영어.pdf 2019 경찰 2차 영어 해설 영스파.pdf 2019 경찰 2차 영어 해설 정수현.pdf 2019 경찰 2차 영어 해설 이충권.pdf 2019 경찰 2차 영어 해설 김형섭.pdf 2019 경찰 2차 영어 해설 양익.pdf 2019 경찰 2차 영어 해설 장종재.pdf 2019 경찰 2차 영어 해설 샐리정.pdf 2019 경찰 2차 영어 해설 이동기.pdf 2019 경찰 2차 영어 해설 정일현.pdf 2019 경찰 2차 영어 해설 더하프.pdf 2019 경찰 2차 영어 해설 이서윤.pdf - 3 - 1. 다음 밑줄 친 단어의 의미와 가장 가까운 것은? She was becoming exasperated with all the questions they were asking. ① infuriated ② imperturbable ③ oblivious ④ pompous 2. 다음 빈칸에 들어갈 단어로 가장 적절한 것은? The Kortek University Library welcomes gifts of books and other cultural heritage materials that extend and ( ) existing collections. ① attenuate ② manacle ③ complement ④ incapacitate 3. 다음 빈칸에 공통으로 들어갈 단어로 가장 적절한 것은? ㉠ ( ) is when I’m doing something that makes me happy just to be doing it. ㉡ I’m not making ( ) of you. I admire what you did. ① happiness ② sense ③ fortune ④ fun 4. 다음 각 단어와 그 뜻풀이가 가장 적절하지 않은 것은? ㉠ perennial: happening or done in the same period of time ㉡ arbitrary: not based on any principle, plan, or system ㉢ obscure: unknown and difficult to understand or deal with ㉣ plagiarize: to use another person’s idea or work without any permission ① ㉠ ② ㉡ ③ ㉢ ④ ㉣ 5. 각 문장에서 문맥상 가장 적합한 단어가 순서대로 나열된 것은? Solidad Bank requires that all customers present two pieces of photo ㉠(identification / idiosyncrasy) when cashing a check. The new subway line will enable residents to travel directly to the airport ㉡(by train / by the train). The fact that Butcher himself was a farmer provided ㉢(ratification / rapport) with his subjects. ㉠ ㉡ ㉢ ① identification by train rapport ② idiosyncrasy by the train ratification ③ identification by the train ratification ④ idiosyncrasy by train rapport 6. 다음 빈칸 ㉠∼㉢에 들어갈 단어로 가장 적절한 것은? In new relationships, people often ( ㉠ ) themselves slowly, sharing only a few details at first, and offering more personal information only if they like and trust each other. When they started becoming friends, for instance, Deepak and Prasad shared mostly routine information with each other. As they got to know and trust each other more, they started sharing their opinions on things such as politics, relationships, and religion. Only after they had known each other for quite a while did they feel ( ㉡ ) talking about more personal things, such as Prasad’s health problems or the challenges in Deepak’s marriage. Although people in some relationships begin sharing ( ㉢ ) information very quickly, self-disclosure usually moves in small increments. ㉠ ㉡ ㉢ ① disclose social inclusive ② close social intimate ③ disclose comfortable intimate ④ close comfortable inclusive 7. 다음 각 문장 중 어법상 가장 적절한 것은? ① Not only she is modest, but she is also polite. ② I find myself enjoying classical music as I get older. ③ The number of crimes in the cities are steadily decreasing. ④ The car insurance rates in urban areas are more higher than those in rural areas. 8. 다음 각 문장을 유사한 의미의 다른 문장으로 바꾸어 쓰고자 한다. 어법상 가장 적절하지 않은 것은? ①Were it not for your assistance, I would have difficulty. ⟶ But for your assistance, I would have difficulty. ② As the work was done, I had nothing to do. ⟶ The work done, I had nothing to do. ③ They made us copy the script. ⟶ We were made copy the script. ④ He seemed to have been sick. ⟶ It seemed that he had been sick. 9. 한국어를 영어로 옮긴 것 중 가장 적절한 것은? ① 나는 창문 옆에 앉아 있는 그 소녀를 안다. ⟶ I know the girl sat by the window. ② 그 산을 오르는 데에는 대략 두 시간이 걸린다. ⟶ That takes about two hours to climb the mountain. ③ 소음 때문에 짜증이 나서 그녀는 그 카페를 떠났다. ⟶ Annoying by the noise, she left the cafe. ④ 자유는 책임을 동반한다는 사실을 우리는 인정해야 한다. ⟶ We should admit the fact that freedom is accompanied by responsibility. 10. A에 대한 B의 응답으로 가장 적절하지 않은 것은? ① A: How did you like the movie you saw yesterday? B: Wait, please don’t spoil it for me. ② A: James, what’s your goal for this year? B: Well, I want to learn to play the violin. ③ A: How is your group project going, Peter? B: Not very well. It’s harder than I thought. ④ A: Your cap looks great. Where did you get it? B: I bought it at a flea market last Saturday. 11. 다음 글의 내용과 가장 일치하지 않는 것은? The coffee tree has smooth, ovate leaves and clusters of fragrant white flowers that mature into deep red fruits about 1/2 inch. The fruit usually contains two seeds, the coffee beans. Arabica Coffee yields the highest-quality beans and provides the bulk of the world’s coffee, including 80% of the coffee imported into the United States. The species is thought to be native to Ethiopia, where it was known before 1000. Coffee’s earliest human use may have been as a food; a ball of the crushed fruit molded with fat was a day’s ration for certain African nomads. Later, wine was made from the fermented husks and pulps. Coffee was known in 15th-century Arabia; from there it spread to Egypt and Turkey, overcoming religious and political opposition to become popular among Arabs. At first proscribed by Italian churchmen as a heathen’s drink, it was approved by Pope Clement VIII, and by the mid-17th century coffee had reached most of Europe. Introduced in North America in 1668, coffee became a favorite American beverage after the Boston Tea Party made tea unfashionable. ① Coffee tree has white flowers that grow into deep red fruits. ② Most of the world’s coffee is believed to originate from Ethiopia. ③ Coffee was popular in America after the Boston Tea Party. ④ Coffee was considered to be profane by Pope Clement VIII. 【영 어】 - 4 - 12. 다음 글의 내용과 가장 일치하는 것은? The 2010 US Census shows that America’s ethnic and racial makeup is changing. Compared to 2000, the percentage of the population identified as white shrank, from 75.1% to 72.4%. Every other ethnic category increased, except for Native Americans, which remained unchanged at 0.9%. The biggest growth came from the Hispanic population, which grew from 12.5% in 2000 to 16.3% of the population ten years later. Those identified as belonging to two or more racial categories also climbed to 2.9% in 2010 from 2.4% ten years earlier. ① 미국 원주민 인구 비율은 2000년과 2010년 사이에 0.9%p(퍼센트 포인트) 증가했다. ② 히스패닉 인구 비율은 2000년과 2010년 사이에 16.3%p(퍼센트 포인트) 증가했다. ③ 둘 이상의 인종 범주에 속하는 인구 비율은 2010년에 미국 인구의 2.4%였다. ④ 백인 인구 비율은 2000년에 미국 인구의 75.1%였다. 13. 다음 글의 흐름으로 보아 <보기>의 문장이 들어갈 곳으로 가장 적절한 것은? < 보 기 > However, the concept of a rational action also incorporates the concept of a reason, and reasons need not be egocentric. The concept of a rational action can be seen to be quite complex: it is a hybrid concept. A rational action is one that is not irrational. Any action that is not irrational counts as rational; that is, any action that does not have (is not believed to have) harmful consequences for you or those for whom you care is rational. ( ㉠ ) So rationality does involve, if only indirectly, the egocentric character of an irrational action. ( ㉡ ) The fact (belief) that anyone will benefit from your actions is a reason. ( ㉢ ) Reasons are not limited to facts (beliefs) about benefits to you or those for whom you care. ( ㉣ ) Thus an action that has (is believed to have) harmful consequences for you can be rational if (you believe) there are compensating benefits for others, even if you do not care about them. ① ㉠ ② ㉡ ③ ㉢ ④ ㉣ 14. 다음 <보기>에 이어질 글의 순서로 가장 적절한 것은? < 보 기 > One of the greatest paradoxes we wrestle with is our own dark or shadow sides. ㉠ Storms always pass. Just as there has never been a day that did not give way to night or a storm that lasted forever, we move back and forth on the pendulum of life. We experience the good and the bad, the day and the night, the yin and the yang. ㉡ This balancing act is difficult, but it is a part of life. If we can see this as an experience as natural as night following day, we will find more contentment than if we try to pretend that night will never come. Life has storms. ㉢ We often try to get rid of them, but the belief that we can banish “dark sides” is unrealistic and inauthentic. We need to find a balance between our own opposing forces. ① ㉠－㉢－㉡ ② ㉡－㉠－㉢ ③ ㉢－㉠－㉡ ④ ㉢－㉡－㉠ 15. 다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중 가리키는 대상이 나머지 셋과 다른 것은? Monte, a 20-month-old chocolate Labrador, is a cure dog and was trained to help autistic children like Jacob. Jacob, now six, suffers from autism and goes to a school in Ontario, Canada. ㉠He needs more care compared to other kids his age. He seems to like Monte, as they become friends and learn from each other. Monte’s key functions are to keep Jacob from running away and to help ㉡his parents supervise their son. ㉢He also helps teachers and special educators. But most of all, he is a good friend of Jacob’s and connects ㉣him to the real world as much as possible. ① ㉠ ② ㉡ ③ ㉢ ④ ㉣ 16. 다음 글의 주제로 가장 적절한 것은? Deforestation can destroy natural habitats for millions of species. To illustrate, seventy percent of Earth’s land animals and plants live in forests, and many cannot survive the deforestation. Deforestation also deprives the forest of its canopy that blocks the sun’s rays during the day and holds in heat at night. This disruption leads to more extreme temperature swing that can be harmful to plants and animals. Furthermore, trees help maintain the water cycle by returning water back into the atmosphere. Without trees to fill these roles, many former forest lands can quickly become deserts. ① The process of deforestation by desertification ② Efforts to prevent deforestation around the world ③ Negative effects of deforestation on the environment ④ A bitter controversy over forest development 17. 다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 내용으로 가장 적절한 것은? When an argument is inevitable, it is important to avoid putting others on the defensive. Statements that use are effective to this end. For instance, if a colleague is not contributing enough to a project, instead of saying, “You aren’t helping enough,” try, “I feel stressed from all this work.” This sounds less accusatory, so it avoids making the other person defensive. The less people have their back up against the wall, the better the chance they will be open to dialogue about problems. ① “we” instead of “I” ② “I” instead of “you” ③ “you” instead of “I” ④ “I” instead of “we” 18. 다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 단어로 가장 적절한 것은? One of Raoul Francé’s most surprising claims was that plants are capable of . They try their best to get what they want and to avoid what they do not want. Some plants defend themselves against ants that steal their nectar. They will close their flowers when the ants are nearby; the flowers will open only when there is enough dew on the stems to prevent the ants from climbing up. Some kinds of acacia are even capable of making a deal; they reward certain types of ants with nectar in return for warding off other insects. ① intent ② tension ③ firmness ④ consistency - 5 - 19. 다음 글에서 추론할 수 있는 내용을 아래와 같이 작성할 때, 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 내용으로 가장 적절한 것은? Like our electronics’ reliance on cloud storage, many companies are turning to crowdsourcing to solve complex problems. In this fluid staffing model, project teams come together like flash mobs of talent. They assemble, learn, contribute, and then disband. This model of work demands heightened levels of collaboration and learning. To contribute, individuals must swiftly ramp up their understanding of the situation, the problem, the players, the options, etc. They must then learn how to quickly assemble expertise, without the benefit of long-term relationships. When the flash of collective brilliance ends, they must let go and move on to the next rapid-learning, rapidcontribution cycle. Business strategist Jennifer Sertl has observed, “Our role as conduit is more vital than our role as source in this knowledge economy.” Much like I found with my research for the book Multipliers, the critical skill of this century is not what you hold in your head, but your ability to tap into and access what other people know. ↓ The best leaders and the fastest learners know how to . ① make effective strategies coping with social changes ② harness collective intelligence ③ interpret relationships between collaboration and expertise ④ protect knowledge and information 20. 다음 글에서 추론할 수 있는 내용을 아래와 같이 작성할 때, 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 내용으로 가장 적절한 것은? Vicious crimes can contribute to a sense of anxiety among citizens who feel defenseless against the perpetrators. Continued concern over public protection has triggered recurring discussions about violence in media, political and social arenas, and the proliferation of a plentitude of theories about the cause of violence, which attribute it variously to war, drug addiction, class or race frustrations, even suggesting that it is inherently present in cultural identity. As part of an effort to understand the predisposition to violence, scientists have attempted to speculate on a biological explanation for this behavior. Some scientists have considered a direct relationship between the likelihood a person will commit a violent crime and the level of serotonin, an organic compound believed to play an integral role in the regulation of mood, sleep, and appetite, present in the brain. In the central nervous system, serotonin is part of the biochemistry that is related to several psychological conditions; depression, migraines, bipolar disorder, and anxiety are all linked to an overproduction or underproduction of the compound. If violent behavior could be clinically linked to an imbalance in brain chemicals, then scientists would be able to control aggressive tendencies through medication before the behavior escalates. ↓ The scientific research to find the biological cause of violent behavior aims to . ① increase the ability of society to recognize potential threats ② understand how the brain chemistry reacts to artificial drugs ③ conceive efficacious remedies to alleviate offensive dispositions ④ help scientists augment the rates of violent crimes occurring
영어-A.pdf 영어-C.pdf 2019 지방직 9급 영어 해설 영스파.pdf 2019 지방직 9급 영어 해설 조재권.pdf 2019 지방직 9급 영어 해설 이동기.pdf 2019 지방직 9급 영어 해설 이충권.pdf 2019 지방직 9급 영어 해설 김기훈.pdf 2019 지방직 9급 영어 해설 손진숙.pdf 2019 지방직 9급 영어 해설 심우철.pdf 2019 지방직 9급 영어 해설 헤더진.pdf 2019 지방직 9급 영어 해설 김소영.pdf 2019 지방직 9급 영어 해설 승주영.pdf 2019 지방직 9급 영어 해설 김범재.pdf 2019 지방직 9급 영어 해설 망가진영어.pdf 2019 지방직 9급 영어 해설 장종재.pdf 2019 지방직 9급 영어 해설 박철우.pdf 2019 지방직 9급 영어 해설 김재운.pdf 2019 지방직 9급 영어 해설 손재석.pdf 2019년도 지방공무원 9급 등 공개경쟁임용 필기시험 영 어 A 책형 1 쪽 영 어 ※ 밑줄 친 부분의 의미와 가장 가까운 것을 고르시오. [문 1.～문 2.] 문 1. I came to see these documents as relics of a sensibility now dead and buried, which needed to be excavated. ① exhumed ② packed ③ erased ④ celebrated 문 2. Riding a roller coaster can be a joy ride of emotions: the nervous anticipation as you’re strapped into your seat, the questioning and regret that comes as you go up, up, up, and the sheer adrenaline rush as the car takes that first dive. ① utter ② scary ③ occasional ④ manageable 문 3. 두 사람의 대화 중 가장 어색한 것은 ① A: What time are we having lunch? B: It’ll be ready before noon. ② A: I called you several times. Why didn’t you answer? B: Oh, I think my cell phone was turned off. ③ A: Are you going to take a vacation this winter? B: I might. I haven’t decided yet. ④ A: Hello. Sorry I missed your call. B: Would you like to leave a message? 문 4. 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은 A: Hello. I need to exchange some money. B: Okay. What currency do you need? A: I need to convert dollars into pounds. What’s the exchange rate? B: The exchange rate is 0.73 pounds for every dollar. A: Fine. Do you take a commission? B: Yes, we take a small commission of 4 dollars. A: ______________________________? B: We convert your currency back for free. Just bring your receipt with you. ① How much does this cost ② How should I pay for that ③ What’s your buy-back policy ④ Do you take credit cards 문 5. 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 옳지 않은 것은 Each year, more than 270,000 pedestrians ①lose their lives on the world’s roads. Many leave their homes as they would on any given day never ②to return. Globally, pedestrians constitute 22% of all road traffic fatalities, and in some countries this proportion is ③as high as two thirds of all road traffic deaths. Millions of pedestrians are non-fatally ④ injuring ― some of whom are left with permanent disabilities. These incidents cause much suffering and grief as well as economic hardship. 문 6. 어법상 옳은 것은 ① The paper charged her with use the company’s money for her own purposes. ② The investigation had to be handled with the utmost care lest suspicion be aroused. ③ Another way to speed up the process would be made the shift to a new system. ④ Burning fossil fuels is one of the lead cause of climate change. 문 7. 주어진 글 다음에 이어질 글의 순서로 가장 적절한 것은 There is a thought that can haunt us: since everything probably affects everything else, how can we ever make sense of the social world? If we are weighed down by that worry, though, we won’t ever make progress. (A) Every discipline that I am familiar with draws caricatures of the world in order to make sense of it. The modern economist does this by building models, which are deliberately stripped down representations of the phenomena out there. (B) The economist John Maynard Keynes described our subject thus: “Economics is a science of thinking in terms of models joined to the art of choosing models which are relevant to the contemporary world.” (C) When I say “stripped down,” I really mean stripped down. It isn’t uncommon among us economists to focus on one or two causal factors, exclude everything else, hoping that this will enable us to understand how just those aspects of reality work and interact. ① (A)－(B)－(C) ② (A)－(C)－(B) ③ (B)－(C)－(A) ④ (B)－(A)－(C) 문 8. 다음 글의 내용과 일치하는 것은 Prehistoric societies some half a million years ago did not distinguish sharply between mental and physical disorders. Abnormal behaviors, from simple headaches to convulsive attacks, were attributed to evil spirits that inhabited or controlled the afflicted person’s body. According to historians, these ancient peoples attributed many forms of illness to demonic possession, sorcery, or the behest of an offended ancestral spirit. Within this system of belief, called demonology, the victim was usually held at least partly responsible for the misfortune. It has been suggested that Stone Age cave dwellers may have treated behavior disorders with a surgical method called trephining, in which part of the skull was chipped away to provide an opening through which the evil spirit could escape. People may have believed that when the evil spirit left, the person would return to his or her normal state. Surprisingly, trephined skulls have been found to have healed over, indicating that some patients survived this extremely crude operation. ※ convulsive: 경련의 ※ behest: 명령 ① Mental disorders were clearly differentiated from physical disorders. ② Abnormal behaviors were believed to result from evil spirits affecting a person. ③ An opening was made in the skull for an evil spirit to enter a person’s body. ④ No cave dwellers survived trephining. 2019년도 지방공무원 9급 등 공개경쟁임용 필기시험 영 어 A 책형 2 쪽 문 9. 다음 글의 주제로 가장 적절한 것은 As the digital revolution upends newsrooms across the country, here’s my advice for all the reporters. I’ve been a reporter for more than 25 years, so I have lived through a half dozen technological life cycles. The most dramatic transformations have come in the last half dozen years. That means I am, with increasing frequency, making stuff up as I go along. Much of the time in the news business, we have no idea what we are doing. We show up in the morning and someone says, “Can you write a story about (pick one) tax policy/immigration/climate change?” When newspapers had once-a-day deadlines, we said a reporter would learn in the morning and teach at night―write a story that could inform tomorrow’s readers on a topic the reporter knew nothing about 24 hours earlier. Now it is more like learning at the top of the hour and teaching at the bottom of the same hour. I’m also running a political podcast, for example, and during the presidential conventions, we should be able to use it to do real-time interviews anywhere. I am just increasingly working without a script. ① a reporter as a teacher ② a reporter and improvisation ③ technology in politics ④ fields of journalism and technology 문 10. 글의 흐름상 가장 어색한 문장은 Children’s playgrounds throughout history were the wilderness, fields, streams, and hills of the country and the roads, streets, and vacant places of villages, towns, and cities. ①The term playground refers to all those places where children gather to play their free, spontaneous games. ②Only during the past few decades have children vacated these natural playgrounds for their growing love affair with video games, texting, and social networking. ③Even in rural America few children are still roaming in a free-ranging manner, unaccompanied by adults. ④ When out of school, they are commonly found in neighborhoods digging in sand, building forts, playing traditional games, climbing, or playing ball games. They are rapidly disappearing from the natural terrain of creeks, hills, and fields, and like their urban counterparts, are turning to their indoor, sedentary cyber toys for entertainment. ※ 밑줄 친 부분의 의미와 가장 가까운 것을 고르시오. [문 11.～문 12.] 문 11. Time does seem to slow to a trickle during a boring afternoon lecture and race when the brain is engrossed in something highly entertaining. ① enhanced by ② apathetic to ③ stabilized by ④ preoccupied with 문 12. These daily updates were designed to help readers keep abreast of the markets as the government attempted to keep them under control. ① be acquainted with ② get inspired by ③ have faith in ④ keep away from ※ 밑줄 친 (A), (B)에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. [문 13. ～문 14.] 문 13. In the 1840s, the island of Ireland suffered famine. Because Ireland could not produce enough food to feed its population, about a million people died of (A) ; they simply didn’t have enough to eat to stay alive. The famine caused another 1.25 million people to (B) ; many left their island home for the United States; the rest went to Canada, Australia, Chile, and other countries. Before the famine, the population of Ireland was approximately 6 million. After the great food shortage, it was about 4 million. (A) (B) ① dehydration be deported ② trauma immigrate ③ starvation emigrate ④ fatigue be detained 문 14. Today the technology to create the visual component of virtual-reality (VR) experiences is well on its way to becoming widely accessible and affordable. But to work powerfully, virtual reality needs to be about more than visuals. (A) what you are hearing convincingly matches the visuals, the virtual experience breaks apart. Take a basketball game. If the players, the coaches, the announcers, and the crowd all sound like they’re sitting midcourt, you may as well watch the game on television ― you’ll get just as much of a sense that you are “there.” (B) , today’s audio equipment and our widely used recording and reproduction formats are simply inadequate to the task of re-creating convincingly the sound of a battlefield on a distant planet, a basketball game at courtside, or a symphony as heard from the first row of a great concert hall. (A) (B) ① If By contrast ② Unless Consequently ③ If Similarly ④ Unless Unfortunately 문 15. 주어진 문장이 들어갈 위치로 가장 적절한 것은 The same thinking can be applied to any number of goals, like improving performance at work. The happy brain tends to focus on the short term. ( ① ) That being the case, it’s a good idea to consider what short-term goals we can accomplish that will eventually lead to accomplishing long-term goals. ( ② ) For instance, if you want to lose thirty pounds in six months, what short-term goals can you associate with losing the smaller increments of weight that will get you there? ( ③ ) Maybe it’s something as simple as rewarding yourself each week that you lose two pounds. ( ④ ) By breaking the overall goal into smaller, shorter-term parts, we can focus on incremental accomplishments instead of being overwhelmed by the enormity of the goal in our profession. 2019년도 지방공무원 9급 등 공개경쟁임용 필기시험 영 어 A 책형 3 쪽 문 16. 우리말을 영어로 잘못 옮긴 것은 ① 혹시 내게 전화하고 싶은 경우에 이게 내 번호야. →This is my number just in case you would like to call me. ② 나는 유럽 여행을 준비하느라 바쁘다. →I am busy preparing for a trip to Europe. ③ 그녀는 남편과 결혼한 지 20년 이상 되었다. →She has married to her husband for more than two decades. ④ 나는 내 아들이 읽을 책을 한 권 사야 한다. →I should buy a book for my son to read. ※ 다음 글의 내용과 일치하지 않는 것을 고르시오. [문 17.～문 18.] 문 17. In the nineteenth century, the most respected health and medical experts all insisted that diseases were caused by “miasma,” a fancy term for bad air. Western society’s system of health was based on this assumption: to prevent diseases, windows were kept open or closed, depending on whether there was more miasma inside or outside the room; it was believed that doctors could not pass along disease because gentlemen did not inhabit quarters with bad air. Then the idea of germs came along. One day, everyone believed that bad air makes you sick. Then, almost overnight, people started realizing there were invisible things called microbes and bacteria that were the real cause of diseases. This new view of disease brought sweeping changes to medicine, as surgeons adopted antiseptics and scientists invented vaccines and antibiotics. But, just as momentously, the idea of germs gave ordinary people the power to influence their own lives. Now, if you wanted to stay healthy, you could wash your hands, boil your water, cook your food thoroughly, and clean cuts and scrapes with iodine. ① In the nineteenth century, opening windows was irrelevant to the density of miasma. ② In the nineteenth century, it was believed that gentlemen did not live in places with bad air. ③ Vaccines were invented after people realized that microbes and bacteria were the real cause of diseases. ④ Cleaning cuts and scrapes could help people to stay healthy. 문 18. Followers are a critical part of the leadership equation, but their role has not always been appreciated. For a long time, in fact, “the common view of leadership was that leaders actively led and subordinates, later called followers, passively and obediently followed.” Over time, especially in the last century, social change shaped people’s views of followers, and leadership theories gradually recognized the active and important role that followers play in the leadership process. Today it seems natural to accept the important role followers play. One aspect of leadership is particularly worth noting in this regard: Leadership is a social influence process shared among all members of a group. Leadership is not restricted to the influence exerted by someone in a particular position or role; followers are part of the leadership process, too. ① For a length of time, it was understood that leaders actively led and followers passively followed. ② People’s views of subordinates were influenced by social change. ③ The important role of followers is still denied today. ④ Both leaders and followers participate in the leadership process. ※ 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. [문 19.～ 문 20.] 문 19. Language proper is itself double-layered. Single noises are only occasionally meaningful: mostly, the various speech sounds convey coherent messages only when combined into an overlapping chain, like different colors of ice-cream melting into one another. In birdsong also, ________________________________________: the sequence is what matters. In both humans and birds, control of this specialized sound-system is exercised by one half of the brain, normally the left half, and the system is learned relatively early in life. And just as many human languages have dialects, so do some bird species: in California, the white-crowned sparrow has songs so different from area to area that Californians can supposedly tell where they are in the state by listening to these sparrows. ① individual notes are often of little value ② rhythmic sounds are important ③ dialects play a critical role ④ no sound-system exists 문 20. Nobel Prize-winning psychologist Daniel Kahneman changed the way the world thinks about economics, upending the notion that human beings are rational decision-makers. Along the way, his discipline-crossing influence has altered the way physicians make medical decisions and investors evaluate risk on Wall Street. In a paper, Kahneman and his colleagues outline a process for making big strategic decisions. Their suggested approach, labeled as “Mediating Assessments Protocol,” or MAP, has a simple goal: To put off gut-based decision-making until a choice can be informed by a number of separate factors. “One of the essential purposes of MAP is basically to _____________ intuition,” Kahneman said in a recent interview with The Post. The structured process calls for analyzing a decision based on six to seven previously chosen attributes, discussing each of them separately and assigning them a relative percentile score, and finally, using those scores to make a holistic judgment. ① improve ② delay ③ possess ④ facilitate
영어_9급_A형.pdf 영어_9급_B형.pdf 2019 서울시 9급 영어 해설 심우철.pdf 2019 서울시 9급 영어 해설 이동기.hwp 2019 서울시 9급 영어 해설 김기훈.pdf 2019 서울시 9급 영어 해설 손진숙.pdf 2019 서울시 9급 영어 해설 승주영.hwp 2019 서울시 9급 영어 해설 망가진영어.pdf 2019 서울시 9급 영어 해설 성정혜.pdf 2019 서울시 9급 영어 해설 손재석.pdf 영 어(9급) A책형 1/3쪽 ※ 밑줄 친 부분의 의미와 가장 가까운 것은? (1~2) 1. At least in high school she made one decision where she finally saw eye to eye with her parents. ① quarreled② disputed ③ parted④ agreed 2. Justifications are accounts in which one accepts responsibility for the act in question, but denies the pejorative quality associated with it. ① derogatory ② extrovert ③ mandatory ④ redundant ※ 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? (3~5) 3. Tests ruled out dirt and poor sanitation as causes of yellow fever, and a mosquito was the carrier. ① suspected② uncivilized ③ cheerful ④ volunteered 4. Generally speaking, people living in 2018 are pretty fortunate when you compare modern times to the full scale of human history. Life expectancy at around 72 years, and diseases like smallpox and diphtheria, which were widespread and deadly only a century ago, are preventable, curable, or altogether eradicated. ① curtails ② hovers ③ initiates ④ aggravates 5. To imagine that there are concrete patterns to past events, which can provide for our lives and decisions, is to project on to history a hope for a certainty which it cannot fulfill. ① hallucinations ② templates ③ inquiries ④ commotion 6. 대화 중 가장 어색한 것은? ① A : What was the movie like on Saturday? B : Great. I really enjoyed it. ② A : Hello. I’d like to have some shirts pressed. B : Yes, how soon will you need them? ③ A : Would you like a single or a double room? B : Oh, it’s just for me, so a single is fine. ④ A : What time is the next flight to Boston? B : It will take about 45 minutes to get to Boston. ※ 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 가장 옳지 않은 것은? (7~10) 7. Inventor Elias Howe attributed the discovery of the sewing machine ① for a dream ② in which he was captured by cannibals. He noticed as they danced around him ③ that there were holes at the tips of spears, and he realized this was the design feature he needed ④ to solve his problem. 8. By 1955 Nikita Khrushchev ① had been emerged as Stalin’s successor in the USSR, and he ② embarked on a policy of “peaceful coexistence” ③ whereby East and West ④ were to continue their competition, but in a less confrontational manner. 9. Squid, octopuses, and cuttlefish are all ① types of cephalopods. ② Each of these animals has special cells under its skin that ③ contains pigment, a colored liquid. A cephalopod can move these cells toward or away from its skin. This allows it ④ to change the pattern and color of its appearance. 10. There is a more serious problem than ① maintaining the cities. As people become more comfortable working alone, they may become ② less social. It’s ③ easier to stay home in comfortable exercise clothes or a bathrobe than ④ getting dressed for yet another business meeting! 영 어(9급) A책형 2/3쪽 11. 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은? Economists say that production of an information good involves high fixed costs but low marginal costs. The cost of producing the first copy of an information good may be substantial, but the cost of producing(or reproducing) additional copies is negligible. This sort of cost structure has many important implications. For example, cost-based pricing just doesn’t work: a 10 or 20 percent markup on unit cost makes no sense when unit cost is zero. You must price your information goods according to consumer value, not according to your production cost. ① Securing the Copyright ② Pricing the Information Goods ③ Information as Intellectual Property ④ The Cost of Technological Change 12. 밑줄 친 부분이 지칭하는 대상이 다른 것은? Dracula ants get their name for the way they sometimes drink the blood of their own young. But this week, ① the insects have earned a new claim to fame. Dracula ants of the species Mystrium camillae can snap their jaws together so fast, you could fit 5,000 strikes into the time it takes us to blink an eye. This means ② the blood-suckers wield the fastest known movement in nature, according to a study published this week in the journal Royal Society Open Science. Interestingly, the ants produce their record-breaking snaps simply by pressing their jaws together so hard that ③ they bend. This stores energy in one of the jaws, like a spring, until it slides past the other and lashes out with extraordinary speed and force―reaching a maximum velocity of over 200 miles per hour. It’s kind of like what happens when you snap your fingers, only 1,000 times faster. Dracula ants are secretive predators as ④ they prefer to hunt under the leaf litter or in subterranean tunnels. 13. 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 말로 가장 옳은 것은? I am writing to you from a train in Germany, sitting on the floor. The train is crowded, and all the seats are taken. However, there is a special class of “comfort customers” who are allowed to make those already seated their seats. ① give up ② take ③ giving up ④ taken ※ 글의 흐름상 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? (14~16) 14. A country’s wealth plays a central role in education, so lack of funding and resources from a nation-state can weaken a system. Governments in sub-Saharan Africa spend only 2.4 percent of the world’s public resources on education, yet 15 percent of the school-age population lives there. , the United States spends 28 percent of all the money spent in the world on education, yet it houses only 4 percent of the school-age population. ① Nevertheless ② Furthermore ③ Conversely ④ Similarly 15. “Highly conscientious employees do a series of things better than the rest of us,” says University of Illinois psychologist Brent Roberts, who studies conscientiousness. Roberts owes their success to “hygiene” factors. Conscientious people have a tendency to organize their lives well. A disorganized, unconscientious person might lose 20 or 30 minutes rooting through their files to find the right document, an inefficient experience conscientious folks tend to avoid. Basically, by being conscientious, people they’d otherwise create for themselves. ① deal with setbacks ② do thorough work ③ follow norms ④ sidestep stress 16. Climate change, deforestation, widespread pollution and the sixth mass extinction of biodiversity all define living in our world today ― an era that has come to be known as “the Anthropocene”. These crises are underpinned by production and consumption which greatly exceeds global ecological limits, but blame is far from evenly shared. The world’s 42 wealthiest people own as much as the poorest 3.7 billion, and they generate far greater environmental impacts. Some have therefore proposed using the term “Capitalocene” to describe this era of ecological devastation and growing inequality, reflecting capitalism’s logic of endless growth and . ① the better world that is still within our reach ② the accumulation of wealth in fewer pockets ③ an effective response to climate change ④ a burning desire for a more viable future 영 어(9급) A책형 3/3쪽 17. 글의 흐름상 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? Ever since the time of ancient Greek tragedy, Western culture has been haunted by the figure of the revenger. He or she stands on a whole series of borderlines: between civilization and barbarity, between and the community’s need for the rule of law, between the conflicting demands of justice and mercy. Do we have a right to exact revenge against those who have destroyed our loved ones? Or should we leave vengeance to the law or to the gods? And if we do take action into our own hands, are we not reducing ourselves to the same moral level as the original perpetrator of murderous deeds? ① redemption of the revenger from a depraved condition ② divine vengeance on human atrocities ③ moral depravity of the corrupt politicians ④ an individual’s accountability to his or her own conscience 18. 글의 흐름상 가장 적절하지 않은 문장은? It seems to me possible to name four kinds of reading, each with a characteristic manner and purpose. The first is reading for information ― reading to learn about a trade, or politics, or how to accomplish something. ① We read a newspaper this way, or most textbooks, or directions on how to assemble a bicycle. ② With most of this material, the reader can learn to scan the page quickly, coming up with what he needs and ignoring what is irrelevant to him, like the rhythm of the sentence, or the play of metaphor. ③ We also register a track of feeling through the metaphors and associations of words. ④ Courses in speed reading can help us read for this purpose, training the eye to jump quickly across the page. 19. <보기>의 문장이 들어갈 위치로 가장 적절한 것은? <보기> In this situation, we would expect to find less movement of individuals from one job to another because of the individual’s social obligations toward the work organization to which he or she belongs and to the people comprising that organization. Cultural differences in the meaning of work can manifest themselves in other aspects as well. ( ① ) For example, in American culture, it is easy to think of work simply as a means to accumulate money and make a living. ( ② ) In other cultures, especially collectivistic ones, work may be seen more as fulfilling an obligation to a larger group. ( ③ ) In individualistic cultures, it is easier to consider leaving one job and going to another because it is easier to separate jobs from the self. ( ④ ) A different job will just as easily accomplish the same goals. 20. 글을 문맥에 가장 어울리는 순서대로 배열한 것은? ㉠ To navigate in the dark, a microbat flies with its mouth open, emitting high-pitched squeaks that humans cannot hear. Some of these sounds echo off flying insects as well as tree branches and other obstacles that lie ahead. The bat listens to the echo and gets an instantaneous picture in its brain of the objects in front of it. ㉡ Microbats, the small, insect-eating bats found in North America, have tiny eyes that don’t look like they’d be good for navigating in the dark and spotting prey. ㉢ From the use of echolocation, or sonar, as it is also called, a microbat can tell a great deal about a mosquito or any other potential meal. With extreme exactness, echolocation allows microbats to perceive motion, distance, speed, movement, and shape. Bats can also detect and avoid obstacles no thicker than a human hair. ㉣ But, actually, microbats can see as well as mice and other small mammals. The nocturnal habits of bats are aided by their powers of echolocation, a special ability that makes feeding and flying at night much easier than one might think. ① ㉠-㉢-㉡-㉣ ② ㉡-㉣-㉠-㉢ ③ ㉡-㉢-㉣-㉠ ④ ㉠-㉣-㉢-㉡ 이 면은 여백입니다.
영어.pdf 2019 경찰 1차 영어 해설 영스파.pdf 2019 경찰 1차 영어 해설 정수현.hwp 2019 경찰 1차 영어 해설 이솔.pdf 2019 경찰 1차 영어 해설 김형섭.pdf 2019 경찰 1차 영어 해설 샐리정.pdf 2019 경찰 1차 영어 해설 양익.pdf 2019 경찰 1차 영어 해설 이동기.pdf 2019 경찰 1차 영어 해설 이영신.pdf - 3 - 【영 어】 1. 다음 밑줄 친 단어의 의미와 가장 가까운 것은? Defeat at this stage would compromise their chances of reaching the finals of the competition. ① rate ② fancy ③ reduce ④ squander 2. 다음 밑줄 친 표현의 의미와 가장 가까운 것은? She went for a long walk to work up her appetite. ① accommodate ② annihilate ③ gratify ④ whet 3. 다음 빈칸에 들어갈 단어로 가장 적절한 것은? He’s a actor who has played a wide variety of parts so splendidly. ① versatile ② sterile ③ futile ④ volatile 4. 다음 ㉠, ㉡에 공통으로 들어갈 단어로 가장 적절한 것은? · The food supplies were ( ㉠ ) to meet the needs of the flood victims. · They are blaming their failure on ( ㉡ ) preparation. ① ambiguous ② thorough ③ inadequate ④ sufficient 5. 다음 ㉠, ㉡, ㉢에 들어갈 단어들로 가장 적절한 것은? Efficiency means producing a desired outcome rapidly, with the ( ㉠ ) amount of cost. The idea of efficiency is specific to the interests of the industry or business, but is typically advertised as a ( ㉡ ) to the customer. The salad bars, self-service gasoline, ATMs, and microwave dinners are some good examples. The interesting element here is that the customer often ends up doing the work that previously was done for them. This means that the customer may end up ( ㉢ ) more time and sometimes more money in order for the business to operate more efficiently. ① ㉠ most ㉡ loss ㉢ saving ② ㉠ minimum ㉡ benefit ㉢ spending ③ ㉠ maximum ㉡ benefit ㉢ spending ④ ㉠ least ㉡ loss ㉢ saving 6. 다음 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 가장 적절하지 않은 것은? Each color has different qualities ㉠associated with it and ㉡affect our moods and feelings. Some combinations of colors naturally go well together while ㉢others can feel discordant. Take care ㉣not to bring too many colors into a room since this can confuse the energy and end up being too stimulating. ① ㉠ ② ㉡ ③ ㉢ ④ ㉣ 7. 다음 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 가장 적절하지 않은 것은? Social psychologists at the University of Virginia asked college students to stand at the base of a hill while carrying a weighted backpack and ㉠estimate the steepness of the hill. Some participants stood next to close friends whom they had known for a long time, some stood next to friends they had not known for long, some stood next to strangers, and ㉡the others stood alone during the exercise. The participants who stood with close friends gave significantly ㉢low estimates of the steepness of the hill than those who stood alone, next to strangers, or next to ㉣newly formed friends. ① ㉠ ② ㉡ ③ ㉢ ④ ㉣ 8. 다음 문장들 중 어법상 가장 적절한 것은? ① They are looking forward to meet the President. ② The committee consists with ten members. ③ Are you familiar to the computer software they use? ④ Radioactive waste must be disposed of safely. 9. 우리말을 영어로 옮긴 것 중 가장 적절한 것은? ① 밤 공기가 뜨거웠지만 그들은 푹 잤다. ⟶ Hot as the night air was, they slept soundly. ② 어젯밤에 경찰은 행방불명된 소녀를 찾았다고 말했다. ⟶ Last night the police have said that they had found the missed girl. ③ 교통 신호등이 파란색으로 바뀌어 나는 출발했다. ⟶ The traffic lights were turned green and I pulled away. ④ 불리한 증거가 없어서 그는 석방되었다. ⟶ Being no evidence against him, he was released. 10. A에 대한 B의 응답으로 가장 적절하지 않은 것은? ① A: After a long day at work, I’m really tired. B: That makes two of us! ② A: Do you remember the name of the bar we went to last Friday? B: Oh man, it’s just on the tip of my tongue. ③ A: I am so excited to see this film. B: Me too. The film got two thumbs up from all the critics. ④ A: I am feeling a little under the weather. B: It’s not actually raining now! 11. 다음 글의 내용과 가장 일치하지 않는 것은? An idea came to me, and I turned off the lights in the studio. In the darkness, I put the cello’s spike into a loose spot on the carpet, tightened the bow and drew it across the open strings. I took off my shirt and tried it again; it was the first time in my life I’d felt the instrument against my bare chest. I could feel the vibration of the strings travel through the body of the instrument to my own body. I’d never thought about that; music scholars always talk about the resonating properties of various instruments, but surely the performer’s own body must have some effect on the sound. As I dug into the notes I imagined that my own chest and lungs were extensions of the sound box; I seemed to be able to alter the sound by the way I sat, and by varying the muscular tension in my upper body. ① 화자는 어둠 속에서 첼로 연주를 했다. ② 화자는 태어나서 처음으로 첼로를 연주했다. ③ 음악 학자들은 여러 악기들이 가진 공명의 특성들을 말한다. ④ 화자는 연주할 때 본인의 자세가 첼로 소리에 영향을 준다고 생각했다. 12. 다음 글에서 유추할 수 있는 내용으로 가장 적절한 것은? The primary purpose of peppers, as with all fruits, is to disperse seeds. However, just as fruit attracts helpful organisms which spread the seeds, like birds, it also attracts harmful microbes that destroy seeds, like fungus. Studying wild pepper plants, a group of international researchers found that in areas with a high prevalence of fungus, peppers contained more capsaicin, a natural antifungal agent. These findings support the hypothesis that environmental factors trigger adaptive responses in the chemistry of fruits. ① Birds are always helpful in dispersing fruits’ seeds. ② Capsaicin in peppers attracts not only helpful but also harmful organisms. ③ Fruits’ chemistry can be influenced by the microbes in their environment. ④ The more capsaicin peppers contain, the better they taste. - 4 - 13. 다음 글의 흐름으로 보아 <보기>의 문장이 들어갈 곳으로 가장 적절한 것은? < 보 기 > And those are qualities you want in any candidate. If you are trying to decide among a few people to fill a position, take a look at their writing skills. ① It doesn’t matter if that person is a marketer, salesperson, designer, programmer, or whatever; their writing skills will pay off. That’s because being a good writer is about more than writing. ② Clear writing is a sign of clear thinking. Good writers know how to communicate. They make things easy to understand. They can put themselves in someone else’s shoes. They know what to omit. ③ Writing is making a comeback all over our society. ④ Look at how much communication happens through instant messaging and blogging. Writing is today’s currency for good ideas. Thus, it is essential to welcome people with good writing skills into your organization. 14. 다음 글의 요지로 가장 적절한 것은? Drawing a line is making a distinction between two categories which only differ in degree. Where there is a continuum, such as that between rich and poor, for some purposes, such as deciding who should be eligible for tax relief, it is necessary to draw a line between what is to count as rich and what as poor. Sometimes the fact that a line could have been drawn elsewhere is taken as evidence that we should not draw a line at all, or that the line that has been drawn has no force; in most contexts this view is wrong. For example, in Britain the speed limit in built-up areas is 30 miles per hour (mph); it could have been fixed at 25 mph or 35 mph. However, it in no way follows from this that we should ignore the speed limit, once the line between speeding and driving safely has been set. ① 두 범주를 구분하는 선긋기는 비록 그 기준이 자의적일지라도 존중될 필요가 있다. ② 모든 자의적인 구분은 배격되어야 한다. ③ 부유층과 빈곤층의 경계는 언제나 명확하다. ④ 정도의 차이만 있는 두 범주를 구분하는 것은 불필요하다. 15. 다음 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은? While most desert animals will drink water if confronted with it, for many of them the opportunity never comes. Yet all living things must have water, or they will expire. The herbivores find it in desert plants. The carnivores slake their thirst with the flesh and blood of living prey. One of the most remarkable adjustments, however, has been made by the tiny kangaroo rat, who not only lives without drinking but subsists on a diet of dry seeds containing about 5% free water. Like other animals, he has the ability to manufacture water in his body by a metabolic conversion of carbohydrates. But he is notable for the parsimony with which he conserves his small supply by every possible means, expending only minuscule amounts in his excreta * and through evaporation from his respiratory tract. *excreta 배설물 ① Survival of Desert Animals ② The Way the Kangaroo Rat Copes with Lack of Water ③ The Small Amounts of Water the Kangaroo Rat Drinks ④ The Effect the Environment Lacking in Water Has on Animals 16. 다음 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 내용으로 가장 적절한 것은? The sociologist Glen Elder proposed that there is a sensitive period for growth—late teens through early 30s—during which failures are most beneficial. Such a pattern seems to promote the trait sometimes called equanimity. We learn that trauma is survivable, so we don’t plunge too deeply following setbacks. Nor, conversely, do we soar too high on our successes. Some businesses in Silicon Valley and on Wall Street make a point of hiring ex-pro athletes to their staffs. It’s not just that their high profile draws business. It’s because athletes are good at recovering from their failures. “We needed people who could perform and not get emotionally attached to losses,” a Chicago oil trader told the New York Times, explaining why the firm likes athletes on the trading floor, particularly in ugly economic times like these. The image is of a rider easy in the saddle * . *saddle (말의) 안장 ① Nothing can so surprise her—either for good for ill—that she’ll be knocked off. ② A setback in any area will mean in your mind that you’re a failure categorically. ③ We should hope for the rider’s dominant position early and often. ④ You could wind up in a position where success reveals itself all at once. 17. 다음 ㉠, ㉡에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? Much has been made of India’s growing middle class, but it is only the wealthiest of the urban population who can claim a typical Western middle-class lifestyle. ( ㉠ ), India’s population is still rural and impoverished, and this poorer demographic is driving India’s continued population growth. ( ㉡ ), by 2030 India’s population is projected to surpass that of China. The majority of this population will be concentrated in the poorest regions, where basic necessities are scarce. ① ㉠ Therefore ㉡ Instead ② ㉠ By and large ㉡ In fact ③ ㉠ On the contrary ㉡ Besides ④ ㉠ Nonetheless ㉡ In contrast 18. 다음 글의 내용과 가장 일치하는 것은? Inappropriate precision means giving information or figures to a greater degree of apparent accuracy than suits the context. For example, advertisers often use the results of surveys to prove what they say about their products. Sometimes they claim a level of precision not based reliably on evidence. So, if a company selling washing powder claims 95.45% of British adults agree that this powder washes whiter than any other, then this level of precision is clearly inappropriate. It is unlikely that all British adults were surveyed, so the results are based only on a sample and not the whole population. At best the company should be claiming that over 95% of those asked agreed that their powder washes whiter than any other. Even if the whole population had been surveyed, to have given the result to two decimal places* would have been absurd. The effect is to propose a high degree of scientific precision in the research. Frequently, however, inappropriate precision is an attempt to mask the unscientific nature of a study. *decimal place 소수점 자리 ① 광고에서 사용하는 수치는 최대한 정밀해야 한다. ② 이용자 수는 특정 세제의 표백 효과를 뒷받침한다. ③ 세제의 표백 효과를 입증하기 위해서는 더 엄밀한 조사가 필요하다. ④ 필요 이상으로 정밀한 정보를 제시하는 연구는 비과학적인 경우가 많다. - 5 - 19. 다음 빈칸 ㉠과 ㉡에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? Mass political opinion can be sort of like guessing the number of marbles in a glass jar. Most people’s guesses will miss the mark, but the average guess of a large enough crowd is generally very accurate. The idea that the masses generally come up with good overall decisions is sometimes referred to as the “wisdom of crowds,” and it really does work amazingly well for some things. The problem is that in politics we don’t see the glass jar for ourselves—we view it through the lens of the media, and the media show us a(n) ( ㉠ ) view of politics. This goes a lot further than liberal or conservative bias. Thus, we should be aware of such media biases in order to minimize the likelihood that they’ll throw off our political judgment, even though there’s no way to permanently ( ㉡ ) them. ① ㉠ apocalyptic ㉡ implant ② ㉠ distorted ㉡ fix ③ ㉠ balanced ㉡ overcome ④ ㉠ conflicting ㉡ promote 20. 다음 보기에 이어질 글의 순서로 가장 적절한 것은? < 보 기 > There is a widely held notion that does plenty of damage: the notion of ‘scientifically proved.’ It is nearly an oxymoron* . The very foundation of science is to keep the door open to doubt. *oxymoron 모순어법(양립할 수 없는 개념을 함께 사용하는 수사법) ㉠ Therefore, certainty is not only something useless but is also in fact damaging, if we value reliability. ㉡ Therefore, a good scientist is never ‘certain.’ Lack of certainty is precisely what makes conclusions more reliable than the conclusions of those who are certain, because the good scientist will be ready to shift to a different point of view if better evidence or novel arguments emerge. ㉢ Precisely because we keep questioning everything, especially our own premises, we are always ready to improve our knowledge. ① ㉠-㉢-㉡ ② ㉢-㉠-㉡ ③ ㉠-㉡-㉢ ④ ㉢-㉡-㉠
스터디 영어-A형.pdf 영어-B형.pdf 2019 소방직 영어 해설 가짜영어.pdf 2019 소방직 영어 해설 이동기.pdf 2019 소방직 영어 해설 박철우.pdf 2019 소방직 영어 해설 이영신.pdf 2019 소방직 영어 해설 이섬가.pdf 2019 소방직 영어 해설 김유리.pdf A - 11 / 38 1. 다음 밑줄 친 부분과 의미가 가장 가까운 것은? The ability to communicate effectively is often listed as a required attribute in many job advertisements. ① nutrition ② qualification ③ distribution ④ compensation 2. 다음 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? Fire departments are dedicated to saving lives and property from the of fire. Saving lives is the highest priority at the incident scene. ① perils ② shelters ③ overviews ④ sanctuaries 3. 다음 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? One of the biggest problems in a high-rise fire is the use of the stairwells for fire suppression activities and occupant evacuation. Many training materials have attempted to direct firefighters to establish one stairwell for evacuation and another for fire suppression. This does not work due to the occupants leaving via the closest exit. ① ingenious ② simultaneous ③ pretentious ④ meticulous 4. 다음 밑줄 친 he[him]가 가리키는 대상이 나머지 셋과 다른 것은? Victor is a motorman for the Chicago Transit Authority. “Thank you for riding with me this evening. Don’t lean against the doors, I don’t want to lose you,” ① he tells passengers over the intercom as the train departs. As the train makes its way north, ② he points out notable sites, including which connecting buses are waiting in the street below. People compliment ③ him all the time, telling the city he’s the best motorman. Why does he have such a positive approach to his job? “My father is a retired motorman, and one day he took me to work with ④ him and I was so impressed looking out that window,” he says, speaking of the city skyline. “Ever since I was five years old, I knew I wanted to run the train.” 5. 다음 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은? When we attempt to make major change in our lives, it is natural for us to want to go from all to nothing or vice versa. Let’s take Bob, for instance. Bob never really exercised in the past, but wanted to get into shape. To do so, he decided to exercise for an hour every day of the week. Within a few weeks, Bob burned out, lost his motivation, and stopped exercising. He took on too much, too quickly. On the other hand, if Bob had eased into a fitness regimen by starting with two half-hour workouts per week, and then slowly added workout days and workout time over a few months, he would’ve had a better chance of sticking with the program and of the change lasting. Easing into change helps make it seem less overwhelming and more manageable. ① Extremes Don’t Work ② How to Avoid Obesity ③ Why Is It Easy to Be Unhealthy? ④ Workout Time: The More, The Better! 6. 다음 글의 주제로 가장 적절한 것은? Having a children’s party can be an example of a relatively inexpensive benefit to provide for your employees that can yield great returns on the investment. There are unlimited occasions and places to entertain children today. As a boss, you can help your employees’ children celebrate holidays, Halloween, spring, or any other event or season. Employees and their children will appreciate the company providing this benefit. This is an excellent way to show appreciation to your employees’ families for all the sacrifices they make to support their husbands, wives, fathers, or mothers as they go off to work each day. Finally, everyone will feel good about the company or organization. ① drawbacks of regular family gatherings ② merits of medical support for employees ③ employees’ sacrifices for company growth ④ supporting family-related events and its effects 【 영 어 】 A - 12 / 38 7. 다음 글에서 필자가 주장하는 바로 가장 적절한 것은? Many people store their medications in the bathroom. But this popular spot is actually one of the worst places to keep medicine. Bathroom cabinets tend to be warm and humid, an environment that speeds up a drug’s breakdown process. This is especially true for tablets and capsules. Being exposed to heat and moisture can make medicines less potent before their expiration date. For example, a warm, muggy environment can cause aspirin tablets to break down into acetic acid (vinegar), which can irritate the stomach. Instead, keep medicines in a cool, dry, secure place out of a child’s reach. Be aware that medicine that is improperly stored can become toxic. ① 올바른 장소에 약을 보관하라. ② 목욕 전에는 약을 복용하지 마라. ③ 약은 따뜻한 물과 함께 복용하라. ④ 의약품 보관 시 유효기간을 확인하라. 8. 다음 글의 요지로 가장 적절한 것은? Training is all about influencing others, so if you want to maximize your influence on employees’ future behavior, the implications for your organization’s training programs are clear. Although many companies typically focus their training exclusively on the positive — in other words, on how to make good decisions — a sizable portion of the training should be devoted to how others have made errors in the past and how those errors could have been avoided. Specifically, illustrations and personal testimonials of mistakes should be followed by a discussion of what actions would have been appropriate to take in these and similar situations. ① 타인의 잘못을 관대하게 용서해주어야 한다. ② 회사 내에서 긍정적인 분위기를 만들어야 한다. ③ 회사의 발전을 위해 토론 문화를 확대해야 한다. ④ 실수에 관한 내용도 직원 훈련에 포함되어야 한다. 9. 다음 글에서 전체 흐름과 관계없는 문장은? Gum disease is frequently to blame for bad breath. In fact, bad breath is a warning sign for gum disease. ① This issue occurs initially as a result of plaque buildup on the teeth. ② Bacteria in the plaque irritate the gums and cause them to become tender, swollen and prone to bleeding. ③ Foul-smelling gases emitted by the bacteria can also cause bad breath. ④ Smoking damages your gum tissue by affecting the attachment of bone and soft tissue to your teeth. If you pay attention when you notice that bacteria-induced bad breath, though, you could catch gum disease before it gets to its more advanced stages. 10. James Baldwin에 관한 다음 글의 내용과 일치하지 않는 것은? James Baldwin was one of the leading African American authors of the past century. Novelist, essayist, poet, dramatist — as a writer, he knew no limits. Born in Harlem in 1924 to an unwed domestic worker from Maryland, Baldwin shouldered a good deal of household responsibility in helping raise his eight siblings. Baldwin found an early outlet in writing. He edited the junior high school newspaper. He graduated from DeWitt Clinton High School and worked in construction in New Jersey until he moved to Greenwich Village in 1944. His first sale was a book review to The Nation in 1946. Baldwin came to know civil rights activists Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X. Baldwin earned a number of awards, including a Guggenheim Fellowship. In 1987, the author died of cancer, leaving unfinished a biography of Martin Luther King Jr. Baldwin appeared on a commemorative U.S. postage stamp in 2004 — emblematic of his enduring power for the next generations. ① 아프리카계 미국인 작가였다. ② 1944년에 Greenwich Village로 이사했다. ③ Martin Luther King Jr.의 전기를 완성했다. ④ 2004년 미국 기념우표에 나왔다. A - 13 / 38 11. 다음 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 틀린 것은? Curiosity is the state of mind in which we are driven to go beyond what we already know and to seek what is novel, new, and ① unexplored. Without regular activation of the brain’s curiosity circuits, we can ② subtly settle into what is overly familiar, routine, and predictable. These are not bad things, but excessively predictable ③ lives can lead to stagnation. Indeed, this may be one of the reasons so many people ④ struggling early in their retirement. While it can be nice to leave the stress of work behind, the lack of challenge, stimulation, or novelty is sometimes a high price to pay. 12. 다음 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 틀린 것은? When people think of the word philanthropist, they’re apt to picture a grand lady in pearls ① writing out checks with a lot of zeros. But the root meaning of philanthropy is ② much more universal and accessible. In other words, it doesn’t mean “writing big checks.” Rather, a philanthropist tries to make a difference with whatever ③ riches he or she possesses. For most of us, it’s not money — especially these days — but things like our talents, our time, our decisions, our body, and our energy ④ what are our most valuable assets. 13. 다음 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? When you are with Marines gathering to eat, you will notice that the most junior are served first and the most senior are served last. When you witness this act, you will also note that no order is given. Marines just do it. At the heart of this very simple action is the Marine Corps’ approach to leadership. Marine leaders are expected to eat last because the true price of leadership is the willingness to place the needs of others above your own. Great leaders truly care about those they are privileged to lead and understand that the true cost of the leadership privilege comes at the expense of . ① health ② self-interest ③ faith ④ freedom 14. 다음 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? A large body of evidence suggests that a single decision to vote in fact increases the likelihood that others will vote. It is well known that when you decide to vote it also increases the chance that your friends, family, and coworkers will vote. This happens in part because they imitate you and in part because you might make direct appeals to them. And we know that direct appeals work. If I knock on your door and ask you to head to the polls, there is an increased chance that you will. This simple, old-fashioned, person-to-person technique is still the primary tool used by the sprawling political machines in modern-day elections. Thus, we already have a lot of evidence to indicate that may be the key to solving the voting puzzle. ① financial aid ② social connections ③ political stance ④ cultural differences 15. 다음 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? In The Joy of Stress, Dr. Peter Hanson described an experiment in which two groups of office workers were exposed to a series of loud and distracting background noises. One group had desks equipped with a button that could be pushed at any time to shut out the annoying sounds. The other group had no such button. Not surprisingly, workers with the button were far more productive than those without. But what’s remarkable is that no one in the button group actually pushed the button. Apparently, the knowledge that they could shut out the noise if they wanted to was enough to enable them to work productively in spite of the distractions. Their sense of resulted in a reduction in stress and an increase in productivity. ① humor ② achievement ③ control ④ responsibility A - 14 / 38 16. 다음 밑줄 친 부분 중 문맥상 낱말의 쓰임이 적절하지 않은 것은? Individuals with low self-esteem may be locking on events and experiences that happened years ago and tenaciously ① refusing to let go of them. Perhaps you’ve heard religious and spiritual leaders say that it’s important to ② forgive others who have hurt you in the past. Research also suggests it’s important to your own mental health and sense of well-being to ③ recollect old wounds and forgive others. Looking back at what we can’t change only reinforces a sense of helplessness. Constantly replaying ④ negative experiences in our mind serves to make our sense of worth more difficult to change. Becoming aware of the changes that have occurred and can occur in your life can help you develop a more realistic assessment of your value. 17. 다음 주어진 문장이 들어가기에 가장 적절한 곳은? But what if one year there was a drought and there wasn’t much corn to go around? When people bartered, most of the time they knew the values of the objects they exchanged. ( ① ) Suppose that three baskets of corn were generally worth one chicken. ( ② ) Two parties had to persuade each other to execute the exchange, but they didn’t have to worry about setting the price. ( ③ ) Then a farmer with three baskets of corn could perhaps bargain to exchange them for two or even three chickens. ( ④ ) Bargaining the exchange value of something is a form of negotiating. 18. 다음 빈칸 (A), (B)에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? Balloons should never be given to children under eight years old. Always supervise children of any age around balloons; they are easily popped, and if inhaled, small pieces can (A) the airway and hinder respiration. Balloons are not visible on X-rays, so if a child has swallowed a piece of balloon the reason for distress may not be (B) . (A) (B) (A) (B) ① block … apparent ② block … undetectable ③ expand … apparent ④ expand … undetectable 19. 다음 빈칸 (A), (B)에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? Culture consists of the rules, norms, values, and mores of a group of people, which have been learned and shaped by successive generations. The meaning of a symbol such as a word can change from culture to culture. To a European, (A) , a “Yankee” is someone from the United Sates; to a player on the Boston Red Sox, a “Yankee” is an opponent; and to someone from the American South, a “Yankee” is someone from the American North. A few years ago, one American car company sold a car called a Nova. In English, nova means bright star ― an appropriate name for a car. In Spanish, (B) , the spoken word nova sounds like the words “no va,” which translate “It does not go.” As you can imagine, this name was not a great sales tool for the Spanish-speaking market. (A) (B) ① for example … as a result ② for example … however ③ similarly … moreover ④ similarly … in fact 20. 주어진 글 다음에 이어질 글의 순서로 가장 적절한 것은? When people eat, they tend to confuse or combine information from the tongue and mouth (the sense of taste, which uses three nerves to send information to the brain) with what is happening in the nose (the sense of smell, which utilizes a different nerve input). (A) With your other hand, pinch your nose closed. Now pop one of the jellybeans into your mouth and chew, without letting go of your nose. Can you tell what flavor went into your mouth? (B) It’s easy to demonstrate this confusion. Grab a handful of jellybeans of different flavors with one hand and close your eyes. (C) Probably not, but you most likely experienced the sweetness of the jellybean. Now let go of your nose. Voilà — the flavor makes its appearance. ① (B) － (A) － (C) ② (B) － (C) － (A) ③ (C) － (A) － (B) ④ (C) － (B) － (A)
스터디 영어-나.pdf 영어-라.pdf 2019 국가직 9급 영어 해설 조재권.pdf 2019 국가직 9급 영어 해설 심우철.pdf 2019 국가직 9급 영어 해설 정수현.hwp 2019 국가직 9급 영어 해설 손진숙.pdf 2019 국가직 9급 영어 해설 이동기.pdf 2019 국가직 9급 영어 해설 닥터K.pdf 2019 국가직 9급 영어 해설 이충권.pdf 2019 국가직 9급 영어 해설 영스파.pdf 2019 국가직 9급 영어 해설 줄리아.pdf 2019 국가직 9급 영어 해설 방재운.pdf 2019 국가직 9급 영어 해설 박철우.pdf 2019 국가직 9급 영어 해설 한덕현.pdf 2019 국가직 9급 영어 해설 김세현.pdf 2019 국가직 9급 영어 해설 성정혜.pdf 2019 국가직 9급 영어 해설 김범재.pdf 2019 국가직 9급 영어 해설 김재운.pdf 2019 국가직 9급 영어 해설 정진영.hwp 2019 국가직 9급 영어 해설 이아람.pdf 2019 국가직 9급 영어 해설 박지성.pdf 2019년도 국가공무원 9급 공채 필기시험 영 어 나 책형 1 쪽 영 어 ※ 밑줄 친 부분의 의미와 가장 가까운 것을 고르시오. [문 1. ～문 2.] 문 1. Natural Gas World subscribers will receive accurate and reliable key facts and figures about what is going on in the industry, so they are fully able to discern what concerns their business. ① distinguish ② strengthen ③ undermine ④ abandon 문 2. Ms. West, the winner of the silver in the women's 1,500 m event, stood out through the race. ① was overwhelmed ② was impressive ③ was depressed ④ was optimistic 문 3. 두 사람의 대화 중 가장 어색한 것은? ① A: I'm traveling abroad, but I'm not used to staying in another country. B: Don't worry. You'll get accustomed to it in no time. ② A: I want to get a prize in the photo contest. B: I'm sure you will. I'll keep my fingers crossed! ③ A: My best friend moved to Sejong City. I miss her so much. B: Yeah. I know how you feel. ④ A: Do you mind if I talk to you for a moment? B: Never mind. I'm very busy right now. 문 4. 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? A: Would you like to try some dim sum? B: Yes, thank you. They look delicious. What's inside? A: These have pork and chopped vegetables, and those have shrimps. B: And, um, ________________________? A: You pick one up with your chopsticks like this and dip it into the sauce. It's easy. B: Okay. I'll give it a try. ① how much are they ② how do I eat them ③ how spicy are they ④ how do you cook them ※ 우리말을 영어로 잘못 옮긴 것을 고르시오. [문 5. ～ 문 6.] 문 5. ① 제가 당신께 말씀드렸던 새로운 선생님은 원래 페루 출신입니다. → The new teacher I told you about is originally from Peru. ② 나는 긴급한 일로 자정이 5분이나 지난 후 그에게 전화했다. → I called him five minutes shy of midnight on an urgent matter. ③ 상어로 보이는 것이 산호 뒤에 숨어 있었다. → What appeared to be a shark was lurking behind the coral reef. ④ 그녀는 일요일에 16세의 친구와 함께 산 정상에 올랐다. → She reached the mountain summit with her 16-year-old friend on Sunday. 문 6. ① 개인용 컴퓨터를 가장 많이 가지고 있는 나라는 종종 바뀐다. → The country with the most computers per person changes from time to time. ② 지난여름 나의 사랑스러운 손자에게 일어난 일은 놀라웠다. → What happened to my lovely grandson last summer was amazing. ③ 나무 숟가락은 아이들에게 매우 좋은 장난감이고 플라스틱 병 또한 그렇다. → Wooden spoons are excellent toys for children, and so are plastic bottles. ④ 나는 은퇴 후부터 내내 이 일을 해 오고 있다. → I have been doing this work ever since I retired. ※ 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 옳지 않은 것을 고르시오. [문 7. ～ 문 8.] 문 7. Domesticated animals are the earliest and most effective 'machines' ① available to humans. They take the strain off the human back and arms. ② Utilizing with other techniques, animals can raise human living standards very considerably, both as supplementary foodstuffs (protein in meat and milk) and as machines ③ to carry burdens, lift water, and grind grain. Since they are so obviously ④ of great benefit, we might expect to find that over the centuries humans would increase the number and quality of the animals they kept. Surprisingly, this has not usually been the case. 문 8. A myth is a narrative that embodies ―and in some cases ① helps to explain ― the religious, philosophical, moral, and political values of a culture. Through tales of gods and supernatural beings, myths ② try to make sense of occurrences in the natural world. Contrary to popular usage, myth does not mean "falsehood." In the broadest sense, myths are stories ―usually whole groups of stories ― ③ that can be true or partly true as well as false; regardless of their degree of accuracy, however, myths frequently express the deepest beliefs of a culture. According to this definition, the Iliad and the Odyssey, the Koran, and the Old and New Testaments can all ④refer to as myths. 문 9. 다음 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은? Mapping technologies are being used in many new applications. Biological researchers are exploring the molecular structure of DNA ("mapping the genome"), geophysicists are mapping the structure of the Earth's core, and oceanographers are mapping the ocean floor. Computer games have various imaginary "lands" or levels where rules, hazards, and rewards change. Computerization now challenges reality with "virtual reality," artificial environments that stimulate special situations, which may be useful in training and entertainment. Mapping techniques are being used also in the realm of ideas. For example, relationships between ideas can be shown using what are called concept maps. Starting from a general or "central" idea, related ideas can be connected, building a web around the main concept. This is not a map by any traditional definition, but the tools and techniques of cartography are employed to produce it, and in some ways it resembles a map. ① Computerized Maps vs. Traditional Maps ② Where Does Cartography Begin? ③ Finding Ways to DNA Secrets ④ Mapping New Frontiers 2019년도 국가공무원 9급 공채 필기시험 영 어 나 책형 2 쪽 문 10. 다음 글의 요지로 가장 적절한 것은? When giving performance feedback, you should consider the recipient's past performance and your estimate of his or her future potential in designing its frequency, amount, and content. For high performers with potential for growth, feedback should be frequent enough to prod them into taking corrective action, but not so frequent that it is experienced as controlling and saps their initiative. For adequate performers who have settled into their jobs and have limited potential for advancement, very little feedback is needed because they have displayed reliable and steady behavior in the past, knowing their tasks and realizing what needs to be done. For poor performers ― that is, people who will need to be removed from their jobs if their performance doesn't improve ― feedback should be frequent and very specific, and the connection between acting on the feedback and negative sanctions such as being laid off or fired should be made explicit. ① Time your feedback well. ② Customize negative feedback. ③ Tailor feedback to the person. ④ Avoid goal-oriented feedback. 문 11. 다음 글의 내용과 일치하지 않는 것은? Langston Hughes was born in Joplin, Missouri, and graduated from Lincoln University, in which many African-American students have pursued their academic disciplines. At the age of eighteen, Hughes published one of his most wellknown poems, "Negro Speaks of Rivers." Creative and experimental, Hughes incorporated authentic dialect in his work, adapted traditional poetic forms to embrace the cadences and moods of blues and jazz, and created characters and themes that reflected elements of lower-class black culture. With his ability to fuse serious content with humorous style, Hughes attacked racial prejudice in a way that was natural and witty. ① Hughes는 많은 미국 흑인들이 다녔던 대학교를 졸업하였다. ② Hughes는 실제 사투리를 그의 작품에 반영하였다. ③ Hughes는 하층 계급 흑인들의 문화적 요소를 반영한 인물을 만들었다. ④ Hughes는 인종편견을 엄숙한 문체로 공격하였다. 문 12. 밑줄 친 부분 중 글의 흐름상 가장 어색한 것은? In 2007, our biggest concern was "too big to fail." Wall Street banks had grown to such staggering sizes, and had become so central to the health of the financial system, that no rational government could ever let them fail. ①Aware of their protected status, banks made excessively risky bets on housing markets and invented ever more complicated derivatives. ② New virtual currencies such as bitcoin and ethereum have radically changed our understanding of how money can and should work. ③The result was the worst financial crisis since the breakdown of our economy in 1929. ④ In the years since 2007, we have made great progress in addressing the too-big-to-fail dilemma. Our banks are better capitalized than ever. Our regulators conduct regular stress tests of large institutions. 문 13. 다음 글의 주제로 가장 적절한 것은? Imagine that two people are starting work at a law firm on the same day. One person has a very simple name. The other person has a very complex name. We've got pretty good evidence that over the course of their next 16 plus years of their career, the person with the simpler name will rise up the legal hierarchy more quickly. They will attain partnership more quickly in the middle parts of their career. And by about the eighth or ninth year after graduating from law school the people with simpler names are about seven to ten percent more likely to be partners ― which is a striking effect. We try to eliminate all sorts of other alternative explanations. For example, we try to show that it's not about foreignness because foreign names tend to be harder to pronounce. But even if you look at just white males with Anglo-American names ―so really the true in-group, you find that among those white males with Anglo names they are more likely to rise up if their names happen to be simpler. So simplicity is one key feature in names that determines various outcomes. ① the development of legal names ② the concept of attractive names ③ the benefit of simple names ④ the roots of foreign names ※ 밑줄 친 부분의 의미와 가장 가까운 것을 고르시오. [문 14. ～ 문 15.] 문 14. Schooling is compulsory for all children in the United States, but the age range for which school attendance is required varies from state to state. ① complementary ② systematic ③ mandatory ④ innovative 문 15. Although the actress experienced much turmoil in her career, she never disclosed to anyone that she was unhappy. ① let on ② let off ③ let up ④ let down 문 16. 밑줄 친 (A), (B)에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? Visionaries are the first people in their industry segment to see the potential of new technologies. Fundamentally, they see themselves as smarter than their opposite numbers in competitive companies ― and, quite often, they are. Indeed, it is their ability to see things first that they want to leverage into a competitive advantage. That advantage can only come about if no one else has discovered it. They do not expect, (A) , to be buying a well-tested product with an extensive list of industry references. Indeed, if such a reference base exists, it may actually turn them off, indicating that for this technology, at any rate, they are already too late. Pragmatists, (B) , deeply value the experience of their colleagues in other companies. When they buy, they expect extensive references, and they want a good number to come from companies in their own industry segment. (A) (B) ① therefore on the other hand ② however in addition ③ nonetheless at the same time ④ furthermore in conclusion 2019년도 국가공무원 9급 공채 필기시험 영 어 나 책형 3 쪽 문 17. 주어진 문장이 들어갈 위치로 가장 적절한 것은? Some of these ailments are short-lived; others may be long-lasting. For centuries, humans have looked up at the sky and wondered what exists beyond the realm of our planet. ( ① ) Ancient astronomers examined the night sky hoping to learn more about the universe. More recently, some movies explored the possibility of sustaining human life in outer space, while other films have questioned whether extraterrestrial life forms may have visited our planet. ( ② ) Since astronaut Yuri Gagarin became the first man to travel in space in 1961, scientists have researched what conditions are like beyond the Earth's atmosphere, and what effects space travel has on the human body. ( ③ ) Although most astronauts do not spend more than a few months in space, many experience physiological and psychological problems when they return to the Earth. ( ④ ) More than two-thirds of all astronauts suffer from motion sickness while traveling in space. In the gravity-free environment, the body cannot differentiate up from down. The body's internal balance system sends confusing signals to the brain, which can result in nausea lasting as long as a few days. 문 18. 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? Why bother with the history of everything? ___________ ___________________________________. In literature classes you don't learn about genes; in physics classes you don't learn about human evolution. So you get a partial view of the world. That makes it hard to find meaning in education. The French sociologist Emile Durkheim called this sense of disorientation and meaninglessness anomie, and he argued that it could lead to despair and even suicide. The German sociologist Max Weber talked of the "disenchantment" of the world. In the past, people had a unified vision of their world, a vision usually provided by the origin stories of their own religious traditions. That unified vision gave a sense of purpose, of meaning, even of enchantment to the world and to life. Today, though, many writers have argued that a sense of meaninglessness is inevitable in a world of science and rationality. Modernity, it seems, means meaninglessness. ① In the past, the study of history required disenchantment from science ② Recently, science has given us lots of clever tricks and meanings ③ Today, we teach and learn about our world in fragments ④ Lately, history has been divided into several categories 문 19. 다음 글의 내용과 일치하지 않는 것은? The earliest government food service programs began around 1900 in Europe. Programs in the United States date from the Great Depression, when the need to use surplus agricultural commodities was joined to concern for feeding the children of poor families. During and after World War II, the explosion in the number of working women fueled the need for a broader program. What was once a function of the family ― providing lunch ― was shifted to the school food service system. The National School Lunch Program is the result of these efforts. The program is designed to provide federally assisted meals to children of school age. From the end of World War II to the early 1980s, funding for school food service expanded steadily. Today it helps to feed children in almost 100,000 schools across the United States. Its first function is to provide a nutritious lunch to all students; the second is to provide nutritious food at both breakfast and lunch to underprivileged children. If anything, the role of school food service as a replacement for what was once a family function has been expanded. ① The increase in the number of working women boosted the expansion of food service programs. ② The US government began to feed poor children during the Great Depression despite the food shortage. ③ The US school food service system presently helps to feed children of poor families. ④ The function of providing lunch has been shifted from the family to schools. 문 20. 주어진 문장 다음에 이어질 글의 순서로 가장 적절한 것은? South Korea boasts of being the most wired nation on earth. (A) This addiction has become a national issue in Korea in recent years, as users started dropping dead from exhaustion after playing online games for days on end. A growing number of students have skipped school to stay online, shockingly self-destructive behavior in this intensely competitive society. (B) In fact, perhaps no other country has so fully embraced the Internet. (C) But such ready access to the Web has come at a price as legions of obsessed users find that they cannot tear themselves away from their computer screens. ① (A) － (B) － (C) ② (A) － (C) － (B) ③ (B) － (A) － (C) ④ (B) － (C) － (A)
스터디 영어_9급_A형.pdf 영어_9급_B형.pdf 2019 서울시 9급 영어 해설 이동현.pdf 2019 서울시 9급 영어 해설 조재권.pdf 2019 서울시 9급 영어 해설 이동기.pdf 2019 서울시 9급 영어 해설 문민.pdf 2019 서울시 9급 영어 해설 한덕현.pdf 2019 서울시 9급 영어 해설 이충권.pdf 2019 서울시 9급 영어 해설 방재운.pdf 2019 서울시 9급 영어 해설 망가진영어.pdf 2019 서울시 9급 영어 해설 성정혜.pdf 영 어(9급) A책형 1/4쪽 1. 밑줄 친 부분과 의미가 가장 가까운 것은? He made a face when he saw the amount of homework he had to do. ① glanced ② rejoiced ③ grimaced ④ concentrated ※ 밑줄 친 단어와 의미가 가장 가까운 것은? (2~4) 2. Whether a guffaw at a joke or a reflective chuckle greeting a sarcastic remark, laughter is the audience’s means of ratifying the performance. ① smi rk ② ti ttle ③ giggle ④ belly laugh 3. Some seniors experience a tremendous loss of self-esteem. Whereas adolescents lose their sense of childhood omnipotence, seniors experience another kind of loss. Retirement comes at about the same time that seniors may begin to lose loved ones, their health, their financial status, or their sense of competence. Suddenly, someone who was so in charge may become withdrawn and sullen, and their self-esteem may plummet. ① plunge ② affirm ③ swindle ④ initiate 4. The beauty of the pearl, winking and glimmering in the light of the little candle, cozened his brain with its beauty. ① deceived ② softened ③ connected ④ brightened 5. 빈칸에 들어갈 표현으로 가장 적절한 것은? Critical comments include remarks on physical appearance, stress on weight loss, and reinforce the thin ideal. Some athletes indicated that negative weight-related comments from family were events in the development of eating disorders. ① mediocre ② extravagant ③ treacherous ④ pivotal 6. 밑줄 친 부분과 의미가 가장 가까운 것은? She liked the garden and the fields, the green lane and the hedgerows. She even liked the rabbits that kept playing havoc with the lawn. ① to cause a great deal of damage or confusion to ② to use something as food ③ to bustle in and out ④ to be on the move 7. 빈칸에 들어갈 표현으로 가장 적절한 것은? A : What have you done for this project so far? Because it seems to me like you haven’t done anything at all. B : That’s so rude! I do lots of work. It’s you who is slacking off. A : I don’t see why you always have to fight with me. B : . We wouldn’t fight if you didn’t initiate it! ① It takes two to tango ② More haste less speed ③ He who laughs last laughs longest ④ Keep your chin up 8. 어법상 가장 옳은 것은? ① Had never flown in an airplane before, the little boy was surprised and a little frightened when his ears popped. ② Scarcely had we reached there when it began to snow. ③ Despite his name, Freddie Frankenstein has a good chance of electing to the local school board. ④ I would rather to be lying on a beach in India than sitting in class right now. 영 어(9급) A책형 2/4쪽 9. 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 가장 옳은 것은? Severe acute respiratory syndrome(SARS) is a serious form of pneumonia. It is caused by a virus that ① identified in 2003. Infection with the SARS virus causes acute respiratory distress and sometimes ② dies. SARS is caused by a member of the coronavirus family of viruses(the same family that can cause the common cold). It ③ believes the 2003 epidemic started when the virus ④ spread from small mammals in China. ※ 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 가장 옳지 않은 것은? (10~12) 10. This Abstract, which I now publish, must necessarily be imperfect. I cannot here give references and authorities for my several statements; and I must ① trust to the reader reposing some confidence in my accuracy. No ② doubt errors will have crept in, though I hope I have always been cautious in trusting to good authorities alone. I can here give only the general conclusions at which I have arrived, with a few facts in illustration, but which, I hope, in most cases will ③ be sufficed. No one can feel more sensible than I do of the necessity of hereafter publishing in detail all the facts, with references, on which my conclusions have been grounded; and I hope in a future work to do this. For I am well aware that scarcely a single point is discussed in this volume on which facts cannot be ④ adduced, often apparently leading to conclusions directly opposite to those at which I have arrived. A fair result can be obtained only by fully stating and balancing the facts and arguments on both sides of each question; and this cannot possibly be here done. 11. Some cultures draw a clear line between childhood and adulthood, a line that ① crossed when a person undergoes a rite of passage. By contrast, as Hollindale ② notes, in the contemporary West ‘communal and official recognitions of childhood’s end are arbitrary and ritualistically barren’, although he ③ does leave the option that ‘some people move from child to adult in one fell swoop’, in the case of traumatic experiences, ④ for example. 12. In the fifteenth century, an alphasyllabic Korean script was invented. Linguists admire it as it ① symbolizes the speech sounds in a ② sophisticated and very elegant way. The script, called Hangul, can be used in tandem with the Chinese characters but can also replace them altogether. Slowly, Hangul has ③ been taken over. In North Korea, only Hangul is used, while in South Korea, Chinese characters still ④ occur in particular contexts. ※ 빈칸에 들어갈 표현으로 가장 적절한 것은? (13~15) 13. HUANG QI, who has spent two decades documenting human rights abuses and corruption in China, is now enduring his third term in prison for his efforts. The Chinese penal system has a record of denying proper medical care to prisoners (A) they die, including Nobel Prize laureate Liu Xiaobo and others. Mr. Huang is now in ill health, and, (B) activists and his mother, his life is in danger. China should free him for medical care now and not add his name to the rolls of dissidents left to expire in a jail cell. (A) (B) ① though without ② whi le wi th ③ until according to ④ when for 14. For every mystery, there is someone trying to figure out (A) happened. Scientists, detectives, and ordinary people search for evidence that will help to reveal the truth. They investigate prehistoric sites trying to understand how and why ancient people constructed pyramids or created strange artwork. They study the remains of long-extinct animals and they speculate about (B) the animals might have looked when they were alive. Anything (C) is unexplained is fascinating to people who love a mystery. (A) (B) (C) ① what what that ② what how that ③ that what what ④ that how which 영 어(9급) A책형 3/4쪽 15. Stereotypes are one way in which we “define” the world in order to see it. They classify the infinite variety of human beings into a convenient handful of “types” towards whom we learn to act in stereotyped fashion. Life would be a wearing process . Stereotypes economize on our mental effort by covering up the blooming, buzzing confusion with big recognizable cut-outs. They save us the “trouble” of finding out what the world is like ― they give it its accustomed look. ① if we tried to stick to stereotypes ② if we learned to act in stereotyped fashion ③ if we prejudged people before we ever lay eyes on them ④ if we had to start from scratch with every human contact 16. 다음 글에 이어질 글의 순서로 가장 옳은 것은? In the mid to late 1480s, when Leonardo da Vinci was attempting to establish himself as a court artist, he seems to have started on his huge rage of drawing that touch on almost all areas of science, and which to this day constitute a significant part of his reputation. (A) These drawings are intriguing and fascinating in themselves, and not simply with regard to the potential airworthiness of these machines. (B) Besides technical, artistic, and ‘scientific’ drawings there are also various studies from this period which can really only be described as fantastical. (C) This applies as much to some of the military equipment as to his numerous designs for flying machines. (D) Nevertheless he returned again and again to studies of the flight of birds, the aerodynamics of flying and the construction of wings. (E) No doubt the artist was fully aware of the problems that would come with any such undertaking. ① C-A-B-E-D ② C-B-A-D-E ③ B-A-C-D-E ④ B-C-A-E-D 17. 다음 내용이 포함될 수 있는 글의 종류와 가장 가까운 것은? Although Cathe did not have PhD students of her own, because she did not hold an academic position while at Haskins, there are many Haskins students who worked closely with her and were influenced by her. During her last, brief hospital stay in late June 2008, she was visited by a group of five current Haskins students and recent PhDs who had never had the opportunity of working with her. Since Cathe’s caregivers were absent from the room at that moment, the other patient in the room asked: “So do you all work for her, too?” One of the group, not missing a beat, answered, “No. We are all her students.” ① classified ad ② ordinance ③ play ④ obituary 18. 빈칸에 들어갈 문장으로 가장 적절한 것은? Many people are risk-averse because they consider the negative consequences of failure to outweigh the reward of success. Our culture of looking down on failure makes us even less likely to risk our necks. . Progress and innovation are inextricably entwined with risk and failure. ① But we should not underestimate the importance of experimenting and taking risks, especially in these turbulent economic times ② But many organizations suffer from ‘corporate anorexia nervosa’ and have an unfavorable climate for enterprising people ③ That is why we need a paradigm shift marking a transition to a future ④ That is why combinatoric innovation is not an efficient process 영 어(9급) A책형 4/4쪽 ※ 빈칸에 들어갈 표현으로 가장 적절한 것은? (19~20) 19. Human nature has many curious traits, but one of the most curious is . No one thinks it a fine thing to have a motor car that is perpetually going out of order: people do not boast that after a long run their car is completely useless for several weeks, or that it is perpetually developing strange troubles which even the most skillful mechanics cannot put right. Yet that is how people feel about their own bodies. To have a body that does its work satisfactorily is felt to be uninteresting and rather plebeian. A delicate digestion is almost indispensable in the equipment of a fine lady. I am aware in myself of the impulses to boast of illness: I have only been ill once, but I like people to know how very ill I was that once, and I feel vexed when I come across other people who have been more nearly dead without dying. ① fear of diseases ② interests in motor cars ③ pride in illness ④ phobia of death 20. In the huge, open lands of the American west, herding cattle is one way to make a living. The image of the cowboy on his horse is a familiar one, but in reality, women also participate in ranch work. This reality can be seen in the rodeo, where cowboys and cowgirls compete in roping young steers, and riding adult bulls. Throwing a rope around a steer is something ranchers must do in order to give the young animals medicine or to mark the steers as their property. , riding on the back of a large and angry bull is purely for sport ― a brutal and dangerous sport. But that danger does not stop the men and women who love the rodeo. ① To take an example ② To be brief ③ On the other hand ④ By the same token
스터디 영어.pdf 2018 경찰 3차 영어 해설 영스파.pdf 2018 경찰 3차 영어 해설 김형섭.pdf 2018 경찰 3차 영어 해설 정일현.pdf 2018 경찰 3차 영어 해설 이솔.hwp 2018 경찰 3차 영어 해설 이서윤.hwp 2018 경찰 3차 영어 해설 이동기.pdf 2018 경찰 3차 영어 해설 영어연구소.pdf 2018 경찰 3차 영어 해설 기승훈.pdf 2018 경찰 3차 영어 해설 MAX.pdf 2018 경찰 3차 영어 해설 양익.pdf - 3 - 1. 다음 밑줄 친 단어의 의미와 가장 가까운 것은? It is obligatory for everyone in a car to wear a seat belt. ① clumsy ② nebulous ③ compulsory ④ mutable 2. 다음 빈칸에 들어갈 단어로 가장 적절한 것은? The police found no evidence that he was involved in that crime. ① lacking ② impending ③ compelling ④ upcoming 3. 다음 빈칸에 들어갈 단어로 가장 적절한 것은? Because aging is one of the realities that one cannot really fight against, the best one can do is to keep oneself healthy so as to age with grace and fitness. ① incipient ② inexorable ③ congenial ④ salutary 4. 다음 ㉠, ㉡에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? · Seohee ( ㉠ ) her book on the table. · The heavy snow prevented us ( ㉡ ) baseball. ① ㉠ lay ㉡ to play ② ㉠ lay ㉡ from playing ③ ㉠ laid ㉡ to play ④ ㉠ laid ㉡ from playing 5. 다음 ㉠, ㉡, ㉢에 들어갈 단어로 가장 적절한 것은? When an animal is injured, the first thing it will do, if it possibly can, is scramble to its feet. Despite the fact that doing so will probably cause ( ㉠ ) pain, the instinct to get up drives the animal because the alternative, taking no action to get up, invites predators to come in to kill and eat the ( ㉡ ) one. Emotionally, we do the same thing. Often a person who has just suffered an injury or a devastating shock or loss will answer, “Fine” when asked, “How are you?” Just labeling this as ( ㉢ ) misses the deeper truth. The organism, animal or human, is trying not only to look fine in order to avoid attack, but trying to be fine. ① ㉠ severe ㉡ vulnerable ㉢ threshold ② ㉠ acute ㉡ aggressive ㉢ pretense ③ ㉠ further ㉡ defenseless ㉢ denial ④ ㉠ voracious ㉡ defensive ㉢ disguise 6. 다음 글의 내용과 가장 일치하지 않는 것은? The aye-aye, the largest nocturnal primate in the world, displays an unusual degree of fearlessness towards humans. Wild aye-ayes have been known to appear unexpectedly from nowhere in the rainforest to sniff a researcher’s shoes. It is different from the other *lemurs because it is highly specialized in many ways; its continuously growing incisor teeth (which led to its being considered a rodent during part of the 19th century), its large ears (almost certainly used in locating insect larvae in dead wood), and its long skeleton-like middle finger used to extract larvae from holes. So unique is it among the lemurs that it has proven extremely difficult to determine which other lemurs are its closest relatives. The aye-aye is so unusual that it is not only strange within the context of the primates, but it is one of the most distinctive mammals on earth. *lemur 여우원숭이 ① 야행성 영장류인 아이아이원숭이는 이상할 정도로 인간을 두려워하지 않는다. ② 아이아이원숭이는 계속 자라나는 앞니 때문에 19세기 이래로 설치류로 간주되고 있다. ③ 아이아이원숭이의 커다란 귀는 유충을 찾는 데, 긴 중지는 유충을 꺼내는 데 사용된다. ④ 아이아이원숭이는 가장 독특한 포유류 중 하나이다. 7. 다음 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 가장 적절한 것은? ① The game was watching outside the stadium on a huge screen. ② We will never get to the meeting unless the train leaves within five minutes. ③ With sunshine streamed through the window, Hugh found it impossible to sleep. ④ The water which she fell was freezing cold. 8. 다음 우리말을 영작한 것 중 가장 적절한 것은? ① 유수는 그 회사에 지원하는 것을 고려하고 있다. → Yusoo is considering applying for the company. ② 그 경찰서는 난민들에게 생활필수품을 제공했다. → The police station provided commodities with refugees. ③ 판사는 죄수가 재구속되어야 한다고 명령했다. → The judge ordered that the prisoner was remanded. ④ 그는 물속으로 깊이 잠수했다. → He dived deeply into the water. 9. 다음 A, B의 대화 중 가장 적절하지 않은 것은? ① A : Wasn’t that last question on the test tough? B : Yes, it was tricky. ② A : Hi, please transfer me to Ella Jones. This is her husband. B : I’ll put you right through. ③ A : Why is Mina so fed up at her job? B : She feels overeaten. ④ A : Chanhee? What brings you to London? B : I just arrived on business. 10. 다음 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 가장 적절하지 않은 것은? If properly stored, broccoli will stay ㉠fresh for up to four days. The best way to store fresh bunches is to refrigerate them in an open plastic bag in the vegetable compartment, ㉡which will give them the right balance of humidity and air, and help preserve the vitamin C content. Don’t wash the broccoli before ㉢storing it since moisture on its surface ㉣encourage the growth of mold. ① ㉠ ② ㉡ ③ ㉢ ④ ㉣ 11. 다음 글의 내용과 가장 일치하지 않는 것은? The Hazara are an ethnic minority living in the arid mountainous regions of Central Afghanistan. Several things distinguish them from other ethnic groups in the area. The first is their strongly Asiatic ancestry, which suggests that they are probably descended from the Mongolians, although the group has clearly intermixed with people of Eastern European and Middle Eastern ancestry as well. The Hazara speak Hazaragi, a form of Persian, and they are primarily Shia Muslims. This ethnic group also has its own distinct cultural and religious traditions. Most of all, they are famous for their poetry and storytelling, with legends of their culture and life being passed down in the form of lengthy songs, poems, and stories told to children. While those in this ethnic group share values with other Muslims across the Middle East, they sometimes express them in different ways, integrating rich folklore and a history of superstition into their practice of the Muslim faith. ① 중앙 아프가니스탄 산악지역에 사는 하자라족은 주로 시아파 무슬림이다. ② 하자라족은 아마도 몽골인종계이지만 동유럽인과 중동인의 혈통과도 섞였다. ③ 하자라족의 언어는 페르시아어의 일종인 하자라기어이다. ④ 하자라족 고유의 문화적 전통인 민간전승설화는 중동지역 무슬림 신앙의 바탕이 되었다. 【영 어】 - 4 - 12. 다음 밑줄 친 표현의 의미와 가장 가까운 것은? A : I’ve heard that you got a job offer. B : Yes, but I am not sure whether to take it or not. A : Really? I thought you wanted to make a change in your career. B : Yes, but it is hard to make a decision. A : Take your time and ponder it. B : Thank you. ① mull it over ② weigh it down ③ make up for it ④ take it down 13. 다음 글의 주제문을 만들기 위해 ㉠, ㉡에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? Classification allows us to focus on one or two features and see something in terms of those characteristics alone. To classify plants and animals, we have to ignore all the variations that distinguish one plant from another and one animal from another. We have to focus only on those aspects that are shared by all plants and that differentiate them from all animals. We ignore the great variation that exists within each group and reduce its members to the common ground that ties all the members of that group together. As a result, we come to see objects in terms of their membership in a particular group, and we miss seeing that each is more than its group membership. Trapped by the category of doors, we become blind to the three-by-sevenfoot pieces of wood that are right in front of us. < 주제문 > In classification, we concentrate on a few features ( ㉠ ) to group members, and in doing so, we tend to overlook ( ㉡ ) within the group. ① ㉠ distinctive ㉡ membership ② ㉠ different ㉡ great variation ③ ㉠ shared ㉡ group membership ④ ㉠ common ㉡ individual variations 14. 다음 글의 주제문을 만들기 위해 ㉠, ㉡에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? The underlying idea of world history is that the interaction among human societies resembles not the relationships among billiard balls, but rather among bacteria. Billiard balls rolling around the table may collide and affect each other’s trajectories, but they do not actually change each other: The eight ball is an eight ball even after it is struck by the cue ball. Bacteria, however, fundamentally shape each other as they interact. Because the membranes covering bacteria are full of pores, bacteria can exchange genetic information and can even fundamentally alter each other’s basic make-up when they touch. Similarly, human societies in contact affect each other’s development. World historians, recognizing this, seek to understand human history through studying both developments within societies and the way in which societies relate to each other. < 주제문 > World history is that of ( ㉠ ) relationships between human societies in which human societies, like bacteria, have interacted and ( ㉡ ) each other into a fundamentally different society. ① ㉠ inverse ㉡ amended ② ㉠ reciprocal ㉡ transformed ③ ㉠ cozy ㉡ absorbed ④ ㉠ diplomatic ㉡ isolated 15. 다음 글의 흐름으로 보아 <보기>의 문장이 들어갈 곳으로 가장 적절한 것은? < 보 기 > When a director changes the story into a film, however, all these rights are taken from the reader, and everything is constructed according to the taste of people other than the reader. I propose that the reason people enjoy the book version of a story more than the film version is that each reader creates the details in his or her favorite scenes. ㉠ The characters—the way they look, talk, dress—and everything else in the story are guided by the writer but are constructed by the reader according to his or her individual tastes. ㉡ Here, in effect, the reader also becomes the director and the producer and fixes everything to his or her liking. ㉢ The more these details are solidified in a certain way, the more the artist invades the audience’s domain, and confines the reader’s imagination to what is presented to them by others. Thus, the art, the artist, and the audience lose out. ㉣ ① ㉠ ② ㉡ ③ ㉢ ④ ㉣ 16. 다음 빈칸에 공통으로 들어갈 단어로 가장 적절한 것은? We tend not to notice how many creative tasks benefit from ( ) because they are built in and have become invisible. For example, almost all popular music is in 4/4 time, four beats in the bar, with the emphasis usually landing on the first beat. Tracks are normally three or four minutes in length, contain a chorus, and so on. These are just a few ( ) of many that popular music follows, and yet look at the variation that can be achieved. Many songs break these rules, but they often achieve their effects because there is a rule to break in the first place. Painters, writers, artists, and so on are all influenced by previous styles to various degrees and it’s these previous styles that provide ( ). ① repercussions ② catastrophes ③ encroachments ④ constraints 17. 다음 글의 내용으로 가장 적절한 것은? The Rust Belt is notorious for its poor air quality. For decades, coal plants, steel production, and auto emissions have pumped *particulates like *sulfate into the atmosphere over the eastern U.S. Especially before air quality laws began appearing in the 1970s, particulate pollution was behind acid rain, respiratory disease, and ozone depletion. But a new study from Harvard University suggests that the Rust Belt’s thick particulate fog may have helped slow down the effects of climate change, particularly when it was thickest. Throughout the 20 th century, global temperatures have gone up by just under one degree Celsius. But in the U.S., eastern and central states haven’t seen the same rise. In fact, temperatures there actually decreased over the same period. The reason seems to be particulate pollution. Instead of trapping warm air in the atmosphere like carbon dioxide, fine particles like sulfate reflect the sun’s light and heat. They may even group with watery cloud droplets, which do the same thing. The effect is a net cooling across entire regions. *particulates: 분진, *sulfate: 황산염 ① Rust Belt의 석탄 공장, 철강 생산으로 인한 황산염 분진들은 미국의 서부권으로 배출되었다. ② 오존 증가, 호흡기 질환, 산성비의 원인은 분진으로 된 오염 물질이다. ③ 새로운 연구는 Rust Belt의 두터운 분진 안개가 기후 변화의 영향을 늦추었을 가능성이 있다고 주장한다. ④ 황산염 같은 미세한 입자들은 태양빛을 흡수하여, 전 지역에 냉각효과를 가져온다. - 5 - 18. 다음 빈칸에 들어갈 단어로 가장 적절한 것은? Man differs from the lower animals because he preserves his past experiences. What happened in the past is lived again in memory. About what goes on today hangs a cloud of thoughts concerning similar things undergone in bygone days. With other animals, an experience perishes as it happens, and each new doing or suffering stands alone. But man lives in a world where each occurrence is charged with echoes and reminiscences of what has gone before, where each event is a reminder of other things. Hence he lives not, like the beasts of the field, in a world of merely physical things but in a world of signs and symbols. A stone is not merely hard, a thing into which one bumps; but it is a(n) ( ) of a deceased ancestor. ① monument ② foundation ③ enchantment ④ elimination 19. 다음 ㉠, ㉡에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? Can we sustain our standard of living in the same ecological space while consuming the resources of that space? This question is particularly relevant since we are living in an era of skyrocketing fuel costs and humans’ ever-growing carbon footprints. Some argue that we are already at a breaking point because we have nearly exhausted the Earth’s finite carrying capacity. ( ㉠ ), it’s possible that innovations and cultural changes can expand Earth’s capacity. We are already seeing this as the world economies are increasingly looking at “green,” renewable industries like solar and hydrogen energy. ( ㉡ ), many believe we will eventually reach a point at which conflict with the finite nature of resources is inevitable. That means survival could ultimately depend on getting the human population below its carrying capacity. Otherwise, without population control, the demand for resources will eventually exceed an ecosystem’s ability to provide it. ① ㉠ However ㉡ Still ② ㉠ Therefore ㉡ On the other hand ③ ㉠ Hence ㉡ Though ④ ㉠ Nevertheless ㉡ For instance 20. 다음 글의 요지로 가장 적절한 것은? On the way home from school on Tuesday, a dad promises his five-year-old son that he will take him to the baseball game on Saturday afternoon. When they get home, Dad learns from Mom that earlier in the day she had scheduled a swim lesson for Saturday afternoon and can’t change it. When they tell their son, he gets terribly upset, and the situation melts down. Why is the kid so upset? Dad didn’t know about the swim lesson. By the adult definition, he did not lie. But by the kid definition, he did lie; any false statement—regardless of intent or belief—is a lie. Therefore, unwittingly, Dad has given his child the message that he approves of breaking promises. ① Parents who break their promise by chance don’t give their child the impression that they told a lie. ② It is difficult for children to grasp the qualifying role of intent in telling a lie. ③ It goes without saying that children would rather take a lesson than play on weekend. ④ There are few roles parents play in the development of their child’s habit of keeping a promise.
스터디 영어.pdf 2018 경찰 2차 영어 해설 영스파.pdf 2018 경찰 2차 영어 해설 김형섭.pdf 2018 경찰 2차 영어 해설 양익.pdf 2018 경찰 2차 영어 해설 장종재.pdf 2018 경찰 2차 영어 해설 공수코.pdf 2018 경찰 2차 영어 해설 김채환.pdf 2018 경찰 2차 영어 해설 이동기.pdf 2018 경찰 2차 영어 해설 이영신.pdf - 3 - 【영 어】 1. 다음 밑줄 친 단어의 의미와 가장 가까운 것은? A theory developed by a scientist cannot be accepted as part of scientific knowledge until it has been verified by the studies of other researchers. ① repealed ② refuted ③ confirmed ④ neutralized 2. 다음 빈칸에 들어갈 단어로 가장 적절한 것은? Jason used to confide all his secrets to her because he believed she would never __________ them to other people. ① divulge ② diverge ③ deluge ④ decry 3. 다음 밑줄 친 단어의 의미와 가장 가까운 것은? One reason that energy prices are so volatile is that many consumers are extremely limited in their ability to substitute between fuels when the price of natural gas, for example, fluctuates. ① differentiate ② exchange ③ subdue ④ retain 4. 다음 빈칸에 들어갈 단어로 가장 적절한 것은? Although he was a(n) __________ man with a family, he behaved in an infantile manner, clamoring for attention if he did not get his way. ① grown ② innocent ③ obstinate ④ juvenile 5. 다음 빈칸에 들어갈 단어로 가장 적절한 것은? The most persistent question in the selective attention theories has been whether the shifts in attention that accompany changes in the arousal level are ___________ or deliberate. ① automatic ② incessant ③ conscious ④ sporadic 6. 다음 빈칸에 들어갈 표현으로 가장 적절한 것은? Usually, people who have been adopted __________ have access to their files. ① do not allow ② are not allowed to ③ has not been allowed ④ is not allowed to 7. 다음 빈칸에 들어갈 표현으로 가장 적절한 것은? The chameleon’s camouflage is very effective. As a result, __________ from a distance, it is indistinguishable from its environment. ① seeing ② they are seen ③ to be seen ④ seen 8. 다음 ㉠∼㉣ 중 어법상 가장 적절하지 않은 것은? People have been asking questions about ㉠what they have seen around them for thousands of years. The answers they have come up with have changed a lot. So ㉡is science itself. Science is dynamic, building upon the ideas and discoveries which one generation passes on to the next, as well as ㉢making huge leaps forward when completely new discoveries are made. What hasn’t changed is the curiosity, imagination and intelligence of those doing science. We might know more today, but people who thought deeply about their world 3,000 years ago ㉣were just as smart as we are. ① ㉠ ② ㉡ ③ ㉢ ④ ㉣ 9. 다음 빈칸에 들어갈 표현으로 가장 적절한 것은? Maggie will be waiting for me when my flight _________ this evening. ① will arrive ② is arrived ③ arrives ④ will have arrived 10. 다음 빈칸에 들어갈 표현으로 가장 적절한 것은? Rachel impressed her superiors so much that __________ a position available, they would have promoted her immediately. ① had been ② there had been ③ had there been ④ if there were 11. 다음 글의 내용으로 가장 적절하지 않은 것은? The gnu is a heavy animal that lives in southern Africa. Weighing 300 to 475 pounds, the gnu is equipped with high, large shoulders and a thick neck. Attaining a shoulder height of 3-4 feet, it stands higher at the shoulder than at the rump. Its big head has long horns that curve upward. Stiff hairs grow on the gnu’s forehead, neck, and shoulders, as well as on its long tail. The southern African form, the white-tailed gnu has a black mane and flowing white tail. Now extinct in the wild, the white-tailed gnu is preserved in a number of national parks and reserves. The brindled gnu is reasonably abundant over much of central and southeastern Africa. It ranges from northern South Africa to Kenya. The brindled gnu has yellowish-brown or gray hair with dark stripes on its shoulders and neck. ① gnu는 높고 큰 어깨와 두꺼운 목을 갖고 있다. ② gnu의 어깨는 높이가 3-4피트에 이른다. ③ 흰 꼬리 gnu는 검은 갈기를 가지고 있다. ④ 얼룩 무늬 gnu는 야생에서 멸종되었다. 12. 다음 글의 내용으로 가장 적절하지 않은 것은? Plastic bags were found in the digestive systems of more than 400 leatherback turtles. The leatherback turtle is a critically endangered species. Jellyfish is their main diet. Mistaking the increased amounts of plastic bags drifting in the currents for drifting jellyfish is causing the leatherbacks harm. Plastic bags account for 12 percent of all marine debris, and plastic bottles and plastic caps and lids are also prevalent at six and eight percent respectively. Marine litter is one of the most pervasive and solvable pollution problems plaguing the world’s oceans and waterways. A simple solution to the plastic bag issue is reusable shopping bags. An increased awareness of the effects of plastic bags has caused many states and countries to implement plastic bag related legislation. For example, when Ireland imposed a fee on each plastic bag used by consumers, single-use plastic bag consumption dropped by 90 percent. ① 장수거북은 비닐봉지를 해파리로 착각하고 먹었다. ② 비닐봉지 외에도 플라스틱으로 만들어진 해양쓰레기가 있다. ③ 비닐봉지 사용으로 인한 해양오염에 대한 인식이 높아졌다. ④ 아일랜드는 1회용 비닐봉지 사용에 요금을 부과하였으나 큰 효과를 보지 못했다. - 4 - 13. 다음 글의 내용으로 가장 적절하지 않은 것은? A special feature of the real estate rental market is its tendency to undergo a severe and prolonged contraction phase, more so than with manufactured products. When the supply of a manufactured product exceeds the demand, the manufacturer cuts back on output, and the merchant reduces inventory to balance supply and demand. However, property owners cannot reduce the amount of space available for rent in their buildings. Space that was constructed to accommodate business and consumer needs at the peak of the cycle remains, so vacancy rates climb and the downward trend becomes more severe. Rental rates generally do not drop below a certain point, the minimum that must be charged in order to cover operating expenses. Some owners will take space off the market rather than lose money on it. A few, unable to subsidize the property, will sell at distress prices, and lenders will repossess others. These may then be placed on the market at lower rental rates, further depressing the market. *distress price: 투매 가격(판매자가 손해를 감수하는 가격) ① The market of manufactured products has a better chance of balancing supply and demand than the real estate rental market does. ② The manufacturers and the merchants would be better at coping with the fluctuation of the market than the property owners are. ③ When the economic cycle of the real estate market reaches its peak, vacancy rates increase and depression becomes more severe. ④ Lower rental rates resulting from too much supply in the real estate rental market make it more depressed. 14. 밑줄 친 it이 가리키는 대상이 나머지 셋과 다른 것은? An economy as big as the United States can afford to place reasonable bets in all areas where ㉠it looks as if technology can be pushed forward. In contrast, a country as small as Israel cannot. The U.S. research and development budget is three times the entire GDP of Israel. Israel has to focus, concentrate its money, and place its bets on a very limited number of technologies if ㉡it is to spend enough money on any one technology to have any chance of success. If ㉢it spends very small sums in all areas, it will end up wasting all of its resources. But if it must focus its bets, in what areas should ㉣it focus? No one knows. Since small countries and companies have to bet in what is an intrinsically riskier, more uncertain environment, they not surprisingly tend to bet less. ① ㉠ ② ㉡ ③ ㉢ ④ ㉣ 15. 다음 글의 흐름으로 볼 때, <보기>의 문장이 들어갈 곳으로 가장 적절한 것은? < 보 기 > In the same way, thinking of yourself as successful, talented, responsible, or fairly paid depends entirely on whom you choose for comparison. Typically, we don’t make social comparisons randomly or on some absolute scale. ( ㉠ ) Meaningful evaluations are based on comparing yourself with people of similar backgrounds, abilities, and circumstances. To illustrate, let’s ask a student named Wendy if she is a good tennis player. ( ㉡ ) If Wendy compares herself with a professional, the answer will be negative. But within her tennis group, Wendy is regarded as an excellent player. ( ㉢ ) On a fair scale of comparison, Wendy knows she is good and she takes pride in her tennis skills. ( ㉣ ) Thus, a desire for social comparison provides a motive for associating with others and influences which groups we join. ① ㉠ ② ㉡ ③ ㉢ ④ ㉣ 16. 다음 글의 흐름으로 볼 때, <보기>의 문장이 들어갈 곳으로 가장 적절한 것은? < 보 기 > For example, many African agricultural development programs are based on the conversion of communal land to private holdings. As a rule, women farmers work longer hours and have lower incomes than do male farmers. This is not because they are less educated or less competent. Rather, it is due to restricting socio-cultural factors. Firstly, most women farmers are involved in subsistence farming or food production for the local market that yields little cash return. ( ㉠ ) Secondly, they have less access to credit at bank than men. ( ㉡ ) Government-subsidized rates that would make it possible for them to acquire the ‘Green Revolution’ technology, such as hybrid seeds and fertilizers are also comparatively inaccessible to women. ( ㉢ ) Thirdly, in some societies women cannot own land and so are excluded from agricultural improvement programs and projects aimed at landowners. ( ㉣ ) This conversion adversely affects women because women have access to communal land while they are excluded from private holdings. *subsistence farming: 자급적 농업 ① ㉠ ② ㉡ ③ ㉢ ④ ㉣ 17. 다음 ㉠, ㉡에 들어갈 표현으로 가장 적절한 것은? Single-person households and “empty nesters” have different lifestyles and preferences than larger families. Singles, especially, spend heavily on foodservice, both for convenience and for social occasions. The increasing domination of these smaller all-adult households and single-person households has implications for restaurant patronage patterns. ( ㉠ ), the use of takeout has grown among both families with children and adult-only households (singles and couples). But these different types of households tend to be interested in different types of takeout, and for different reasons. ( ㉡ ) the family with kids may order a crowd-pleasing, inexpensive meal such as a large pizza or a bucket of chicken, the single adult might be more likely to stop on the way home after work for a sophisticated green salad that’s “too much trouble” to make for just one person. Adults who live alone or with one other person are more likely to rely on takeout as a routine pattern of sourcing food, whether they are in an older age group or a younger one. *empty nester: (장성한 자녀가 집을 떠난 뒤) 둘만 사는 부부 ① ㉠ Nevertheless ㉡ Since ② ㉠ For instance ㉡ While ③ ㉠ However ㉡ When ④ ㉠ For example ㉡ Because 18. 다음 글의 주제로 가장 적절한 것은? It is commonly believed that writers are working alone. Yet people see only the surface of the process. Consider, for example, a writer who creates a novel in the solitary confinement of her house. The writer is alone only in a very narrow sense. Indeed, she is writing, typically, about people, with people, and for people. The process of writing a novel can hardly be reduced to an individual cognitive reflection. Thus, the imaginary reader is always present in the creative process of writing ― as an addressee, a possible judge of the creation, and, more generally, a partner in a dialogue that each human creation ultimately is. Our writer arguably also is motivated by specifically human, social purposes, such as to be understood, respected and needed by others. ① characteristic of the writer as a social being ② dialogues between the writer and the reader ③ importance of the writer’s creativity ④ solitude of the imaginary reader - 5 - 19. 다음 글의 요지로 가장 적절한 것은? Whether moral progress is possible or not could be a decisive factor in evaluating human history. The analogy below can provide us with an answer. Before the invention of the microscope, people had no tools for seeing microscopic creatures and, consequently, made inaccurate judgments regarding the causes of disease. With the invention of the microscope, however, scientists were able to perceive entities they’d previously been unable to and, as a result, were able to make improved judgments ― many of which we still accept today. Similarly, in the moral sphere, when people don’t have the tools needed for perceiving the rightness or wrongness of something, they make judgments that are less accurate than they would be if they had such tools. We can see then, for instance, how the limited perspective of some people in 19th-century America led them to conclude that racism was acceptable and how our wider perspective these days enables us to recognize how terribly mistaken that earlier judgment was. ① 현미경의 발명은 인류의 질병 퇴치에 매우 획기적인 사건이었다. ② 19세기 미국의 인종주의자들은 도덕적으로 미개한 상태에 놓여 있었다. ③ 인류가 과학적 진보를 이루어왔듯이 도덕적 진보 역시 가능하다. ④ 인류가 과학적 진보를 이루는 것은 도덕적 진보를 이루어 나가는 것과 별개의 문제다. 20. 다음 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은? Fourteenth-century approaches to music had a profound and continuing impact on music in later centuries. Perhaps most significant was the invention of a precise and unambiguous notation that could record a wide variety of rhythms and allowed music to be distributed in writing and performed accurately wherever it went. We now take this for granted when we play from notation and sight-read through unfamiliar music, but it was a remarkable innovation in the fourteenth century. Among its effects was that composers could fix their music exactly as they wished it to be performed, leading them to take pride in authorship. The increased interest in the individual and in satisfying the human senses that was characteristic of the age grew stronger in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries and has remained important ever since. ① The Innovative Invention of Musical Instruments ② Musical Notation: Its Invention and Contributions ③ Authorship: Motivation for Innovations ④ History of Music in Terms of Genre
스터디 영어_9급_A형.pdf 영어_9급_B형.pdf 2018 서울시 9급 영어 해설 손진숙.pdf 2018 서울시 9급 영어 해설 조재권.pdf 2018 서울시 9급 영어 해설 문덕.pdf 2018 서울시 9급 영어 해설 공수코.pdf 2018 서울시 9급 영어 해설 곽지영.pdf 2018 서울시 9급 영어 해설 성정혜.pdf 2018 서울시 9급 영어 해설 장종재.pdf 2018 서울시 9급 영어 해설 이동기.pdf Ⓐ - 3 영 어 ―――――― (1번∼20번) (1번∼20번) (9급) ※ 밑줄 친 부분과 의미가 가장 가까운 것은? (1~3) 1. Man has continued to be disobedient to authorities who tried to muzzle new thoughts and to the authority of long-established opinions which declared a change to be nonsense. ① express ② assert ③ suppress ④ spread 2. Don’t be pompous. You don’t want your writing to be too informal and colloquial, but you also don’t want to sound like someone you’re not―like your professor or boss, for instance, or the Rhodes scholar teaching assistant. ① presumptuous ② casual ③ formal ④ genuine 3. Surgeons were forced to call it a day because they couldn’t find the right tools for the job. ① initiate ② finish ③ wait ④ cancel 4. 대화 중 가장 어색한 것은? ① A：I’d like to make a reservation for tomorrow, please. B：Certainly. For what time? ② A：Are you ready to order? B：Yes, I’d like the soup, please. ③ A：How’s your risotto? B：Yes, we have risotto with mushroom and cheese. ④ A：Would you like a dessert? B：Not for me, thanks. 5. 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 가장 옳지 않은 것은? His survival ① over the years since independence in 1961 does not alter the fact that the discussion of real policy choices in a public manner has hardly ② never occurred. In fact, there have always been ③ a number of important policy issues ④ which Nyerere has had to argue through the NEC. 6. 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 가장 옳은 것은? More than 150 people ① have fell ill, mostly in Hong Kong and Vietnam, over the past three weeks. And experts ② are suspected that ③ another 300 people in China’s Guangdong province had the same disease ④ begin in mid-November. 7. 글의 흐름상 빈칸에 들어갈 단어로 가장 옳은 것은? Social learning theorists offer a different explanation for the counter-aggression exhibited by children who experience aggression in the home. An extensive research on aggressive behavior and the coercive family concludes that an aversive consequence may also elicit an aggressive reaction and accelerate ongoing coercive behavior. These victims of aggressive acts eventually learn via modeling to aggressive interchanges. These events perpetuate the use of aggressive acts and train children how to behave as adults. ① stop ② attenuate ③ abhor ④ initiate 8. 밑줄 친 인물(Marcel Mauss)에 대한 설명으로 가장 옳지 않은 것은? Marcel Mauss (1872-1950), French sociologist, was born in Épinal (Vosges) in Lorraine, where he grew up within a close-knit, pious, and orthodox Jewish family. Emile Durkheim was his uncle. By the age of 18 Mauss had reacted against the Jewish faith; he was never a religious man. He studied philosophy under Durkheim’s supervision at Bordeaux; Durkheim took endless trouble in guiding his nephew’s studies and even chose subjects for his own lectures that would be most useful to Mauss. Thus Mauss was initially a philosopher (like most of the early Durkheimians), and his conception of philosophy was influenced above all by Durkheim himself, for whom he always retained the utmost admiration. ① He had a Jewish background. ② He was supervised by his uncle. ③ He had a doctrinaire faith. ④ He was a sociologist with a philosophical background. 9. 글의 문맥에 가장 어울리는 순서대로 배열한 것은? ⓐ Today, however, trees are being cut down far more rapidly. Each year, about 2 million acres of forests are cut down. That is more than equal to the area of the whole of Great Britain. ⓑ There is not enough wood in these countries to satisfy the demand. Wood companies, therefore, have begun taking wood from the forests of Asia, Africa, South America, and even Siberia. ⓒ While there are important reasons for cutting down trees, there are also dangerous consequences for life on earth. A major cause of the present destruction is the worldwide demand for wood. In industrialized countries, people are using more and more wood for paper. ⓓ There is nothing new about people cutting down trees. In ancient times, Greece, Italy, and Great Britain were covered with forests. Over the centuries those forests were gradually cut back. Until now almost nothing is left. ① ⓐ-ⓑ-ⓒ-ⓓ ② ⓓ-ⓐ-ⓑ-ⓒ ③ ⓑ-ⓐ-ⓒ-ⓓ ④ ⓓ-ⓐ-ⓒ-ⓑ ⒶⒶ - 4 (9급) 10. 글의 흐름상 빈칸에 들어갈 표현으로 가장 옳은 것은? Contemporary art has in fact become an integral part of today’s middle class society. Even works of art which are fresh from the studio are met with enthusiasm. They receive recognition rather quickly―too quickly for the taste of the surlier culture critics. , not all works of them are bought immediately, but there is undoubtedly an increasing number of people who enjoy buying brand new works of art. Instead of fast and expensive cars, they buy the paintings, sculptures and photographic works of young artists. They know that contemporary art also adds to their social prestige. , since art is not exposed to the same wear and tear as automobiles, it is a far better investment. ① Of course - Furthermore ② Therefore - On the other hand ③ Therefore - For instance ④ Of course - For example 11. 밑줄 친 부분과 의미가 가장 먼 것은? As a prerequisite for fertilization, pollination is essential to the production of fruit and seed crops and plays an important part in programs designed to improve plants by breeding. ① crucial ② indispensable ③ requisite ④ omnipresent 12. 글의 흐름상 빈칸에 들어갈 단어로 가장 옳은 것은? Mr. Johnson objected to the proposal because it was founded on a principle and also was at times. ① faulty - desirable ② imperative - reasonable ③ conforming - deplorable ④ wrong - inconvenient ※ 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 가장 옳지 않은 것은? (13~14) 13. I’m ① pleased that I have enough clothes with me. American men are generally bigger than Japanese men so ② it’s very difficult to find clothes in Chicago that ③ fits me. ④ What is a medium size in Japan is a small size here. 14. Blue Planet II, a nature documentary ① produced by the BBC, left viewers ② heartbroken after showing the extent ③ to which plastic ④ affects on the ocean. 15. 글의 흐름상 빈칸에 들어갈 가장 적절한 문장은? What became clear by the 1980s, however, as preparations were made for the ‘Quincentenary Jubilee’, was that many Americans found it hard, if not impossible, to see the anniversary as a ‘jubilee’. There was nothing to celebrate the legacy of Columbus. ① According to many of his critics, Columbus had been the harbinger not of progress and civilization, but of slavery and the reckless exploitation of the environment. ② The Chicago World’s Fair of 1893 reinforced the narrative link between discovery and the power of progress of the United States. ③ This reversal of the nineteenth-century myth of Columbus is revealing. ④ Columbus thus became integrated into Manifest Destiny, the belief that America’s progress was divinely ordained. 16. 글의 흐름상 빈칸에 들어갈 단어로 가장 옳지 않은 것은? Following his father’s imprisonment, Charles Dickens was forced to leave school to work at a boot-blacking factory alongside the River Thames. At the run-down, rodent-ridden factory, Dickens earned six shillings a week labeling pots of “blacking,” a substance used to clean fireplaces. It was the best he could do to help support his family. Looking back on the experience, Dickens saw it as the moment he said goodbye to his youthful innocence, stating that he wondered “how he could be so easily cast away at such a young age.” He felt by the adults who were supposed to take care of him. ① abandoned ② betrayed ③ buttressed ④ disregarded 17. 글의 내용과 일치하는 것은? A family hoping to adopt a child must first select an adoption agency. In the United States, there are two kinds of agencies that assist with adoption. Public agencies generally handle older children, children with mental or physical disabilities, or children who may have been abused or neglected. Prospective parents are not usually expected to pay fees when adopting a child from a public agency. Fostering, or a form of temporary adoption, is also possible through public agencies. Private agencies can be found on the Internet. They handle domestic and international adoption. ① Public adoption agencies are better than private ones. ② Parents pay huge fees to adopt a child from a foster home. ③ Children in need cannot be adopted through public agencies. ④ Private agencies can be contacted for international adoption. ⒶⒶ - 5 (9급) 18. 글의 흐름상 빈칸에 들어갈 단어로 가장 옳은 것은? Moths and butterflies both belong to the order Lepidoptera, but there are numerous physical and behavioral differences between the two insect types. On the behavioral side, moths are and butterflies are diurnal (active during the day). While at rest, butterflies usually fold their wings back, while moths flatten their wings against their bodies or spread them out in a “jet plane” position. ① nocturnal ② rational ③ eternal ④ semi-circular 19. 글의 흐름상 빈칸에 들어갈 표현으로 가장 옳은 것은? The idea of clowns frightening people started gaining strength in the United States. In South Carolina, for example, people reported seeing individuals wearing clown costumes, often hiding in the woods or in cities at night. Some people said that the clowns were trying to lure children into empty homes or the woods. Soon, there were reports of threatening-looking clowns trying to frighten both children and adults. Although there were usually no reports of violence, and many of the reported sightings were later found to be false, this . ① benefited the circus industry ② promoted the use of clowns in ads ③ caused a nationwide panic ④ formed the perfect image of a happy clown 20. 글의 내용과 가장 부합하는 속담은? It is one thing to believe that our system of democracy is the best, and quite another to impose it on other countries. This is a blatant breach of the UN policy of non-intervention in the domestic affairs of independent nations. Just as Western citizens fought for their political institutions, we should trust the citizens of other nations to do likewise if they wish to. Democracy is also not an absolute term ― Napoleon used elections and referenda to legitimize his hold on power, as do leaders today in West Africa and Southeast Asia. States with partial democracy are often more aggressive than totally unelected dictatorships which are too concerned with maintaining order at home. The differing types of democracy make it impossible to choose which standards to impose. The U.S. and European countries all differ in terms of restraints on government and the balance between consensus and confrontation. ① The grass is always greener on the other side of the fence. ② One man’s food is another’s poison. ③ There is no rule but has exceptions. ④ When in Rome, do as the Romans do. ⒶⒶ - 6 이 면은 여백입니다.
스터디 영어A.pdf 영어B.pdf 2018 지방교행 9급 영어 해설 손진숙.pdf 2018 지방교행 9급 영어 해설 이동기.pdf 2018 지방교행 9급 영어 해설 공수코.pdf 2018 지방교행 9급 영어 해설 박철우.pdf 영어 A형 1 / 4 ※ 다음 각 물음에 알맞은 답을 골라 답안지의 같은 번호에 컴퓨 터용 수성 사인펜으로 정확히 표기하시오. 영어 [1～3] 다음 빈칸에 들어갈 단어로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. 1. In talking with other people, don’t begin by discussing the things on which you differ. Begin by emphasizing ― and keep on emphasizing — the things on which you . Keep emphasizing, if possible, that you are both striving for the same end and that your only difference is one of method and not of purpose. Get the other person saying “Yes, yes” at the outset. Keep your opponent, if possible, from saying “No.” ① live ② agree ③ charge ④ doubt 2. The postmodern is everywhere and nowhere. It has no zero point, no fixed essence. It contains all the traces of everything that has come before. Its dominating logic is that of a , never pure, always compromising, not ‘either-or’, but ‘both-and’. The postmodern impulse is playful and paradoxical. It mocks and absorbs historical forms, always having it both ways, always modern and postmodern, nothing escapes its attention. ① reality ② hybrid ③ specialty ④ simulation 3. Under ordinary circumstances, individuals will take significant measures to avoid the huge expense of having a car stolen ― parking in safe places, locking the car, using an antitheft device, etc. But once that car is insured for nearly its full replacement value, the driver has significantly less incentive to take such . ① discounts ② rewards ③ risks ④ precautions 4. 다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중 문맥상 단어의 쓰임이 적절하지 않은 것은? It is important to remember that making and responding to works of art, in many media, are social practices. It is ① inconceivable that these practices are the invention of any distinct individual. Any intention on the part of an individual to make art would be ② meaningful, were there no already going practices of artistic production and response. If there are no shared criteria for artistic success, then the word art cannot be used ③ objectively, as a descriptive term. If I have only myself to go on, then “whatever is going to seem right to me to call art is ④ right. And that only means that here we can’t talk about ‘right.’” [5～6] 다음 빈칸 (A), (B)에 들어갈 표현으로 어법상 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. 5. (A) the Wright Brothers’ maiden voyage on December 17, 1903, lasted just twelve seconds and covered only 120 feet ―“you could have thrown a ball farther” ― it displayed the possibility of conquering air itself to the world. The flight proved highly (B) to the U.S. government, which through the army had given seed money to a similar program under the direction of Samuel P. Langley. (A) (B) ① Despite ― embarrassed ② Despite ― embarrassing ③ Although ― embarrassed ④ Although ― embarrassing 6. Modern industrial societies and their problems are becoming increasingly complex, and because (A) one person today can master all the social sciences, growing emphasis is placed on the interdisciplinary approach to many social problems. The interdisciplinary approach means (B) a group of social scientists with different specialties will work together on a certain problem, not all of whose aspects any one of the group fully understands. (A) (B) ① no ― that ② any ― that ③ no ― what ④ any ― what 2018년도 지방공무원 공개(경력)경쟁임용시험 영어 A형 영어 A형 2 / 4 7. 다음 밑줄 친 단어가 가리키는 대상이 나머지 셋과 다른 것은? Alexander loved sport, and riding more than anything. No one rode better than he. His father once bought a beautiful horse that no one could tame. His name was Bucephalus. Whenever anyone tried to mount ① him they were thrown off. But Alexander worked out why ② he did it: the horse was afraid of his own shadow. So Alexander turned the horse’s head towards the sun so that he couldn’t see ③ his shadow on the ground. Stroking him gently, ④ he swung himself onto his back and rode round to the applause of the whole court. [8~9] 다음 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 옳지 않은 것을 고르시오. 8. In agreement with the Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiquities, Franck Goddio and his team ensured that artifacts ① found in their exploration would remain in the East Port until a decision can be made about the possible creation of an underwater museum at the site. Yet the significance of some of their finds was such that they were unwilling to leave ② them untouched on the seabed without establishing a precise visual record of their appearance that would permit future scholars to study them in detail. The solution lay in temporarily removing some objects from their underwater sites to permit casting and then ③ returning them to the seabed. The replication process ④ overseen by Georges Brocot, a French artist who specializes in molding techniques. 9. Sustainability is a difficult and complex issue, and an elusive one. It is enormously important ① since it has to do with nothing less than the chances of humankind surviving on this planet. At the rate that the human race is using scarce and limited resources it appears that, unless measures are taken now ― and if there is still time ― the future of civilization, at least as we understand it now, ② is uncertain, to say the least. It follows that such a complex subject has no simple and straightforward treatment, especially ③ considered that sustainability is not a goal but a process. It leads to a better life for the present generation and survival for generations to come, ④ enhancing their ability to cope with the world that they will inherit. 10. 다음 대화의 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? A: Jenny, have you signed up for the in-service training next week? B: No, I haven’t. How about you? A: I’ve already signed up for the Wednesday session. B: Good for you. But I’m afraid I can’t make it on weekdays. A: No worries. I heard there are weekend programs, too. B: Really? A: Yes, but the spaces must be limited. B: Then, . A: Yeah, you should. You know, first come, first served. ① you should have gone to them ② if I were you, I’d sign up for them ③ I’d better go and sign up right away ④ you should take a rain check this time 11. 다음 글의 주제로 가장 적절한 것은? Cholesterol-lowering drugs are among the most widely used medications in the world. Your body produces cholesterol, and it’s found in many foods. But what is it for? Clearly, there is a reason for cholesterol because your liver naturally makes it, but why? You may be surprised to know that your body does need cholesterol as a foundation of good health in many ways. For example, cholesterol is used by the body to make hormones that help your body respond to physical and mental stress. It also is the foundation for the production of sex hormones, contributing to regulation of body actions from puberty to pregnancy, including all aspects of reproductive function. ① the reasons we need cholesterol in our body ② the way cholesterol is produced in the body ③ the mechanism of cholesterol-lowering drugs ④ the reproductive function of cholesterol 12. 다음 빈칸에 들어갈 단어로 가장 적절한 것은? Although the cinema has most often been compared with literature, it really has far more in common with architecture. Both forms are public, collaborative, and above all, . In both arts, economic constraints have always dictated the shape of the work produced. By comparison, literature (especially “serious” literature) seems almost a priestly calling: novelists and poets, at least since Romanticism, have (for better or worse) been largely able to write whatever pleased them, without regard for audience or expense. ① artistic ② expensive ③ sacred ④ productive 영어 A형 3 / 4 13. 다음 빈칸 (A), (B)에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? The motivating concepts that guide disaster management ― the reduction of harm to life, property, and the environment ― are largely the same throughout the world. (A) , the capacity to carry out this mission is by no means uniform. Whether due to political, cultural, economic, or other reasons, the unfortunate reality is that some countries and some regions are more capable than others at addressing the problem. But no nation, regardless of its wealth or influence, is advanced enough to be fully immune from disasters’ negative effects. (B) , the emergence of a global economy makes it more and more difficult to contain the consequences of any disaster within one country’s borders. (A) (B) ① However ― Furthermore ② Otherwise ― Furthermore ③ However ― In contrast ④ Otherwise ― In contrast 14. 다음 글의 내용과 일치하는 것은? The bright butterflies and moths number 140,000 species, exceeded only by the beetles. “Lepidoptera,” the order’s scientific name, means “scaly-winged,” and tiny scales cover the wings and bodies of most adult forms. In size, butterflies and moths vary more than any other insect group. An owlet moth of South America is a foot across; the Eriocranid moth has a quarter-inch wingspan. Some species are even smaller. There are no hard and fast rules for telling a butterfly from a moth. But in general, moths spin cocoons, butterflies do not. When at rest, the moth tends to fold its wings like a tent while the butterfly presses them together overhead. ① Lepidoptera는 모든 성충의 몸이 큰 비늘로 덮여 있다는 것을 뜻한다. ② 나비와 나방은 다른 어떤 곤충집단보다 크기가 더 다양하다. ③ Eriocranid 나방은 날개 길이가 2분의 1인치이다. ④ 나비는 쉴 때 텐트처럼 날개를 접는 경향이 있다. 15. Spencer Stanhope에 관한 다음 글의 내용과 일치하지 않는 것은? Spencer Stanhope came from a middle-class family and was educated at Rugby and Christchurch, Oxford. He began to study art with G. F. Watts in 1850, visiting Italy with him in 1853. He became one of the circle of young artists around the Pre-Raphaelites in the mid-1850s and was particularly friendly with Burne-Jones, who influenced his painting and became a lifelong friend. He first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1859 and later at the Grosvenor Gallery. Like his artist friends, he had a sympathy for ordinary people and often chose subjects showing them at work, though often in an idealized manner. Washing Day in which the women wash the clothes while the men get on with the business of fishing, is typical of Stanhope’s work. ① 1853년에 G. F. Watts와 함께 이탈리아를 방문했다. ② Burne-Jones가 그의 그림에 영향을 주었다. ③ 1859년에 Grosvenor Gallery에서 첫 전시회를 열었다. ④ Washing Day는 그의 작품의 전형적인 특징을 보여 준다. 16. 다음 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은? Archaeological finds come in many forms ― as artifacts, food remains, houses, human skeletons, and so on. These finds are usually cleaned, identified, and cataloged in the field before being packed for transport to the laboratory. Once back from the field, these data ― including not only finds but also the detailed notes, drawings, and other recorded data acquired in the field ― are subjected to analysis. At this stage some specific materials, such as radiocarbon samples and pollen grains, are sent to specialists for analysis. Most laboratory analysis involves detailed artifact classification and study of animal bones and other food remains ― the basis for the later interpretation of data. ① Various Laboratory Analyses of Archaeological Finds ② Processing and Analysis of Archaeological Finds ③ Importance of Archaeology in Human History ④ Different Types of Archaeological Finds 영어 A형 4 / 4 17. 주어진 글 다음에 이어질 글의 순서로 가장 적절한 것은? The metaphors or analogies that we chose to think about ourselves can have different effects on our understandings and our actions. (A) For example, Michael White and David Epston explain that if we think that people and relationships are like complex machines, we will probably see their problems as malfunctions in the machinery and the solution would be to repair them, as a mechanic would. (B) Someone who is guided by this metaphor would probably encourage the person to “vent” and express that anger to release the growing pressure. (C) An example of this is when we say that anger was building up inside us like steam in a pressure cooker and that the steam has to be let out or the cooker will explode. ① (A) — (C) — (B) ② (B) — (A) — (C) ③ (B) — (C) — (A) ④ (C) — (A) — (B) 18. 글의 흐름으로 보아 주어진 문장이 들어가기에 가장 적절한 곳은? The closer the individual film came to being described by the first term in each pair, the more its difference from Hollywood films was regarded as “innovative” and hence positive. Something in the German films was obviously viewed as “aesthetic,” but what was it? ( ① ) In America, the term “German cinema” came to mark out an aesthetic space, if you will, somewhere outside the normative boundaries of conventional Hollywood style. ( ② ) At issue was how far outside, and whether this aesthetic distance from the Hollywood cinema constituted a positive or negative aesthetic difference. ( ③ ) Discussions of individual films tended to be framed by three aesthetic criteria, each having both a positive and a negative dimension: spectacular / excessive, complex / elitist, and artistic / self-indulgent. ( ④ ) A film defined by the latter terms, however, was seen as too different and hence too “strange.” 19. 다음 글에서 전체 흐름과 관계 없는 문장은? Leadership is centered on the communication between leaders and followers rather than on the unique qualities of the leader. ① Thought of as a relationship, leadership becomes a process of collaboration that occurs between leaders and followers. ② A leader affects and is affected by followers, and both leader and followers are affected in turn by the situation that surrounds them. ③ For example, a leader in the fund-raising campaign knows every step and procedure in the fund-raising process and is able to use this knowledge to run an effective campaign. ④ This approach emphasizes that leadership is not a linear one-way event, but rather an interactive event. 20. 다음 글의 요지로 가장 적절한 것은? When the state spends money which it has raised by taxation, it is taking money out of the pockets of the taxpayers to put it into the pockets of those upon whom it is spending. The expenditure may be really an investment: education, for instance, is an investment in the young, and is universally recognised as part of the duty of the state. In such a case, provided the investment is sound, public expenditure is obviously justified: the community would not be ultimately enriched by ceasing to educate its children, nor yet by neglecting harbours, roads, and public works generally. ① The state should inform its taxpayers of its investment plans. ② Reducing public expenditure will make the community richer. ③ Public expenditure can be justified through a proper investment. ④ The state should spend more money on public works than on education.
스터디 영어-B.pdf 영어-D.pdf 2018 지방직 9급 영어 해설 손진숙.pdf 2018 지방직 9급 영어 해설 영스파.pdf 2018 지방직 9급 영어 해설 이동기.pdf 2018 지방직 9급 영어 해설 정수현.hwp 2018 지방직 9급 영어 해설 문덕.pdf 2018 지방직 9급 영어 해설 이충권.pdf 2018 지방직 9급 영어 해설 장종재.pdf 2018 지방직 9급 영어 해설 공수코.pdf 2018 지방직 9급 영어 해설 이현아.pdf 2018 지방직 9급 영어 해설 성정혜.pdf 2018 지방직 9급 영어 해설 오동훈.pdf 2018 지방직 9급 영어 해설 한덕현.pdf 2018 지방직 9급 영어 해설 박철우.pdf 2018 지방직 9급 영어 해설 김범재.pdf 2018 지방직 9급 영어 해설 최호철.pdf 2018 지방직 9급 영어 해설 김재운.pdf 영 어 B 책형 1 쪽 영 어 ※ 밑줄 친 부분의 의미와 가장 가까운 것을 고르시오. [문 1. ～문 2.] 문 1. The paramount duty of the physician is to do no harm. Everything else ―even healing ―must take second place. ① chief ② sworn ③ successful ④ mysterious 문 2. It is not unusual that people get cold feet about taking a trip to the North Pole. ① become ambitious ② become afraid ③ feel exhausted ④ feel saddened 문 3. 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 옳지 않은 것은? I am writing in response to your request for a reference for Mrs. Ferrer. She has worked as my secretary ① for the last three years and has been an excellent employee. I believe that she meets all the requirements ② mentioned in your job description and indeed exceeds them in many ways. I have never had reason ③to doubt her complete integrity. I would, therefore, recommend Mrs. Ferrer for the post ④ what you advertise. 문 4. 우리말을 영어로 잘못 옮긴 것은? ① 모든 정보는 거짓이었다. → All of the information was false. ② 토마스는 더 일찍 사과했어야 했다. → Thomas should have apologized earlier. ③ 우리가 도착했을 때 영화는 이미 시작했었다. → The movie had already started when we arrived. ④ 바깥 날씨가 추웠기 때문에 나는 차를 마시려 물을 끓였다. → Being cold outside, I boiled some water to have tea. 문 5. 밑줄 친 부분의 의미와 가장 가까운 것은? The student who finds the state-of-the-art approach intimidating learns less than he or she might have learned by the old methods. ① humorous ② friendly ③ convenient ④ frightening 문 6. 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? Since the air-conditioners are being repaired now, the office workers have to _______________ electric fans for the day. ① get rid of ② let go of ③ make do with ④ break up with 문 7. 어법상 옳은 것은? ① Please contact to me at the email address I gave you last week. ② Were it not for water, all living creatures on earth would be extinct. ③ The laptop allows people who is away from their offices to continue to work. ④ The more they attempted to explain their mistakes, the worst their story sounded. 문 8. 우리말을 영어로 옳게 옮긴 것은? ① 그는 며칠 전에 친구를 배웅하기 위해 역으로 갔다. → He went to the station a few days ago to see off his friend. ② 버릇없는 그 소년은 아버지가 부르는 것을 못 들은 체했다. → The spoiled boy made it believe he didn't hear his father calling. ③ 나는 버팔로에 가본 적이 없어서 그곳에 가기를 고대하고 있다. → I have never been to Buffalo, so I am looking forward to go there. ④ 나는 아직 오늘 신문을 못 읽었어. 뭐 재미있는 것 있니? → I have not read today's newspaper yet. Is there anything interested in it? 문 9. 다음 글의 흐름상 가장 어색한 문장은? The Renaissance kitchen had a definite hierarchy of help who worked together to produce the elaborate banquets. ① At the top, as we have seen, was the scalco, or steward, who was in charge of not only the kitchen, but also the dining room. ②The dining room was supervised by the butler, who was in charge of the silverware and linen and also served the dishes that began and ended the banquet ― the cold dishes, salads, cheeses, and fruit at the beginning and the sweets and confections at the end of the meal. ③This elaborate decoration and serving was what in restaurants is called "the front of the house." ④ The kitchen was supervised by the head cook, who directed the undercooks, pastry cooks, and kitchen help. 문 10. 다음 글의 요지로 가장 적절한 것은? My students often believe that if they simply meet more important people, their work will improve. But it's remarkably hard to engage with those people unless you've already put something valuable out into the world. That's what piques the curiosity of advisers and sponsors. Achievements show you have something to give, not just something to take. In life, it certainly helps to know the right people. But how hard they go to bat for you, how far they stick their necks out for you, depends on what you have to offer. Building a powerful network doesn't require you to be an expert at networking. It just requires you to be an expert at something. If you make great connections, they might advance your career. If you do great work, those connections will be easier to make. Let your insights and your outputs ― not your business cards ― do the talking. ① Sponsorship is necessary for a successful career. ② Building a good network starts from your accomplishments. ③ A powerful network is a prerequisite for your achievement. ④ Your insights and outputs grow as you become an expert at networking. 영 어 B 책형 2 쪽 문 11. 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? A: My computer just shut down for no reason. I can't even turn it back on again. B: Did you try charging it? It might just be out of battery. A: Of course, I tried charging it. B: __________________________________________________ A: I should do that, but I'm so lazy. ① I don't know how to fix your computer. ② Try visiting the nearest service center then. ③ Well, stop thinking about your problems and go to sleep. ④ My brother will try to fix your computer because he's a technician. 문 12. 다음 글에 나타난 화자의 심경으로 가장 적절한 것은? My face turned white as a sheet. I looked at my watch. The tests would be almost over by now. I arrived at the testing center in an absolute panic. I tried to tell my story, but my sentences and descriptive gestures got so confused that I communicated nothing more than a very convincing version of a human tornado. In an effort to curb my distracting explanation, the proctor led me to an empty seat and put a test booklet in front of me. He looked doubtfully from me to the clock, and then he walked away. I tried desperately to make up for lost time, scrambling madly through analogies and sentence completions. "Fifteen minutes remain," the voice of doom declared from the front of the classroom. Algebraic equations, arithmetic calculations, geometric diagrams swam before my eyes. "Time! Pencils down, please." ① nervous and worried ② excited and cheerful ③ calm and determined ④ safe and relaxed 문 13. 주어진 문장 다음에 이어질 글의 순서로 가장 적절한 것은? Devices that monitor and track your health are becoming more popular among all age populations. (A) For example, falls are a leading cause of death for adults 65 and older. Fall alerts are a popular gerotechnology that has been around for many years but have now improved. (B) However, for seniors aging in place, especially those without a caretaker in the home, these technologies can be lifesaving. (C) This simple technology can automatically alert 911 or a close family member the moment a senior has fallen. ※ gerotechnology: 노인을 위한 양로 기술 ① (B) － (C) － (A) ② (B) － (A) － (C) ③ (C) － (A) － (B) ④ (C) － (B) － (A) ※ 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. [문 14. ∼문 15.] 문 14. A: Where do you want to go for our honeymoon? B: Let's go to a place that neither of us has been to. A: Then, why don't we go to Hawaii? B: _____________________________________ ① I've always wanted to go there. ② Isn't Korea a great place to live? ③ Great! My last trip there was amazing! ④ Oh, you must've been to Hawaii already. 문 15. The secret of successful people is usually that they are able to concentrate totally on one thing. Even if they have a lot in their head, they have found a method that the many commitments don't impede each other, but instead they are brought into a good inner order. And this order is quite simple: _________________________. In theory, it seems to be quite clear, but in everyday life it seems rather different. You might have tried to decide on priorities, but you have failed because of everyday trivial matters and all the unforeseen distractions. Separate off disturbances, for example, by escaping into another office, and not allowing any distractions to get in the way. When you concentrate on the one task of your priorities, you will find you have energy that you didn't even know you had. ① the sooner, the better ② better late than never ③ out of sight, out of mind ④ the most important thing first 문 16. 다음 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은? With the help of the scientist, the commercial fishing industry has found out that its fishing must be done scientifically if it is to be continued. With no fishing pressure on a fish population, the number of fish will reach a predictable level of abundance and stay there. The only fluctuation would be due to natural environmental factors, such as availability of food, proper temperature, and the like. If a fishery is developed to take these fish, their population can be maintained if the fishing harvest is small. The mackerel of the North Sea is a good example. If we increase the fishery and take more fish each year, we must be careful not to reduce the population below the ideal point where it can replace all of the fish we take out each year. If we fish at this level, called the maximum sustainable yield, we can maintain the greatest possible yield, year after year. If we catch too many, the number of fish will decrease each year until we fish ourselves out of a job. Examples of severely overfished animals are the blue whale of the Antarctic and the halibut of the North Atlantic. Fishing just the correct amount to maintain a maximum annual yield is both a science and an art. Research is constantly being done to help us better understand the fish population and how to utilize it to the maximum without depleting the population. ① Say No to Commercial Fishing ② Sea Farming Seen As a Fishy Business ③ Why Does the Fishing Industry Need Science? ④ Overfished Animals: Cases of Illegal Fishing 영 어 B 책형 3 쪽 문 17. 밑줄 친 (A), (B)에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? Does terrorism ever work? 9/11 was an enormous tactical success for al Qaeda, partly because it involved attacks that took place in the media capital of the world and the actual capital of the United States, (A) ensuring the widest possible coverage of the event. If terrorism is a form of theater where you want a lot of people watching, no event in human history was likely ever seen by a larger global audience than the 9/11 attacks. At the time, there was much discussion about how 9/11 was like the attack on Pearl Harbor. They were indeed similar since they were both surprise attacks that drew America into significant wars. But they were also similar in another sense. Pearl Harbor was a great tactical success for Imperial Japan, but it led to a great strategic failure: Within four years of Pearl Harbor the Japanese empire lay in ruins, utterly defeated. (B) , 9/11 was a great tactical success for al Qaeda, but it also turned out to be a great strategic failure for Osama bin Laden. (A) (B) ① thereby Similarly ② while Therefore ③ while Fortunately ④ thereby On the contrary 문 18. 다음 글의 내용과 일치하지 않는 것은? We entered a new phase as a species when Chinese scientists altered a human embryo to remove a potentially fatal blood disorder ― not only from the baby, but all of its descendants. Researchers call this process "germline modification." The media likes the phrase "designer babies." But we should call it what it is, "eugenics." And we, the human race, need to decide whether or not we want to use it. Last month, in the United States, the scientific establishment weighed in. A National Academy of Sciences and National Academy of Medicine joint committee endorsed embryo editing aimed at genes that cause serious diseases when there is "no reasonable alternative." But it was more wary of editing for "enhancement," like making already-healthy children stronger or taller. It recommended a public discussion, and said that doctors should "not proceed at this time." The committee had good reason to urge caution. The history of eugenics is full of oppression and misery. ※ eugenics: 우생학 ① Doctors were recommended to immediately go ahead with embryo editing for enhancement. ② Recently, the scientific establishment in the U.S. joined a discussion on eugenics. ③ Chinese scientists modified a human embryo to prevent a serious blood disorder. ④ "Designer babies" is another term for the germline modification process. 문 19. 주어진 문장이 들어갈 위치로 가장 적절한 것은? If neither surrendered, the two exchanged blows until one was knocked out. The ancient Olympics provided athletes an opportunity to prove their fitness and superiority, just like our modern games. ( ① ) The ancient Olympic events were designed to eliminate the weak and glorify the strong. Winners were pushed to the brink. ( ② ) Just as in modern times, people loved extreme sports. One of the favorite events was added in the 33rd Olympiad. This was the pankration, or an extreme mix of wrestling and boxing. The Greek word pankration means "total power." The men wore leather straps with metal studs, which could make a terrible mess of their opponents. ( ③ ) This dangerous form of wrestling had no time or weight limits. In this event, only two rules applied. First, wrestlers were not allowed to gouge eyes with their thumbs. Secondly, they could not bite. Anything else was considered fair play. The contest was decided in the same manner as a boxing match. Contenders continued until one of the two collapsed. ( ④ ) Only the strongest and most determined athletes attempted this event. Imagine wrestling "Mr. Fingertips," who earned his nickname by breaking his opponents' fingers! 문 20. 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? In our time it is not only the law of the market which has its own life and rules over man, but also the development of science and technique. For a number of reasons, the problems and organization of science today are such that a scientist does not choose his problems; the problems force themselves upon the scientist. He solves one problem, and the result is not that he is more secure or certain, but that ten other new problems open up in place of the single solved one. They force him to solve them; he has to go ahead at an ever-quickening pace. The same holds true for industrial techniques. The pace of science forces the pace of technique. Theoretical physics forces atomic energy on us; the successful production of the fission bomb forces upon us the manufacture of the hydrogen bomb. We do not choose our problems, we do not choose our products; we are pushed, we are forced ― by what? By a system which has no purpose and goal transcending it, and which ________________________________________. ① makes man its appendix ② creates a false sense of security ③ inspires man with creative challenges ④ empowers scientists to control the market laws
스터디 영어-가.pdf 영어-다.pdf 2018 국가직 9급 영어 해설 조만구.pdf 2018 국가직 9급 영어 해설 영스파.pdf 2018 국가직 9급 영어 해설 손진숙.pdf 2018 국가직 9급 영어 해설 정수현.pdf 2018 국가직 9급 영어 해설 이충권.pdf 2018 국가직 9급 영어 해설 이동기.pdf 2018 국가직 9급 영어 해설 문덕.pdf 2018 국가직 9급 영어 해설 조태정.pdf 2018 국가직 9급 영어 해설 이현아.pdf 2018 국가직 9급 영어 해설 성정혜.pdf 2018 국가직 9급 영어 해설 오동훈.pdf 2018 국가직 9급 영어 해설 한덕현.pdf 2018 국가직 9급 영어 해설 윤광덕.pdf 2018 국가직 9급 영어 해설 조재권.pdf 2018 국가직 9급 영어 해설 박철우.pdf 2018 국가직 9급 영어 해설 김범재.pdf 2018 국가직 9급 영어 해설 김재운.pdf 2018 국가직 9급 영어 해설 김지영.pdf 2018 국가직 9급 영어 해설 김영국.pdf 2018 국가직 9급 영어 해설 공수코.pdf 영 어 가 책형 1 쪽 영 어 ※ 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. [문 1. ～문 2.] 문 1. A: Can I ask you for a favor? B: Yes, what is it? A: I need to get to the airport for my business trip, but my car won't start. Can you give me a lift? B: Sure. When do you need to be there by? A: I have to be there no later than 6 : 00. B: It's 4 : 30 now. _________________________________. We'll have to leave right away. ① That's cutting it close ② I took my eye off the ball ③ All that glitters is not gold ④ It's water under the bridge 문 2. Fear of loss is a basic part of being human. To the brain, loss is a threat and we naturally take measures to avoid it. We cannot, however, avoid it indefinitely. One way to face loss is with the perspective of a stock trader. Traders accept the possibility of loss as part of the game, not the end of the game. What guides this thinking is a portfolio approach; wins and losses will both happen, but it's the overall portfolio of outcomes that matters most. When you embrace a portfolio approach, you will be __________________________________________________ because you know that they are small parts of a much bigger picture. ① less inclined to dwell on individual losses ② less interested in your investments ③ more averse to the losses ④ more sensitive to fluctuations in the stock market 문 3. 다음 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은? Over the last years of traveling, I've observed how much we humans live in the past. The past is around us constantly, considering that, the minute something is manifested, it is the past. Our surroundings, our homes, our environments, our architecture, our products are all past constructs. We should live with what is part of our time, part of our collective consciousness, those things that were produced during our lives. Of course, we do not have the choice or control to have everything around us relevant or conceived during our time, but what we do have control of should be a reflection of the time in which we exist and communicate the present. The present is all we have, and the more we are surrounded by it, the more we are aware of our own presence and participation. ① Travel: Tracing the Legacies of the Past ② Reflect on the Time That Surrounds You Now ③ Manifestation of a Hidden Life ④ Architecture of a Futuristic Life 문 4. 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 옳지 않은 것은? It would be difficult ①to imagine life without the beauty and richness of forests. But scientists warn we cannot take our forest for ② granted. By some estimates, deforestation ③has been resulted in the loss of as much as eighty percent of the natural forests of the world. Currently, deforestation is a global problem, ④ affecting wilderness regions such as the temperate rainforests of the Pacific. 문 5. 밑줄 친 부분의 의미와 가장 가까운 것은? Robert J. Flaherty, a legendary documentary filmmaker, tried to show how indigenous people gathered food. ① native ② ravenous ③ impoverished ④ itinerant 문 6. 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? Listening to music is ______________ being a rock star. Anyone can listen to music, but it takes talent to become a musician. ① on a par with ② a far cry from ③ contingent upon ④ a prelude to 문 7. 다음 글의 흐름상 가장 어색한 문장은? Biologists have identified a gene that will allow rice plants to survive being submerged in water for up to two weeks ―over a week longer than at present. Plants under water for longer than a week are deprived of oxygen and wither and perish. ① The scientists hope their discovery will prolong the harvests of crops in regions that are susceptible to flooding. ②Rice growers in these flood-prone areas of Asia lose an estimated one billion dollars annually to excessively waterlogged rice paddies. ③They hope the new gene will lead to a hardier rice strain that will reduce the financial damage incurred in typhoon and monsoon seasons and lead to bumper harvests. ④ This is dreadful news for people in these vulnerable regions, who are victims of urbanization and have a shortage of crops. Rice yields must increase by 30 percent over the next 20 years to ensure a billion people can receive their staple diet. 문 8. 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? A: Do you know how to drive? B: Of course. I'm a great driver. A: Could you teach me how to drive? B: Do you have a learner's permit? A: Yes, I got it just last week. B: Have you been behind the steering wheel yet? A: No, but I can't wait to _____________________. ① take a rain check ② get my feet wet ③ get an oil change ④ change a flat tire 영 어 가 책형 2 쪽 문 9. 다음 글의 내용과 일치하는 것은? Sharks are covered in scales made from the same material as teeth. These flexible scales protect the shark and help it swim quickly in water. A shark can move the scales as it swims. This movement helps reduce the water's drag. Amy Lang, an aerospace engineer at the University of Alabama, studies the scales on the shortfin mako, a relative of the great white shark. Lang and her team discovered that the mako shark's scales differ in size and in flexibility in different parts of its body. For instance, the scales on the sides of the body are tapered ―wide at one end and narrow at the other end. Because they are tapered, these scales move very easily. They can turn up or flatten to adjust to the flow of water around the shark and to reduce drag. Lang feels that shark scales can inspire designs for machines that experience drag, such as airplanes. ① A shark has scales that always remain immobile to protect itself as it swims. ② Lang revealed that the scales of a mako shark are utilized to lessen drag in water. ③ A mako shark has scales of identical size all over its body. ④ The scientific designs of airplanes were inspired by shark scales. 문 10. 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 옳지 않은 것은? Focus means ① getting stuff done. A lot of people have great ideas but don't act on them. For me, the definition of an entrepreneur, for instance, is someone who can combine innovation and ingenuity with the ability to execute that new idea. Some people think that the central dichotomy in life is whether you're positive or negative about the issues ② that interest or concern you. There's a lot of attention ③ paying to this question of whether it's better to have an optimistic or pessimistic lens. I think the better question to ask is whether you are going to do something about it or just ④ let life pass you by. 문 11. 밑줄 친 부분 중 글의 흐름상 가장 어색한 것은? Most people like to talk, but few people like to listen, yet listening well is a ① rare talent that everyone should treasure. Because they hear more, good listeners tend to know more and to be more sensitive to what is going on around them than most people. In addition, good listeners are inclined to accept or tolerate rather than to judge and criticize. Therefore, they have ②fewer enemies than most people. In fact, they are probably the most beloved of people. However, there are ③exceptions to that generality. For example, John Steinbeck is said to have been an excellent listener, yet he was hated by some of the people he wrote about. No doubt his ability to listen contributed to his capacity to write. Nevertheless, the result of his listening didn't make him ④ unpopular. 문 12. 다음 글의 주제로 가장 적절한 것은? Worry is like a rocking horse. No matter how fast you go, you never move anywhere. Worry is a complete waste of time and creates so much clutter in your mind that you cannot think clearly about anything. The way to learn to stop worrying is by first understanding that you energize whatever you focus your attention on. Therefore, the more you allow yourself to worry, the more likely things are to go wrong! Worrying becomes such an ingrained habit that to avoid it you consciously have to train yourself to do otherwise. Whenever you catch yourself having a fit of worry, stop and change your thoughts. Focus your mind more productively on what you do want to happen and dwell on what's already wonderful in your life so more wonderful stuff will come your way. ① What effects does worry have on life? ② Where does worry originate from? ③ When should we worry? ④ How do we cope with worrying? 문 13. 다음 글의 내용과 일치하지 않는 것은? Students at Macaulay Honors College (MHC) don't stress about the high price of tuition. That's because theirs is free. At Macaulay and a handful of other service academies, work colleges, single-subject schools and conservatories, 100 percent of the student body receive a full tuition scholarship for all four years. Macaulay students also receive a laptop and $7,500 in "opportunities funds" to pursue research, service experiences, study abroad programs and internships. "The most important thing is not the free tuition, but the freedom of studying without the burden of debt on your back," says Ann Kirschner, university dean of Macaulay Honors College. The debt burden, she says, "really compromises decisions students make in college, and we are giving them the opportunity to be free of that." Schools that grant free tuition to all students are rare, but a greater number of institutions provide scholarships to enrollees with high grades. Institutions such as Indiana University Bloomington offer automatic awards to high-performing students with stellar GPAs and class ranks. ① MHC에서는 모든 학생이 4년간 수업료를 내지 않는다. ② MHC에서는 학생들에게 컴퓨터 구입 비용과 교외활동 비용을 합하여 $7,500를 지급한다. ③ 수업료로 인한 빚 부담이 있으면 학생들이 자유롭게 공부할 수 없다고 Kirschner 학장은 말한다. ④ MHC와 달리 학업 우수자에게만 장학금을 주는 대학도 있다. ※ 밑줄 친 부분의 의미와 가장 가까운 것을 고르시오. [문 14. ～ 문 15.] 문 14. The police spent seven months working on the crime case but were never able to determine the identity of the malefactor. ① culprit ② dilettante ③ pariah ④ demagogue 영 어 가 책형 3 쪽 문 15. While at first glance it seems that his friends are just leeches, they prove to be the ones he can depend on through thick and thin. ① in no time ② from time to time ③ in pleasant times ④ in good times and bad times 문 16. 주어진 문장이 들어갈 위치로 가장 적절한 것은? Some remain intensely proud of their original accent and dialect words, phrases and gestures, while others accommodate rapidly to a new environment by changing their speech habits, so that they no longer "stand out in the crowd." Our perceptions and production of speech change with time. ( ① ) If we were to leave our native place for an extended period, our perception that the new accents around us were strange would only be temporary. ( ② ) Gradually, we will lose the sense that others have an accent and we will begin to fit in ―to accommodate our speech patterns to the new norm. ( ③ ) Not all people do this to the same degree. ( ④ ) Whether they do this consciously or not is open to debate and may differ from individual to individual, but like most processes that have to do with language, the change probably happens before we are aware of it and probably couldn't happen if we were. 문 17. 다음 글의 내용과 일치하지 않는 것은? Insomnia can be classified as transient, acute, or chronic. Transient insomnia lasts for less than a week. It can be caused by another disorder, by changes in the sleep environment, by the timing of sleep, severe depression, or by stress. Its consequences such as sleepiness and impaired psychomotor performance are similar to those of sleep deprivation. Acute insomnia is the inability to consistently sleep well for a period of less than a month. Acute insomnia is present when there is difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep or when the sleep that is obtained is not refreshing. These problems occur despite adequate opportunity and circumstances for sleep and they can impair daytime functioning. Acute insomnia is also known as short term insomnia or stress related insomnia. Chronic insomnia lasts for longer than a month. It can be caused by another disorder, or it can be a primary disorder. People with high levels of stress hormones or shifts in the levels of cytokines are more likely than others to have chronic insomnia. Its effects can vary according to its causes. They might include muscular weariness, hallucinations, and/or mental fatigue. Chronic insomnia can also cause double vision. ※ cytokines: groups of molecules released by certain cells of the immune system ① Insomnia can be classified according to its duration. ② Transient insomnia occurs solely due to an inadequate sleep environment. ③ Acute insomnia is generally known to be related to stress. ④ Chronic insomnia patients may suffer from hallucinations. 문 18. 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? Kisha Padbhan, founder of Everonn Education, in Mumbai, looks at his business as nation-building. India's student-age population of 230 million (kindergarten to college) is one of the largest in the world. The government spends $83 billion on instruction, but there are serious gaps. "There aren't enough teachers and enough teacher-training institutes," says Kisha. "What children in remote parts of India lack is access to good teachers and exposure to good-quality content." Everonn's solution? The company uses a satellite network, with two-way video and audio __________________________________________________. It reaches 1,800 colleges and 7,800 schools across 24 of India's 28 states. It offers everything from digitized school lessons to entrance exam prep for aspiring engineers and has training for job-seekers, too. ① to improve the quality of teacher training facilities ② to bridge the gap through virtual classrooms ③ to get students familiarized with digital technology ④ to locate qualified instructors across the nation 문 19. 주어진 문장 다음에 이어질 글의 순서로 가장 적절한 것은? A technique that enables an individual to gain some voluntary control over autonomic, or involuntary, body functions by observing electronic measurements of those functions is known as biofeedback. (A) When such a variable moves in the desired direction (for example, blood pressure down), it triggers visual or audible displays ― feedback on equipment such as television sets, gauges, or lights. (B) Electronic sensors are attached to various parts of the body to measure such variables as heart rate, blood pressure, and skin temperature. (C) Biofeedback training teaches one to produce a desired response by reproducing thought patterns or actions that triggered the displays. ① (A) － (B) － (C) ② (B) － (C) － (A) ③ (B) － (A) － (C) ④ (C) － (A) － (B) 문 20. 우리말을 영어로 잘못 옮긴 것은? ① 그 연사는 자기 생각을 청중에게 전달하는 데 능숙하지 않았다. → The speaker was not good at getting his ideas across to the audience. ② 서울의 교통 체증은 세계 어느 도시보다 심각하다. → The traffic jams in Seoul are more serious than those in any other city in the world. ③ 네가 말하고 있는 사람과 시선을 마주치는 것은 서양 국가에서 중요하다. → Making eye contact with the person you are speaking to is important in western countries. ④ 그는 사람들이 생각했던 만큼 인색하지 않았다는 것이 드러났다. → It turns out that he was not so stingier as he was thought to be.
스터디 영어_9급_A형.pdf 영어_9급_B형.pdf 2018 서울시 9급 영어 해설 손진숙.pdf 2018 서울시 9급 영어 해설 이서윤.pdf 2018 서울시 9급 영어 해설 이동기.pdf 2018 서울시 9급 영어 해설 조만구.pdf 2018 서울시 9급 영어 해설 이현아.pdf 2018 서울시 9급 영어 해설 김지영.pdf 2018 서울시 9급 영어 해설 한덕현.pdf 2018 서울시 9급 영어 해설 공수코.pdf Ⓐ - 3 ※ 밑줄 친 부분과 의미가 가장 가까운 것은? (1~2) 1. Ethical considerations can be an integral element of biotechnology regulation. ① key ② incidental ③ interactive ④ popular 2. If the area of the brain associated with speech is destroyed, the brain may use plasticity to cause other areas of the brain not originally associated with this speech to learn the skill as a way to make up for lost cells. ① accuracy ② systemicity ③ obstruction ④ suppleness ※ 빈칸에 들어갈 단어로 가장 적절한 것은? (3~4) 3. Mephisto demands a signature and contract. No mere contract will do. As Faust remarks, the devil wants everything in writing. ① genuine ② essential ③ reciprocal ④ verbal 4. The company and the union reached a tentative agreement in this year s wage deal as the two sides took the company s _________ operating profits seriously amid unfriendly business environments. ① deteriorating ② enhancing ③ ameliorating ④ leveling ※ 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 가장 옳지 않은 것은? (5~7) 5. I ① convinced that making pumpkin cake ② from scratch would be ③ even easier than ④ making cake from a box. 6. When you find your tongue ① twisted as you seek to explain to your ② six-year-old daughter why she can t go to the amusement park ③ that has been advertised on television, then you will understand why we find it difficult ④ wait. 7. Lewis Alfred Ellison, a small-business owner and ① a construction foreman, died in 1916 after an operation to cure internal wounds ② suffering after shards from a 100-lb ice block ③ penetrated his abdomen when it was dropped while ④ being loaded into a hopper. ※ 빈칸에 들어갈 것으로 가장 적절한 것은? (8~9) 8. A：You don t know about used cars, Ned. Whew! 70,000 miles. B：Oh, that s a lot of miles! We have to take a close look at the engine, the doors, the tires, everything ... A：It s too expensive, Ned. ________________________ B：You have to watch these used car salesmen. ① Let s buy it. ② I ll dust it down. ③ What model do you want? ④ I don t want to get ripped off. 9. The term combines two concepts― bionic which means to give a living thing an artificial capability like a bionic arm, and nano which _____________ particles smaller than 100 nanometers that can be used to imbue the living thing with its new capability. ① breaks in ② refers to ③ originates from ④ lays over 10. 어법상 가장 옳은 것은? ① If the item should not be delivered tomorrow, they would complain about it. ② He was more skillful than any other baseball players in his class. ③ Hardly has the violinist finished his performance before the audience stood up and applauded. ④ Bakers have been made come out, asking for promoting wheat consumption. 11. <보기> 문장이 들어갈 곳으로 가장 적절한 것은? <보기> If you are unhappy yourself, you will probably be prepared to admit that you are not exceptional in this. ( ① ) Animals are happy so long as they have health and enough to eat. Human beings, one feels, ought to be, but in the modern world they are not, at least in a great majority of cases. ( ② ) If you are happy, ask yourself how many of your friends are so. ( ③ ) And when you have reviewed your friends, teach yourself the art of reading faces; make yourself receptive to the moods of those whom you meet in the course of an ordinary day. ( ④ ) 12. 글의 흐름상 가장 적절하지 않은 문장은? Tighter regulations on cigarette products have spilled over to alcohol, soda and other consumer products, which has restricted consumer choices and made goods more expensive. ① Countries have taken more restrictive measures, including taxation, pictorial health warnings and prohibitions on advertising and promotion, against cigarette products over the past four decades. ② Regulatory measures have failed to improve public health, growing cigarette smuggling. ③ Applying restrictions first to tobacco and then to other consumer products have created a domino effect, or what is called a slippery slope, for other industries. ④ At the extreme end of the slippery slope is plain packaging, where all trademarks, logos and brand-specific colors are removed, resulting in unintended consequences and a severe infringement of intellectual property rights. Ⓐ - 4 ※ 글의 흐름상 빈칸에 들어갈 가장 적절한 것은? (13~14) 13. Language changes when speakers of a language come into contact with speakers of another language or languages. This can be because of migration, perhaps, because they move to more fertile lands, or because they are displaced on account of war or poverty or disease. It can also be because they are invaded. Depending on the circumstances, the home language may succumb completely to the language of the invaders, in which case we talk about replacement. _________, the home language might persist side-by-side with the language of the invaders, and depending on political circumstances, it might become the dominant language. ① Typically ② Consistently ③ Similarly ④ Alternatively 14. The notion that a product tested without branding is somehow being more objectively appraised is entirely ___________. In the real world, we no more appraise things with our eyes closed and holding our nose than we do by ignoring the brand that is stamped on the product we purchase, the look and feel of the box it comes in, or the price being asked. ① correct ② reliable ③ misguided ④ unbiased 15. <보기> 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은? <보기> Many visitors to the United States think that Americans take their exercise and free time activities too seriously. Americans often schedule their recreation as if they were scheduling business appointments. They go jogging every day at the same time, play tennis two or three times a week, or swim every Thursday. Foreigners often think that this kind of recreation sounds more like work than relaxation. For many Americans, however, their recreational activities are relaxing and enjoyable, or at least worthwhile, because they contribute to health and physical fitness. ① Health and fitness ② Popular recreational activities in the United States ③ The American approach to recreation ④ The definition of recreation 16. <보기> 글의 요지로 가장 적절한 것은? <보기> Feelings of pain or pleasure or some quality in between are the bedrock of our minds. We often fail to notice this simple reality because the mental images of the objects and events that surround us, along with the images of the words and sentences that describe them, use up so much of our overburdened attention. But there they are, feelings of myriad emotions and related states, the continuous musical line of our minds, the unstoppable humming of the most universal of melodies that only dies down when we go to sleep, a humming that turns into all-out singing when we are occupied by joy, or a mournful requiem when sorrow takes over. ① Feelings are closely associated with music. ② Feelings are composed of pain and pleasure. ③ Feelings are ubiquitous in our minds. ④ Feelings are related to the mental images of objects and events. 17. <보기> 글의 분위기로 가장 적절한 것은? <보기> I go to the local schoolyard, hoping to join in a game. But no one is there. After several minutes of standing around, dejected under the netless basketball hoops and wondering where everybody is, the names of those I expected to find awaiting me start to fill my mind. I have not played in a place like this for years. What was that? What was I thinking of, coming here? When I was a child, a boy, I went to the schoolyard to play. That was a long time ago. No children here will ever know me. Around me the concrete is empty except for pebbles, bottles, and a beer can that I kick, clawing a scary noise out of the pavement. ① calm and peaceful ② festive and merry ③ desolate and lonely ④ horrible and scary 18. 글의 흐름상 빈칸에 들어갈 단어를 순서대로 고른 것은? Often described as the rags to riches tale, the story of steel magnate Andrew Carnegie s rise begins in 1835 in a small one-room home in Dunfermline, Scotland. Born into a family of laborers, Carnegie received little schooling before his family emigrated to America in 1848. Arriving in Pennsylvania, he soon got a job in a textile mill, where he earned only $1.20 per week. ① quintessential -destitute ② exceptive- devout ③ interesting-meticulous ④ deleterious-impoverished 19. <보기> 글의 내용과 일치하는 것은? <보기> In the American Southwest, previously the Mexican North, Anglo-America ran into Hispanic America. The meeting involved variables of language, religion, race, economy, and politics. The border between Hispanic America and Anglo-America has shifted over time, but one fact has not changed: it is one thing to draw an arbitrary geographical line between two spheres of sovereignty; it is another to persuade people to respect it. Victorious in the Mexican-American War in 1848, the United States took half of Mexico. The resulting division did not ratify any plan of nature. The borderlands were an ecological whole; northeastern Mexican desert blended into southeastern American desert with no prefiguring of nationalism. The one line that nature did provide — the Rio Grande — was a river that ran through but did not really divide continuous terrain. ① The borderlands between America and Mexico signify a long history of one sovereignty. ② While nature did not draw lines, human society certainly did. ③ The Mexican-American War made it possible for people to respect the border. ④ The Rio Grande has been thought of as an arbitrary geographical line. 20. <보기> 글을 문맥에 가장 어울리게 순서대로 배열한 것은? <보기> ㉠ The trigger for the aggressive driver is usually traffic congestion coupled with a schedule that is almost impossible to meet. ㉡ Unfortunately, these actions put the rest of us at risk. For example, an aggressive driver who resorts to using a roadway shoulder to pass may startle other drivers and cause them to take an evasive action that results in more risk or even a crash. ㉢ As a result, the aggressive driver generally commits multiple violations in an attempt to make up time. ㉣ Aggressive driving is a traffic offense or combination of offenses such as following too closely, speeding, unsafe lane changes, failing to signal intent to change lanes, and other forms of negligent or inconsiderate driving. ① ㉠-㉢-㉡-㉣ ② ㉠-㉣-㉢-㉡ ③ ㉣-㉠-㉢-㉡ ④ ㉣-㉡-㉢-㉠