programs and advertisements, true facts and honest opinions aren't as important as keeping you interested long enough to sell you something! ( C ) In the past, the messages we received from television programs, advertisements, and movies were full of stereotypes. ( D ) Even places were presented as stereotypes: European cities, such as Paris and Venice, were usually shown as beautiful and romantic, but cities in Africa and Asia, such as Cairo and Calcutta, were often shown as poor and overcrowded. ① A ② B ③ C ④ D 문 15. 내용의 흐름상 적절하지 못한 문장은? The earth is a planet full of life. One of the reasons for this is that our sun is the kind of star that can support life on a planet. All the time the sun continues to send out a steady supply of heat and light. For our sun is a stable star. ① This means that it stays the same size. And its output of energy (heat and light) does not change much. ② Some stars are not stable. They grow bigger and hotter and then smaller and cooler. ③ The heat and light they send out vary greatly. If our sun behaved like that, the earth would boil and freeze repeatedly. ④ Life could exist under these great changes. We are here because a steady amount of energy pours forth from our sun. 영 어 S 책형 3 쪽 문 16. 다음 글의 내용과 일치하지 않는 것은? Chicago's Newberry Library and the Brookfield Zoo were among 10 institutions presented Monday with the National Medal for Museum and Library Service by First Lady Laura Bush at the White House. The annual awards, given by the Institute of Museum and Library Services in Washington, D. C., honor institutions for their collections and community involvement, and include a $ 10,000 award each. The Brookfield Zoo was honored for programs such as Zoo Adventure Passport, which provides free field trips to low-income families. "Brookfield Zoo is a living classroom for local students," Bush said. The Newberry Library was also honored for its extensive collection of more than half a million maps and its role in helping African-Americans trace their family heritage. ① The Brookfield Zoo ran a program that supports free admission for low-income families. ② The Brookfield Zoo assisted African-American kids in tracing their family history. ③ The Newberry Library and the Brookfield Zoo won a $ 10,000 award respectively. ④ The Newberry Library was awarded the medal for an extensive number of maps. 문 17. 피드백에 대한 글쓴이의 주장으로 가장 적절한 것은? Feedback, particularly the negative kind, should be descriptive rather than judgmental or evaluative. No matter how upset you are, keep the feedback job-related and never criticize someone personally because of an inappropriate action. Telling people they're stupid, incompetent, or the like is almost always counterproductive. It provokes such an emotional reaction that the performance deviation itself is apt to be overlooked. When you're criticizing, remember that you're censuring a job-related behavior, not the person. ① 상대방에게 직접 전달하는 것이 바람직하다. ② 상대방의 인격보다는 업무에 초점을 두어야 한다. ③ 긍정적인 평가가 부정적인 것보다 더 많아야 한다. ④ 상대방의 지위와 감정을 고려해야 한다. 문 18. 다음 글의 요지로 가장 적절한 것은? Through discoveries and inventions, science has extended life, conquered disease and offered new material freedom. It has pushed aside gods and demons and revealed a cosmos more intricate and awesome than anything produced by pure imagination. But there are new troubles in the peculiar paradise that science has created. It seems that science is losing the popular support to meet the future challenges of pollution, security, energy, education, and food. The public has come to fear the potential consequences of unfettered science and technology in such areas as genetic engineering, global warming, nuclear power, and the proliferation of nuclear arms. ① Science is very helpful in modern society. ② Science and technology are developing quickly. ③ The absolute belief in science is weakening. ④ Scientific research is getting more funds from private sectors. 문 19. 다음 글의 내용과 일치하는 것은? During the nine-week summer session, services for the university community will follow a revised schedule. Specific changes for campus bus services, the cafeteria, and summer hours for the infirmary and recreational and athletic facilities will be posted on the bulletin board outside of the cafeteria. Weekly movie and concert schedules are being finalized and will be posted outside the cafeteria every Wednesday. Campus buses will leave the main hall every half an hour and make all of the regular stops along their routes around the campus. The cafeteria will serve breakfast, lunch, and early dinner from 7 a.m. to 7 p.m. during the weekdays and from noon to 7 p.m. on weekends. The library will maintain regular hours during the weekdays, but shorter hours noon to 7 p.m. on Saturdays and Sundays. All students who want to use the library borrowing services and the recreational, athletic, and entertainment facilities must have an authorized summer identification card. This announcement will also appear in the next issue of the student newspaper. ① Movie and concert schedules will be notified twice a month. ② During the weekdays, the cafeteria and the library will open at noon. ③ Campus buses will run every hour and make all of the regular stops. ④ A valid identification card is required to use the athletic and entertainment facilities during the summer session. 문 20. 다음 글의 내용과 일치하지 않는 것은? When the children had originally been shown what we think of as an object, like the copper tee, they pointed to an object of the same shape but a different substance, such as a plastic plumbing tee, not to the same substance with a different shape, namely a pile of copper bits. But when they had originally been shown what we think of as a substance, like the hair gel, they pointed to the same substance regardless of its shape, such as three smears of hair gel, and not to the same shape of a different substance, such an identically curved glob of hand cream. So well before children know how the English language distinguishes individual objects from portions of a substance, they distinguish them on their own, and generalize words for them accordingly. Names for solids with a noteworthy shape are taken to apply to objects of that kind; names for nonsolids with an arbitrary shape are taken to apply to substances of that kind. ① With regard to pointing to an object, the children pointed to an object of the same shape but a different substance. ② With regard to pointing to a substance, the children pointed to the same substance regardless of its shape. ③ Children can apply the names for solids with a noteworthy shape to objects of that kind. ④ Children can distinguish objects from substances only after they know how their language distinguishes them.
영어_9급A.pdf 영어_9급B.pdf 2014 서울시 9급 영어 해설 한덕현.pdf 2014 서울시 9급 영어 해설 강수정.pdf 2014 서울시 9급 영어 해설 김정연.pdf 2014 서울시 9급 영어 해설 두형호.pdf 2014 서울시 9급 영어 해설 박두일.pdf 2014 서울시 9급 영어 해설 박지나.pdf 2014 서울시 9급 영어 해설 성정혜.pdf 2014 서울시 9급 영어 해설 손재석.pdf 2014 서울시 9급 영어 해설 손진숙.pdf 2014 서울시 9급 영어 해설 이동기.pdf 2014 서울시 9급 영어 해설 이리라.pdf 2014 서울시 9급 영어 해설 최종수.pdf ※ 밑줄 친 부분과 의미가 가장 가까운 것은? (1~4) 1. David decided to efface some lines from his manuscript. ① enlighten ② appreciate ③ construe ④ recite ⑤ erase 2. Including several interviews with the residents who used to mine but now suffer from asthma, the documentary delves into coal mining issues in the suburban area of Ontario. ① discourse ② corroborate ③ explicate ④ converse ⑤ investigate 3. The Polish coach admits he would love to emulate the Frenchman by taking charge of 1,000 matches at the same club. ① imitate ② comfort ③ excruciate ④ substantiate ⑤ announce 4. We ve got a new junior assistant, fresh from law school. He s very idealistic―still wet behind the ears. ① an optimist ② a rookie ③ a misfit ④ a functionary ⑤ a troublemaker ※ 문맥상 빈칸에 들어가기에 적절한 것은? (5~6) 5. According to dental researchers, a vaccine that could significantly reduce the number of microorganisms thought to cause cavities will soon be ready for human trials. Consequently, . ① cavity prevention programs may soon be eliminated ② immunization of test animals will no longer be necessary ③ children will be able to consume more sugary foods and drinks ④ long-term protection against tooth decay could soon be available on the market ⑤ microorganisms related to tooth cavities will not respond to the vaccine 6. When you observe peaceful, relaxed people, you find that when they are feeling good, they are very grateful. They understand that both positive and negative feelings come and go, and that there will come a time when they won t be feeling so good. To happy people, this is okay, it s the way of things. They accept the of passing feelings. ① vengeance ② indolence ③ inevitability ④ reluctance ⑤ expulsion ※ 어법상 옳지 않은 것은? (7~9) 7. ① At certain times may this door be left unlocked. ② Eloquent though she was, she could not persuade him. ③ So vigorously did he protest that they reconsidered his case. ④ The sea has its currents, as do the river and the lake. ⑤ Only in this way is it possible to explain their actions. 8. Sometimes there is nothing you can do ① to stop yourself falling ill. But if you lead a healthy life, you will probably be able to get better ② much more quickly. We can all avoid ③ doing things that we know ④ damages the body, such as smoking cigarettes, drinking too much alcohol or ⑤ taking harmful drugs. 9. My ① art history professors prefer Michelangelo s painting ②to viewing his sculpture, although Michelangelo ③ himself was ④ more proud of the ⑤ latter. 10. 다음 빈칸에 들어갈 단어가 순서대로 짝지어진 것은? Ancient navigation relied on the sun, and therefore depended on fair weather; overcast skies could mean extensive delays or worse. The contingencies of weather paired with the lack of more sophisticated navigational tools meant that the Greeks and other ancient Mediterranean civilizations were forced to (A) their exploration; trade relations were mostly limited to closely surrounding islands and coasts. Eventually, sailors were able to venture farther out using celestial navigations, which used the positions of the stars relative to the movement of the ship for direction. But even then, few captains dared to travel too far beyond the sight of coastlines for fear of unfavorable currents carrying ships off course into more dangerous waters. Finally, the introduction of the compass to Europe (B) the age of explorations and paved the way for future Western European empires. (A) (B) ① restrict circumvented ② expedite recorded ③ circumscribe ignited ④ ban depicted ⑤ facilitate spurred ※ 어법상 빈칸에 들어가기에 적절한 것은? (11~12) 11. test positive for antibiotics when tanker trucks arrive at a milk processing plant, according to the Federal Law, the entire truckload must be discarded. ① Should milk ② If milk ③ If milk is ④ Were milk ⑤ Milk will 12. The sales industry is one constant interaction is required, so good social skills are a must. ① but which ② in which ③ those which ④ which ⑤ what 13. 다음 글에서 밑줄 친 it 이 의미하는 것은? For me as a person and a businesswoman every day is a challenge that needs to be faced. History has taught me that if I am to achieve my goals, I should never set limits for myself. I believe it is within each and everyone of us to achieve greatness. ① a businesswoman ② every day ③ a challenge ④ history ⑤ to achieve greatness 14. 다음 글을 쓴 목적으로 적절한 것은? Among the growing number of alternative work styles is flextime. Flextime allows workers to adjust work hours to suit personal needs. The total number of hours in the week remains the same, but the daily schedule varies from standard business hours. Flextime can also mean a change in workdays, such as four 10-hour days and six short days. Workers on flextime schedules include employment agents, claim adjusters, mail clerks, and data entry operators. ① To define flextime ② To describe flexible workers ③ To discuss the alternative work styles ④ To compare different jobs ⑤ To arrange flextime schedules 15. 다음 ㉠~㉣을 문맥에 맞게 배열한 것은? ㉠ Mark Twain began his career writing light, humorous verse, but evolved into a chronicler of the vanities and hypocrisies of mankind. ㉡ Though Twain earned a great deal of money from his writings and lectures, he lost a great deal through investments in ventures in his later life. ㉢ Samuel Langhorne Clemens, better known by his pen name Mark Twain had worked as a typesetter and a riverboat pilot on the Mississippi River before he became a writer. ㉣ At mid-career, with The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, he combined rich humor, sturdy narrative and social criticism, popularizing a distinctive American literature built on American themes and language. ① ㉠-㉡-㉢-㉣ ② ㉡-㉣-㉢-㉠ ③ ㉠-㉣-㉡-㉢ ④ ㉢-㉠-㉣-㉡ ⑤ ㉢-㉣-㉠-㉡ ※ 문맥상 빈칸에 들어가기에 적절한 것은? (16~17) 16. Medieval people did not distinguish between entertainment (which people expect to pay for) and general merriment, of the sort that anyone could take part in at festive times. They regarded both as play, as opposed to work, and they called entertainers players. The Church taught that idleness was a sin, that players were idle and that it was idleness to watch them. But the closing of theaters in Roman times had not taken away people s appetite for comedy, tricks and tunes. The most lasting effect had been to , so that they had to wander in search of audience. ① let the players take part in the festivals ② employ entertainers for festivals ③ teach people not to be idle ④ supply players with new ethics ⑤ deprive players of a workplace 17. Microwave works mainly by agitating or shaking the molecules of water within the food. A molecule that shakes or vibrates more has more heat energy, that is, it gets hotter. The heat energy is transferred from each water molecule to the other molecules around it. The food cooks inside, rather than from the outside inwards as in a normal oven. The process also continues for a time after the microwaves are switched off. So . ① microwaves made by the magnetron are led along the hollow waveguide and into the general oven compartment ② the most likely place for microwaves to escape is around the door seal when this gets loose or broken ③ food from a microwave oven is left to stand for a time afterwards to finish cooking ④ the cooking can be paused for a short period by stopping the magnetron and revolving platter ⑤ the door is locked shut and can t be opened while the oven is working 18. 다음 글의 주제로 적절한 것은? Although Albert Einstein s Theory of Relativity revolutionized physics, his mathematical models were based on the erroneous assumption that the universe is static―all the components are fixed in time and space. In order to maintain this view, when Einstein s equations predicted a universe in flux, he invented the cosmological constant to maintain the supposed constancy of the universe. Within ten years, the astronomer Edwin Hubble discovered that the universe was expanding, causing Einstein to abandon the idea of the cosmological constant. Almost a century later, physicists have discovered that some unknown force is apparently pushing the universe apart, leading some scientists to conclude that Einstein s cosmological constant may in fact exist. ① The observations of Hubble severely damaged the Theory of Relativity. ② One of Einstein s most significant discoveries was the cosmological constant. ③ Einsteins Theory of Relativity is fundamentally flawed. ④ The cosmological constant, while erroneously derived, may actually play a part in describing the universe. ⑤ Physicists today still make use of Einstein s cosmological constant to describe the universe. ※ 다음 글을 읽고 물음에 답하시오. (19~20) Elizabeth Barret Browning, a feminist writer of the Victorian Era, used her poetry and prose to take on a wide range of issues facing her society, including the woman questions. In her long poem Aurora Leigh, she explores this question as she portrays both the growth of the artist and the growth of the woman within. Aurora Leigh is not a traditional Victorian woman―she is well-educated and self-sufficient. In the poem, Browning argues that the limitations placed on woman in contrast to the freedom men enjoy should incite women to rise up and effect a change in their circumstances. Browning s writing, including Aurora Leigh, helped to pave the way for major social change in women s lives. 19. 빈칸에 들어가기에 적절한 것은? It can be inferred from the passage that the author believes the traditional Victorian woman . ① wrote poetry ② was portrayed accurately in Aurora Leigh ③ was not well-educated ④ fought for social change ⑤ had a public role in society 20. 밑줄 친 effect의 문맥상 의미와 같은 것은? ① imitate ② cause ③ result ④ disturb ⑤ prevent
영어-A.pdf 영어-C.pdf 2014 지방직 9급 영어 해설 강수정.pdf 2014 지방직 9급 영어 해설 김영국.pdf 2014 지방직 9급 영어 해설 김재운.pdf 2014 지방직 9급 영어 해설 김정연.pdf 2014 지방직 9급 영어 해설 두형호.pdf 2014 지방직 9급 영어 해설 박두일.pdf 2014 지방직 9급 영어 해설 박지나.pdf 2014 지방직 9급 영어 해설 손재석.pdf 2014 지방직 9급 영어 해설 손진숙.pdf 2014 지방직 9급 영어 해설 이동기.pdf 2014 지방직 9급 영어 해설 이리라.pdf 2014 지방직 9급 영어 해설 이영규.hwp 2014 지방직 9급 영어 해설 제석강.pdf 2014 지방직 9급 영어 해설 최종수.pdf 2014 지방직 9급 영어 해설 한덕현.pdf 2014 지방직 9급 영어 해설 헤더진.pdf 영 어 A 책형 1 쪽 영 어 ※ 밑줄 친 부분과 의미가 가장 가까운 것을 고르시오. [문 1 ～ 문 2] 문 1. Electric cars also are a key part of China's efforts to curb its unquenchable appetite for imported oil and gas, which communist leaders see as a strategic weakness. ① infallible ② aesthetic ③ adolescent ④ insatiable 문 2. John had just started working for the company, and he was not dry behind the ears yet. We should have given him a break. ① did not listen to his boss ② knew his way around ③ was not experienced ④ was not careful ※ 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. [문 3 ～ 문 4] 문 3. If you are someone who is __________, you tend to keep your feelings hidden and do not like to show other people what you really think. ① reserved ② loquacious ③ eloquent ④ confident 문 4. How did you __________ selling cosmetics online? ① go around ② go back ③ go down ④ go into 문 5. 밑줄 친 우리말 문장을 영어로 가장 적절하게 옮긴 것은? Goods for which the marginal costs are close to zero are inherently public goods and should be made publicly available. Bridges and roads are good examples. Once society has incurred the capital costs of constructing a bridge or road, maximum benefit from the initial investment is gained only if use is not restricted by charging. 따라서 사람들은 무료로 그러한 시설들을 이용할 수 있어야 한다. ① Therefore, people freely such facilities must be able to use. ② Hence, people should be allowed free access to such facilities. ③ Therefore, people must make access to such facilities without charging. ④ Hence, people should be given freedom to such facilities' accession. 문 6. 다음 밑줄 친 부분의 설명으로 가장 적절한 문장은? You'll never get a fair distribution of goods, or a satisfactory organization of human life, until you abolish private property altogether. So long as it exists, the vast majority of the human race, or the morally superior part of it, will inevitably go on laboring under the burden of poverty, hardship, and worry. (A) Private property assumes that there's nothing wrong with your being rich, when your neighbors all around you are poor. (B) When everyone's entitled to get as much for himself as he can, all available property is bound to fall into the hands of a small minority. (C) This means that everyone else is poor. (D) And wealth will tend to vary in inverse proportion to merit, since the rich will be totally useless greedy characters, while the poor will be simple, honest people whose daily work is profitable to the community. ① (A) ② (B) ③ (C) ④ (D) 문 7. 주어진 글 다음에 이어질 글의 순서로 가장 적절한 것은? Experienced travel agents of yesterday are being rapidly replaced by new ones who have less firsthand knowledge of destinations. What this new breed faces are clients who do not know much about geography but have leisure time and money at their disposal. The solution is to equip these less knowledgeable travel agents with computer and video technology to help them match clients with right destinations. (A) The client then views video programs on those destinations that seem most appealing, and finalizes his or her vacation plan. This way, travel agencies use modern technology to compensate for the inexperience of many agents on their payroll. (B) Responses collected are fed into a computer program to produce a list of suggested destinations and itinerary options matched to the client's preferences. (C) The key is to ask a client about his or her preferred vacation in mind. Included might be specific requests the representatives of which are "I don't like to pack and unpack repeatedly," or "I don't like to quickly move around and see many things." ① (A) － (B) － (C) ② (A) － (C) － (B) ③ (B) － (C) － (A) ④ (C) － (B) － (A) 영 어 A 책형 2 쪽 문 8. 다음 문장이 들어갈 위치로 가장 적절한 것은? His hiring concluded an exhaustive process that collected input from all segments of the university. The selection as Heoha University's tenth president of Carlos Jimenez, the current chancellor at the University of Licafornia since 2008, was announced at the board of trustees meeting on March 15. (A) He will begin his term on July 1. (B) Faculty, students, and alumni were invited to nominate candidates. An advisory subcommittee also gathered input through 40 public forums held around the country. (C) The nominations were first narrowed to 100 names, then to 20 who received interviews, and then to five finalists. Board member Jeffrey Pinorius, who headed the search committee, said that Jimenez emerged as the clear choice. (D) "The presidential search committee was responsible for finding a leader with a clear vision and proven leadership skills required for running a highly complex organization," he added. ① (A) ② (B) ③ (C) ④ (D) 문 9. 글의 논리적 흐름에 맞지 않는 문장은? (A) Adventure travel is a hot trend in today's tourism industry. (B) Ordinary people are no longer content to spend two weeks away from their office lying on a sunny beach in Hawaii. (C) More and more often, they are choosing to spend their vacations rafting down wild rivers, hiking through steamy rain forests, climbing high mountains, or traversing slippery glaciers. (D) People of all ages are choosing educational study tours for their vacations. ① (A) ② (B) ③ (C) ④ (D) 문 10. 글의 요지를 가장 잘 나타낸 속담 또는 격언은? The benefits of exercise extend far beyond physical health improvement. Many people work out as much for mental and spiritual well-being as for staying fit. Can being physically active make you happy? Can it help you deal with life stress? Can it lead to a more spiritual and religious life? For many, the answer is yes. Exercise, such as walking, increases blood flow to the brain. A study of people over 60 found that walking 45 minutes a day at 6 km/h enhanced the participants' thinking skills. They started at 15 minutes of walking and gradually increased exercise time and speed. The result was that the participants were found mentally sharper with this walking program. ① Practice makes perfect. ② A sound mind in a sound body. ③ Experience is the best teacher. ④ Time and tide wait for no man. 문 11. 다음 우리말 문장을 영어로 옮길 때 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 가장 적절한 것은? 폭풍우 전에는 대체로 고요한 시기가 먼저 온다. A quiet spell usually _____________________ a storm. ① pacifies ② precedes ③ presumes ④ provokes 문 12. 다음 중 어법상 옳은 것은? ① Many a careless walker was killed in the street. ② Each officer must perform their duties efficient. ③ However you may try hard, you cannot carry it out. ④ German shepherd dogs are smart, alert, and loyalty. ※ 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. [문 13 ～ 문 15] 문 13. A tenth of the automobiles in this district alone _______ stolen last year. ① was ② had been ③ were ④ have been 문 14. A: How did you find your day at school today, Ben? B: I can't complain. Actually, I gave a presentation on drug abuse in my psychology class, and the professor __________________________. A: What exact words did he use? B: He said my presentation was head and shoulders above the others. A: Way to go! ① made some headway ② made a splash ③ paid me a compliment ④ passed a wrong judgment 문 15. A: Excuse me. I'm looking for Nambu Bus Terminal. B: Ah, it's right over there. A: Where? _____________________________ B: Okay. Just walk down the street, and then turn right at the first intersection. The terminal's on your left. You can't miss it. ① Could you be more specific? ② Do you think I am punctual? ③ Will you run right into it? ④ How long will it take from here by car? 영 어 A 책형 3 쪽 문 16. 다음 글을 쓴 목적으로 가장 적절한 것은? Last month felt like the longest in my life with all the calamities that took us by surprise. There was only one light at the end of the tunnel, and that light was you. I cannot begin to tell you how much your thoughtfulness has meant to me. I'm sure I was too tired to be thinking clearly, but each time you appeared to whisk my children off for an hour so that I could rest, or to bring a dinner with a pitcher of iced tea, all I knew was that something incredibly wonderful had just happened. Now that we are back to normal, I know that something incredibly wonderful was you. There are no adequate words to express thanks with, but gratefulness will always be in my heart. ① 어려움에 처한 사람을 격려하려고 ② 아이들을 돌보아 줄 사람을 찾아 부탁하려고 ③ 힘들 때 도와주었던 사람에게 감사하려고 ④ 건강이 좋지 않았던 사람의 안부를 물으려고 ※ 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. [문 17 ～문 20] 문 17. Unlike in the House of Representatives, representation in the Senate is equal for every state: each state has two senators. Senators serve six-year terms. The purpose of the guaranteed term is to insulate senators from public opinion and allow them to act independently. In regard to the selection, public servants in the Senate used to be _______________ by the legislatures of the states they represented. It was the Seventeenth Amendment, ratified in 1913, that gave Americans the power to elect their own senators directly. ① appointed ② applauded ③ appeased ④ appealed 문 18. There are ninety-two naturally occurring elements on Earth, plus a further twenty or so that have been created in labs. Not a few of our earthly chemicals are surprisingly little known. Astatine, for instance, is practically unstudied. It has a name and a place on the periodic table, next to Marie Curie's polonium, but almost nothing else. The problem is __________. There just is not much astatine out there. The most elusive element of all, however, appears to be francium, which is so scarce that it is thought that our entire planet may contain, at any given moment, fewer than twenty francium atoms. Altogether only about thirty of the naturally occurring elements are widespread on Earth. ① acidity ② rarity ③ toxicity ④ compatibility 문 19. The best way to develop ideas is through (A) with your fellow managers. This brings us back to the importance of teamwork and interpersonal skills. One of the biggest problems today is that most managers have too much information. The key to success is not information. It's (B) . And those I look for to fill top management spots are eager beavers, the guys who try to do more than they're expected to. (A) (B) ① interacting people ② breaking management ③ interfering technicians ④ working skills 문 20. Why do we reach for a candy bar at the end of a heavy meal? We certainly are not hungry. Why do we like salt and other seasoning in our food? Soldiers who have been temporarily deprived of salt report that at its maximum intensity the craving for salt is more insistent than the desire for food itself. Cows and other livestock which are not receiving enough lime eat the bones of other animals to relieve the craving. These conditions are not thoroughly understood at present but it seems certain that somewhere in the body there are receptors which respond to the chemical conditions in the blood brought about by the absence of certain substances necessary for the body. When these receptors perceive such conditions, we have _______________________________ ① an aversion to salty foods or sweets. ② an appetite for particular substances needed. ③ an ability to prevent food-borne bone diseases. ④ an ambivalent sensory receptor for digestion.