영어.pdf 2015 경찰 1차 영어 해설 김신주.hwp 2015 경찰 1차 영어 해설 김정연.pdf 2015 경찰 1차 영어 해설 김형섭.pdf 2015 경찰 1차 영어 해설 리스공.hwp 2015 경찰 1차 영어 해설 심상대.pdf 2015 경찰 1차 영어 해설 이동기.pdf 2015 경찰 1차 영어 해설 이리라.pdf 2015 경찰 1차 영어 해설 최종수.pdf 2015 경찰 1차 영어 해설 헤더진.pdf - 1 - 영 어 The dean s remarks made the point more obscure. ① impending precise ② unclear ③ compact ④ The prime minister was thoroughly dismayed by the lack of public support for his new project. dilapidated ① disseminated ② distorted ③ disappointed ④ Remember to go through the pockets before you put those trousers in the washing machine. ① ② experience search study ③ ④ use A: So what do you think about this car? B: I don't know. ( ) I think I need something bigger. A: No problem. Just think about it. ① I'll go for it. I'm of two minds about it. ② I can't afford buying this car. ③ This car is second to none. ④ A: Did you decide what to do in the future? B: Well, I m interested in working for an international volunteer organization. But I don’t know where to start to prepare for that. ( ) A: The first thing to do would be to study English harder because effective communication is important. Where is the organization located? ① What did you learn from the volunteer work? ② Can you tell me how to study English well? ③ What do you think I should do? ④ A journalist pointed out that the country has progressed from oppression to ( ), creating a constitution and holding national elections. colonization ① dictatorship ② sovereignty ③ autocracy ④ Culture shock is the feeling some people experience when they travel to a new country or part of the world ( ) the first time. Sometimes the food, style of dress, and other aspects of life in a new country are ( ) different that people have a hard time adjusting ( ) this new way of life. Culture shock can last for days, weeks, or even months. in - very - for for - so to ① ② – in - so - for for- very - in ③ ④ Drivers are advised to ( ) their driver's license on time ㉠ as they may be required to retake the written and driving tests past the ( ) date. ㉡ ㉠ ㉡ ① issue …… production ② renew …… expiration ③ revoke …… termination ④ suspend …… manufacture He is a man of impetuous temperament. impulsive ① lazy ② stubborn ③ ④ competitive The investigators say that they cannot rule ( ) the possibility of arson. We sent ( ) the wedding invitations last month. ① over up ② out ③ in ④ 한국 사과는 맛이 좋습니다. Korean apples are tasting wonderful. ① Korean apples are tasting wonderfully. ② Korean apples taste wonderfully. ③ Korean apples taste wonderful. ④ Surveillance cameras have been widely used in lots of places for security purposes. Their usefulness, ( ), is still under discussion. Those who support the use of surveillance cameras argue that they can serve as a deterrent to crime. ( those who have doubts about their uses are worried that surveillance cameras are not as effective in preventing crime as have been believed. Moreover, they are intruding upon people s privacy. ㉠ ㉡ ① likewise …… Hence ② nevertheless …… Consequently ③ however …… On the other hand ④ on the other hand …… However While lecturing to his literature class at Ain Shams University in Cairo, a British professor leaned back in his chair and showed the bottom of his foot to the astonished class. That kind of gesture in Muslim society was considered the worst kind of insult. The next day, the Cairo newspapers carried headlines that students had denounced British ( ) and demanded that the professor be sent home. ① ② teaching arrogance relationship ③ politeness ④ - 2 - 영 어 What a person considers to be private is that which cannot be searched or seized without probable cause; law protects the extent to which an individual's private property can be searched by the police. Hence, before law enforcement personnel can search or seize private property, they must have probable cause to believe that a crime has been committed or that the owner of the property has been involved in criminal activity, or both. Further, the law enforcement personnel is required to obtain a search warrant from a judicial officer before engaging in any form of search and seizure of private property. The basis for the warrant must be probable cause. Probable cause ranges between "more than mere suspicion”and "less than clear evidence.” A search warrant gives the police the legal authority to enter a private property without permission of the owner to search for evidence listed in the warrant in the places authorized by the warrant. the definition and range of probable cause ① the general procedure of criminal investigation ② different functions of a warrant in policing activity ③ the requirements to search and seize private property ④ Economists are debating whether donating substantial amounts of money to poorer nations is helpful in the long run. Most economists feel that, at best, aid has produced only mixed results. Despite the fact that the priority should be to create infrastructure such as roads, schools, and hospitals, what often happens is that incompetent and corrupt officials end up misusing or stealing the money. Another problem is that countries become too dependent on foreign aid. Some experts argue that overall, foreign aid has produced a brighter picture by reducing global poverty. By monitoring foreign aid expenditure, we can prevent its misuse and aim to provide support for poor countries so that they can eventually achieve economic empowerment and donate money to others in turn. ① 경제학자들은 빈국 원조가 한 가지의 확실한 결과를 가져왔다고 본다. ② 원조는 항상 도로 학교 병원 등 기반시설을 만드는데 먼저 사용된다 , , . ③ 원조의 문제 중 하나는 빈국이 외국원조에 너무 의존적이 된다는 것이다. ④ 원조 사용의 계획을 세워줌으로써 이것의 오용을 막을 수 있다. People are accustomed to thinking of lie detectors as foolproof. They assume that lie detectors are infallible simply because they are machines. However, in fact, nothing could be further from the truth. To begin with, those who administer the tests are not always licenced examiners, let alone qualified experts. Furthermore, many subjects react to a lie detector test in an unsteady condition. Consequently, their bodies behave as if they were lying even when telling the truth. In contrast, some people are smart enough to use relaxation techniques to remain calm when they are actually telling a string of lies. ① Two Types of Criminal Errors Made by Lie Detectors ② How to Frustrate Lie Detector Examiners? ③ The Fallacy of Human Assumption ④ In an aging society, new markets are likely to emerge, with a varie ty of new produc ts targe ting senior citizens. One noticeable trend is that senior consumers tend to choose more higher-priced goods than younger ones. F or exam ple, the dem and for high-quality cosmetics and clothes among senior citizens is growing at a rapid pace. Even in foods, organic products are setting the pace in the high-priced food market. It is evident that senior citizens are major consumers in these more expensive markets. problems of aging societies ① expanding consumption of organic products ② emerging high-priced markets in an aging society ③ demand for high-quality clothes ④ Conversationally and emotionally, weddings and funerals are two of the most difficult events to attend. Although weddings are festive, happy times, guests often know few people and therefore must have sharp conversational skills, especially for small talk. Funerals are even more difficult because you want to say something consoling to the family of the deceased but often cannot find the words. This article provides a guide for conversation at these events; you can shape the language to your own needs and feelings. ① 결혼식과 장례식에서 적절한 말을 하는 것 ② 결혼식과 장례식을 치를 때의 어려움 ③ 결혼식과 장례식의 적절한 복장 ④ 결혼식과 장례식에 사용되는 비용 When collecting data, many think it is desirable to minimize the messiness in data. However, it is not an easy task; by combining different types of information from different sources, which don't always ㉠align/alternate perfectly. Sometimes, you are better off not being obsessed with eliminating messiness. Suppose you need to measure the temperature in a crop field. If you have only one temperature sensor for the whole plot of land, it must be an accurate one; otherwise, it does not provide ㉡ reliable/unreliable data. In contrast, if you have a sensor for every square meter of land, incorrect data from a few sensors will not cause any problem. The aggregate of many readings will provide a more ㉢ comprehensive/apprehensive picture. ㉠ ㉡ ㉢ ① align reliable comprehensive ② align unreliable apprehensive ③ alternate unreliable comprehensive ④ alternate reliable apprehensive Career experts say the way you come across to the interviewer sends a powerful message about you and how much you care about the job search process. Your interviewer will form impressions about you from your posture, handshake, eye contact, clothes, shoes and accessories, usage of space, attentiveness, tone of voice, and facial expressions. Avoiding eye contact may appear that you are evading or trying to hide something. However, too much eye contact (direct staring) can seem intimidating. When you are practicing how to answer questions, make sure to get constructive feedback about nonverbals, work on improvements, and then use the right nonverbals during the job search process. ① 면접에서 언어구사력의 중요성 ② 면접에서 비언어적인 요소의 중요성 ③ 면접에서 눈맞춤의 중요성 ④ 면접에서 연습의 중요성
영어.pdf 2014 경찰 1차 영어 해설 강수정.pdf 2014 경찰 1차 영어 해설 김정연.pdf 2014 경찰 1차 영어 해설 김형섭.pdf 2014 경찰 1차 영어 해설 리스공.pdf 2014 경찰 1차 영어 해설 심상대.pdf 2014 경찰 1차 영어 해설 이동기.pdf 2014 경찰 1차 영어 해설 이성철.pdf 2014 경찰 1차 영어 해설 정철호.pdf 2014 경찰 1차 영어 해설 제석강.pdf - 영 어 1 - 1. 다음 빈 칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? ① refrain ② remove ③ convert ④ exclude 2. 다음 빈 칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? ① in honor of ② on behalf of ③ for the sake of ④ according to 3. 다음 빈 칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? 4. 다음 빈 칸에 순서대로 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? ① act - people ② experience - perpetrators ③ commit - victims ④ compare - criminals 5. 주어진 설명이 뜻하는 단어로서 예문의 빈 칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? ① bail ② custody ③ warrant ④ restraint 6. 다음 빈 칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? ① alias ② alchemist ③ apprentice ④ avarice 7. 다음 두 문장의 빈 칸에 공통으로 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? ① in ② on ③ to ④ for 8. 다음 빈 칸에 순서대로 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? ① automation – dictatorship ② coercion – authority ③ dictatorship – automation ④ authority – coercion 9. 다음 빈 칸에 순서대로 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? ① on - when - find ② in - that - finding ③ to - what - to find ④ with - whether - found 10. 다음 빈 칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? ① him look ② he looks ③ him to look ④ he is 11. 다음 빈 칸에 순서대로 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? ① hurts – feel – have ② feels – have – hurt ③ has – feel – hurt ④ hurts – have – feel 12. 다음 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은? ① The cause of the Great Depression ② The definition of the Great Depression ③ The prospect of the Great Depression ④ The rule of the Great Depression The Great Depression began in late 1929 and lasted for about a decade. Many factors played a role in bringing about the depression. One was the greatly unequal distribution of wealth throughout the 1920's, and the other was excessive stock market expansion. Initial decision-making and actions vary _____ the nature and type of the incident. A: Hi Josh. How is it going? B: Not so good. I think I need a new job. A: What's the problem? Is it the people you work with? B: No, my coworkers are fine, but ________. A: Maybe you should start looking for a more interesting job. B: You are right. I can probably find something better. As a police officer, your job is to arrest those who ___ crime and protect ___ of crime. ① my workplace is too far from home ② I think my salary is too low ③ I do the same thing everyday ④ I am too busy to find free time A: Do you like Peter's new suit? B: Yes, I think it makes _________ handsome. Inspector Javert discovered that Monsieur Madeleine was not the mayor's real name but an ______________ for Jean Valijean, the ex-convict. ’14년 제1차 경찰공무원(순경)채용시험 문제 - 공채(남․여)․101경비단 - 【영 어】 응시 번호 : 이름 : As Max Weber pointed out, we perceive power ― the ability to get your way, even over the resistance of other ― as either legitimate or illegitimate. Legitimate power is called ____________. This is power that people accept as right. In contrast, illegitimate power called ___________ is power that people do not accept as just. A: Mom, my stomach ____. B: Do you ____ a fever? A: No, I don't think so. B: Do you ____ nauseous? A: No, not at all. But you know, I did have potato chips and peanut butter for dinner. Please _______ from smoking in the restaurant, as it disturbs other people. 설명: a commission or document giving authority to do something 예문: The police had a _______ for his arrest. ·He was sentenced ____ three years in prison. ·When polite requests failed, he resorted ____ threats. ·Global warming has led to an increase ________ temperatures and sea levels, and much less polar ice. ·The big problem is ________ I don't get many chances to speak the language. ·I am very careful with my money and I enjoy ________ a bargain when I go shopping. - 영 어 2- 13. 다음 글에서 밑줄 친 them이 가리키는 말로 가장 적절한 것은? ① people ② bats ③ high-pitched sounds ④ insects 14. 다음 글의 흐름으로 보아 (A), (B), (C)에 들어가기에 가장 적절한 말로 짝지은 것은? (A) (B) (C) ① able distributed enhanced ② able attributed disrupted ③ unable attributed enhanced ④ unable distributed disrupted 15. 다음 글의 종류로 가장 적절한 것은? ① autobiography ② novel ③ obituary ④ advertisement 16. 다음 글에 드러난 Sally의 심경으로 가장 적절한 것은? ① nervous ② relieved ③ satisfied ④ sympathetic [17-18] 다음 글을 읽고, 물음에 답하시오. 17. 윗글의 빈 칸에 들어갈 말의 순서로 가장 적절한 것은? ① like - In contrast - if ② as - For instance - even though ③ to - However - as ④ in - By the way - when 18. 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은? ① Diversity of Women's Careers ② History of Feminist Movement ③ Women's Rights in the Near Future ④ What a True Feminist Is 19. 다음 빈 칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? 20. 다음 글을 읽고, 본문의 내용과 가장 일치하지 않은 것은? ① 법원은 경찰에게 면죄부를 주었다. ② 괴한들이 3명의 여자가 있는 가택을 침입하였다 . ③ 법적으로 경찰은 모든 시민을 보호할 의무가 있다. ④ 전화 신고를 받은 경찰은 즉시 출동하지 않았다. Cats have a memory for things that are important to their lives. Some cats seem to have extraordinary memories for finding places. Taken away from their homes, they seem (A)able/unable to remember where they live. The key to this homing ability could be a built-in celestial navigation, similar to that used by birds, or the cats' navigational ability could be (B)distributed/attributed to the cats' sensitivity to Earth's magnetic fields. When magnets are attached to cats, their normal navigational skills are (C)enhanced/disrupted. Suddenly, Sally heard a voice. “Good afternoon, Let's start with Afternoon of a Faun, please,” the voice repeated wearily. Sally's heart began to pound. She spread her music out on the music stand slowly. A lifetime of preparation, four long weeks of intensive practice, and it all came down to this moment. She felt sweat rolling down on her back. She lifted the flute to her lips, took a deep breath, and began to play. The opening notes of Afternoon of a Faun came from her flute, but her two hands that were holding it were still trembling. A feminist is not a man-hater, a masculine woman, or someone who dislikes housewives. A feminist is simply a woman or man who believes that women should enjoy the same rights, privileges, and opportunities ________ men. Because society has deprived women of many equal rights, feminists have fought for equality. ________, Susan B. Anthony, a famous nineteenth century feminist, worked to get women the right to vote. Today, feminists want women to receive equal pay for equal work. They support a woman's right to pursue her goals and dreams, whether she wants to be an astronaut, athlete, or full-time homemaker. Because the term is often misunderstood, some people don't call themselves feminists _______ they share feminist values. Two women were upstairs in a townhouse when they heard their roommate, a third woman, being attacked downstairs by intruders. They phoned the police several times and were assured that officers were on the way. After about 30 minutes, when their roommate’s screams had stopped, they assumed the police had finally arrived. When the two women went downstairs, they saw that in fact the police never came, but the intruders were still there. As the Warren court states in the opinion: For the next fourteen hours the women were held captive, robbed, and beaten. The three women sued the District of Columbia(D.C.) for failing to protect them, but D.C.’s highest court pardoned the District and its police, saying that it is a “fundamental principle of American law that a government and its agents are under no general duty to provide public services, such as police protection, to any individual citizen.” Bats fly like birds, but they are mammals. Female bats give birth to live young and produce milk. Bats are nocturnal, searching for food at night and sleeping during the day. They roost upside down in dark, quiet places such as caves and attics. People think that bats drink blood, but only vampire bats do this. Most bats eat fruit or insects. As bats fly, they make high-pitched sounds that bounce off objects. This echolocation is a kind of radar that guides them. The public has every right to expect that police powers are used professionally and with integrity, irrespective of who is being dealt with. In other words, the same ( ㉠ ) should be used by police officers whether dealing with a duke or a dustman, a fellow officer or a villain. Additionally, some people who come into contact with the police may be ( ㉡ ), and officers have a requirement to support and protect them. This is especially important when ( ㉡ ) witnesses, such as victims of domestic violence, feel very frightened or inhibited ― often after years of abuse ― about making an allegation against an abuser. ㉠ ㉡ ① freedom - absolute ② impartiality - vulnerable ③ prudence - adamant ④ sincerity - inquisitive Here, you can meet people who make traditional crafts. You'll find presents that are perfect for all your friends. We have clay pottery and beautiful leather bags. Try on a pair of sandals made of straw or a wood mask used in old dances. Bamboo crafts like boxes and baskets are famous in Korea. Korea also has great artists who make things with metal like gold necklaces and brass bowls. You can even take home a stone statue. Come and visit to the Korean Folk Village!
영어-S.pdf 영어-T.pdf 2014 국가직 9급 영어 해설 강수정.pdf 2014 국가직 9급 영어 해설 김정연.pdf 2014 국가직 9급 영어 해설 김형구.pdf 2014 국가직 9급 영어 해설 닥터잉글리쉬.pdf 2014 국가직 9급 영어 해설 두형호.pdf 2014 국가직 9급 영어 해설 박지나.pdf 2014 국가직 9급 영어 해설 심상대.pdf 2014 국가직 9급 영어 해설 유수연.pdf 2014 국가직 9급 영어 해설 이동기.pdf 2014 국가직 9급 영어 해설 이리라.pdf 2014 국가직 9급 영어 해설 제석강.pdf 2014 국가직 9급 영어 해설 한덕현.pdf 2014 국가직 9급 영어 해설 헤더진.pdf 영 어 S 책형 1 쪽 영 어 문 1. 밑줄 친 부분에 가장 적절한 것은? Before she traveled to Mexico last winter, she needed to ______________ her Spanish because she had not practiced it since college. ① make up to ② brush up on ③ shun away from ④ come down with 문 2. 밑줄 친 부분과 의미가 가장 가까운 것은? I was told to let Jim pore over computer printouts. ① examine ② distribute ③ discard ④ correct 문 3. 밑줄 친 부분과 의미가 가장 가까운 것은? Johannes Kepler believed that there would one day be "celestial ships with sails adapted to the winds of heaven" navigating the sky, filled with explorers "who would not fear the vastness" of space. And today those explorers, human and robot, employ as unerring guides on their voyages through the vastness of space the three laws of planetary motion that Kepler uncovered during a lifetime of personal travail and ecstatic discovery. ① faultless ② unreliable ③ gutless ④ unscientific 문 4. 밑줄 친 부분에 가장 적절한 것은? Visitors at Disneyland pay a high admission price and wait hours for rides that last no more than five minutes. Why do they respond so well to a situation that might otherwise cause great ㉠ ? One reason is that the theme park provides extra service wherever they can. They lend cameras at no ㉡ to their guests at designated photo sites. People remember the fun picture with Mickey Mouse and forget the long lines. Clean facilities and friendly staff also go far to ㉢ the negative experiences. ㉠ ㉡ ㉢ ① dissemination chance evoke ② dissemination charge erase ③ dissatisfaction charge erase ④ dissatisfaction chance evoke 문 5. 우리말을 영어로 잘못 옮긴 것은? ① 그녀는 등산은 말할 것도 없고, 야외에 나가는 것을 좋아하지 않는다. → She does not like going outdoor, not to mention mountain climbing. ② 그녀는 학급에서 가장 예쁜 소녀이다. → She is more beautiful than any other girl in the class. ③ 그 나라는 국토의 3/4이 바다로 둘러싸여 있는 소국이다. → The country is a small one with the three quarters of the land surrounding by the sea. ④ 많은 학생들이 졸업 후 취직을 위해 열심히 공부한다. → A number of students are studying very hard to get a job after their graduation. 문 6. 밑줄 친 부분에 가장 적절한 것은? A : I saw the announcement for your parents' 25th anniversary in yesterday's newspaper. It was really neat. Do you know how your parents met? B : Yes. It was really incredible, actually, very romantic. They met in college, found they were compatible, and began to date. Their courtship lasted all through school. A : No kidding! That's really beautiful. I haven't noticed anyone in class that I could fall in love with! B : _________________________. Oh, well, maybe next semester! ① Me neither ② You shouldn't blame me ③ It is up to your parents ④ You'd better hang about with her 문 7. 밑줄 친 부분에 가장 적절한 것은? A : Did you see Steve this morning? B : Yes. But why does he _________________? A : I don't have the slightest idea. B : I thought he'd be happy. A : Me too. Especially since he got promoted to sales manager last week. B : He may have some problem with his girlfriend. ① have such a long face ② step into my shoes ③ jump on the bandwagon ④ play a good hand 문 8. 어법상 옳은 것은? ① While worked at a hospital, she saw her first air show. ② However weary you may be, you must do the project. ③ One of the exciting games I saw were the World Cup final in 2010. ④ It was the main entrance for that she was looking. 문 9. 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 옳은 것은? Compared to newspapers, magazines are not necessarily up-to-the-minute, since they do not appear every day, but weekly, monthly, or even less frequently. Even externally they are different from newspapers, mainly because magazines ①resemble like a book. The paper is thicker, photos are more colorful, and most of the articles are relatively long. The reader experiences much more background information and greater detail. There are also weekly news magazines, ② which reports on a number of topics, but most of the magazines are specialized to attract various consumers. For example, there are ③women's magazines cover fashion, cosmetics, and recipes as well as youth magazines about celebrities. Other magazines are directed toward, for example, computer users, sports fans, ④those interested in the arts, and many other small groups. 영 어 S 책형 2 쪽 문 10. 밑줄 친 부분에 가장 적절한 것은? Until recently many experts assumed that under the influence of universal literacy and mass media, regional dialects were being leveled. _____________. Local identity and other social forces exert a stronger influence than even TV on how dialects evolve. The Inland North, the Midland, Canada, and the South are now more different from each other than ever. ① Absolutely true ② Too much so ③ Not so ④ Well enough 문 11. 밑줄 친 부분에 가장 적절한 것은? Body type was useless as a predictor of how the men would fare in life. So was birth order or political affiliation. Even social class had a limited effect. But having a warm childhood was powerful. It's not that the men who flourished had perfect childhoods. Rather, as Vaillant puts it, "What goes right is more important than what goes wrong." The positive effect of one loving relative, mentor or friend can _________ the negative effects of the bad things that happen. ① augment ② convene ③ vanquish ④ reinforce 문 12. 주어진 글 다음에 이어질 글의 순서로 가장 적절한 것은? It's amazing what a little free beer can accomplish. Samso, then known for its dairy and pig farms, would become Denmark's showcase for sustainable power, eventually going carbon-free. How that would happen, however, was far from clear, since the government initially offered no funding, tax breaks or technical expertise. (A) So Hermansen showed up at every community or club meeting to give his pitch for going green. He pointed to the blustery island's untapped potential for wind power and the economic benefits of making Samso energy-independent. And he sometimes brought free beer. (B) It worked. The islanders exchanged their oil-burning furnaces for centralized plants that burned leftover straw or wood chips to produce heat and hot water. They bought shares in new wind turbines, which generated the capital to build 11 large land-based turbines, enough to meet the entire island's electricity needs. Today Samso isn't just carbon-neutral—it actually produces 10 % more clean electricity than it uses, with the extra power fed back into the grid at a profit. (C) Given that almost all its power came from oil or coal—and the island's 4,300 residents didn't know a wind turbine from a grain silo—Samso seemed an odd choice. Soren Hermansen, though, saw an opportunity. The appeal was immediate, and when a renewable-energy project finally secured some funding, he volunteered to be the first—and only—staffer. ① (A) － (B) － (C) ② (B) － (A) － (C) ③ (C) － (B) － (A) ④ (C) － (A) － (B) 문 13. 밑줄 친 부분에 가장 적절한 것은? The emphasis on decoding, translated mainly as phonemic awareness and knowledge of the alphabetic principle, has led schools to search for packaged or commercially produced reading programs that help students master the skills of decoding. According to the teachers we work with, this highly scripted approach to reading instruction has produced many students who know how to sound out words, but that is where the process of reading ends for them. While the students can decode and even become fluent oral readers, they do not truly comprehend the material; they cannot read between the lines, infer meaning, or detect the author's bias, among other things. Reading ___________________. ① is basically decoding since phonemic and alphabetical knowledge is added to the general decoding process ② is much more complex than simply mastering phonemic awareness and alphabet recognition ③ can be more efficiently learned together with peers than either alone or with teachers ④ can be mastered when learners know how to sound out words fluently 문 14. 다음 문장이 들어갈 위치로 가장 적절한 것은? For example, some cultural groups were often portrayed as gangsters, while others were usually shown as the `good guys' who arrested them. One of the challenges we face in the world today is that a lot of the information we get about other people and places comes from the advertising and entertainment we see in the media. ( A ) You can't always trust these types of information. ( B ) To the people who make television programs and advertisements, true facts and honest opinions aren't as important as keeping you interested long enough to sell you something! ( C ) In the past, the messages we received from television programs, advertisements, and movies were full of stereotypes. ( D ) Even places were presented as stereotypes: European cities, such as Paris and Venice, were usually shown as beautiful and romantic, but cities in Africa and Asia, such as Cairo and Calcutta, were often shown as poor and overcrowded. ① A ② B ③ C ④ D 문 15. 내용의 흐름상 적절하지 못한 문장은? The earth is a planet full of life. One of the reasons for this is that our sun is the kind of star that can support life on a planet. All the time the sun continues to send out a steady supply of heat and light. For our sun is a stable star. ① This means that it stays the same size. And its output of energy (heat and light) does not change much. ② Some stars are not stable. They grow bigger and hotter and then smaller and cooler. ③ The heat and light they send out vary greatly. If our sun behaved like that, the earth would boil and freeze repeatedly. ④ Life could exist under these great changes. We are here because a steady amount of energy pours forth from our sun. 영 어 S 책형 3 쪽 문 16. 다음 글의 내용과 일치하지 않는 것은? Chicago's Newberry Library and the Brookfield Zoo were among 10 institutions presented Monday with the National Medal for Museum and Library Service by First Lady Laura Bush at the White House. The annual awards, given by the Institute of Museum and Library Services in Washington, D. C., honor institutions for their collections and community involvement, and include a $ 10,000 award each. The Brookfield Zoo was honored for programs such as Zoo Adventure Passport, which provides free field trips to low-income families. "Brookfield Zoo is a living classroom for local students," Bush said. The Newberry Library was also honored for its extensive collection of more than half a million maps and its role in helping African-Americans trace their family heritage. ① The Brookfield Zoo ran a program that supports free admission for low-income families. ② The Brookfield Zoo assisted African-American kids in tracing their family history. ③ The Newberry Library and the Brookfield Zoo won a $ 10,000 award respectively. ④ The Newberry Library was awarded the medal for an extensive number of maps. 문 17. 피드백에 대한 글쓴이의 주장으로 가장 적절한 것은? Feedback, particularly the negative kind, should be descriptive rather than judgmental or evaluative. No matter how upset you are, keep the feedback job-related and never criticize someone personally because of an inappropriate action. Telling people they're stupid, incompetent, or the like is almost always counterproductive. It provokes such an emotional reaction that the performance deviation itself is apt to be overlooked. When you're criticizing, remember that you're censuring a job-related behavior, not the person. ① 상대방에게 직접 전달하는 것이 바람직하다. ② 상대방의 인격보다는 업무에 초점을 두어야 한다. ③ 긍정적인 평가가 부정적인 것보다 더 많아야 한다. ④ 상대방의 지위와 감정을 고려해야 한다. 문 18. 다음 글의 요지로 가장 적절한 것은? Through discoveries and inventions, science has extended life, conquered disease and offered new material freedom. It has pushed aside gods and demons and revealed a cosmos more intricate and awesome than anything produced by pure imagination. But there are new troubles in the peculiar paradise that science has created. It seems that science is losing the popular support to meet the future challenges of pollution, security, energy, education, and food. The public has come to fear the potential consequences of unfettered science and technology in such areas as genetic engineering, global warming, nuclear power, and the proliferation of nuclear arms. ① Science is very helpful in modern society. ② Science and technology are developing quickly. ③ The absolute belief in science is weakening. ④ Scientific research is getting more funds from private sectors. 문 19. 다음 글의 내용과 일치하는 것은? During the nine-week summer session, services for the university community will follow a revised schedule. Specific changes for campus bus services, the cafeteria, and summer hours for the infirmary and recreational and athletic facilities will be posted on the bulletin board outside of the cafeteria. Weekly movie and concert schedules are being finalized and will be posted outside the cafeteria every Wednesday. Campus buses will leave the main hall every half an hour and make all of the regular stops along their routes around the campus. The cafeteria will serve breakfast, lunch, and early dinner from 7 a.m. to 7 p.m. during the weekdays and from noon to 7 p.m. on weekends. The library will maintain regular hours during the weekdays, but shorter hours noon to 7 p.m. on Saturdays and Sundays. All students who want to use the library borrowing services and the recreational, athletic, and entertainment facilities must have an authorized summer identification card. This announcement will also appear in the next issue of the student newspaper. ① Movie and concert schedules will be notified twice a month. ② During the weekdays, the cafeteria and the library will open at noon. ③ Campus buses will run every hour and make all of the regular stops. ④ A valid identification card is required to use the athletic and entertainment facilities during the summer session. 문 20. 다음 글의 내용과 일치하지 않는 것은? When the children had originally been shown what we think of as an object, like the copper tee, they pointed to an object of the same shape but a different substance, such as a plastic plumbing tee, not to the same substance with a different shape, namely a pile of copper bits. But when they had originally been shown what we think of as a substance, like the hair gel, they pointed to the same substance regardless of its shape, such as three smears of hair gel, and not to the same shape of a different substance, such an identically curved glob of hand cream. So well before children know how the English language distinguishes individual objects from portions of a substance, they distinguish them on their own, and generalize words for them accordingly. Names for solids with a noteworthy shape are taken to apply to objects of that kind; names for nonsolids with an arbitrary shape are taken to apply to substances of that kind. ① With regard to pointing to an object, the children pointed to an object of the same shape but a different substance. ② With regard to pointing to a substance, the children pointed to the same substance regardless of its shape. ③ Children can apply the names for solids with a noteworthy shape to objects of that kind. ④ Children can distinguish objects from substances only after they know how their language distinguishes them.
영어.pdf 2013 경찰 2차 영어 해설 강수정.pdf 2013 경찰 2차 영어 해설 강정구.pdf 2013 경찰 2차 영어 해설 김형섭.pdf 2013 경찰 2차 영어 해설 심상대.pdf 2013 경찰 2차 영어 해설 이동기.pdf - 3 - 1. 다음 세 속담의 빈 칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? ⓐ ⓑ ⓒ ① bird friend stitch ② friend bird stitch ③ stitch friend bird ④ friend stitch bird 2. 다음 빈 칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? ① dank ② sparse ③ sluggish ④ numb 3. 다음 ㉠과 ㉡에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? 4. 다음 빈 칸에 순서대로 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? ① malicious - exploit - ethical ② exploit - malicious - ethical ③ ethical - exploit - malicious ④ malicious - ethical - exploit 5. 다음 보기 중 밑줄 친 부분의 의미와 가장 가까운 것은? ① defeated ② reduced ③ eliminated ④ renowned 6. 다음은 미란다 원칙에 관한 내용이다. 빈 칸에 순서대로 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? ① against – afford ② for - afford ③ for – assimilate ④ over – remain 7. 다음 A와 B의 대화 중 가장 적절하지 않은 것은? ① A: Can I eat this pizza? B: Yes, help yourself. ② A: Can I use your phone? B: Mud in your eye! ③ A: Did you catch the train? B: Yes, by the skin of my teeth. ④ A: How shall we decide? B: Let's toss for it. 8. 다음 빈 칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? ⓐ ⓑ ① to go to put ② to go putting ③ going to put ④ going putting 9. 다음 빈 칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? 10. 다음 빈 칸에 순서대로 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? ① fined, to, impact ② charged, on, condition ③ fined, under, influence ④ charged, around, state 11. 다음 중 어법에 맞는 표현을 골라 가장 적절하게 나열한 것은? ① had broken — had arrived — were missed ② had broken — arrived — were missed ③ had been broken — had arrived — were missing ④ had been broken — arrived — were missing 12. 다음 빈 칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? ① sponsored ② enacted ③ debated ④ rejected ’13년 2차 경찰공무원(순경)채용시험 문제 - 일반공채․전의경특채․101경비단 - 【영 어】 응시번호 : 이름 : A ⓐ in time saves nine. A ⓑ in need is a friend indeed. A ⓒ in the hand is worth two in the bush. You have the right to remain silent. Anything you say can be used __________ you in a court of law. You have the right to talk to a lawyer. If you cannot __________ one, a lawyer will be given to you without cost. Venice is celebrated for its beautiful buildings. 그는 음주운전으로 벌금형을 받았다. → He was _____ for driving ______ the ______ of alcohol. Jane Lee, owner of the Coffee L at 98 Hwarang-ro, Sungbuk-gu called police headquarters at 6:30 am, Friday, September 11, to report that her coffee shop ⓐ had broken / had been broken into during the night. Officers Kyudong Hong and Sami Kim ⓑ had arrived / arrived at the store at 6:40 am to investigate the incident. Ms. Lee was able to report immediately that an espresso machine and 850,000 won from the cash register ⓒ were missing / were missed. It is natural that the air is ___________ and stale in the basement during the long rainy season. The difference between ㉠ and ㉡ is that ㉠ refers to minor crimes like traffic violation, while ㉡ refers to major crimes like murder. Many people consider hackers and crackers to be the same. Their names may sound funny, but crackers' _____________ activities are not just pranks. Crackers sometimes ____________ a company's security codes and then figure out its computer systems illegally. Hackers, on the other hand, will report the vulnerability so the system in a(n) ___________ way, so the program can be patched. The Second Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, which includes the words “the right to . . . bear arms,” is viewed as the foundation for right of Americans to own guns. Today the meaning of those words is widely ___________. Some believe they were written to make sure that the young U.S. could defend itself from outside threats to its independence. Others feel that it was meant to apply to individual Americans so that they could protect themselves and their property. A: Who suggested ⓐ on a camping holiday in October? B: I did. But I didn't know it was going to rain. I don't enjoy ⓑ up a tent in the rain. A preliminary investigation indicates that the accident occurred ___________ the pilot's fatigue. ① ㉠ felony ㉡ misbehavior ② ㉠ misdemeanor ㉡ felony ③ ㉠ misbehavior ㉡ felony ④ ㉠ felony ㉡ misdemeanor ① because ② when ③ since ④ because of - 4 - 13. 다음 빈칸에 순서대로 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? ① Furthermore - However ② However – For instance ③ For example - Furthermore ④ Otherwise – However 14. 다음 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? ① lifestyle changes in the region ② the rapid expansion of glacial lakes ③ speeding up the global warming process ④ the visual damage of the mountains 15. 다음 글의 흐름으로 보아 뒤에 이어질 문장의 순서로 가장 적절한 것은? ① ⓐ - ⓑ - ⓒ ② ⓑ - ⓐ - ⓒ ③ ⓒ - ⓑ - ⓐ ④ ⓒ - ⓐ - ⓑ 16. 다음 글의 흐름으로 보아 주어진 문장이 들어가기에 가장 적절한 곳은? 17. 다음 밑줄 친 문장 중 글의 전체 흐름과 가장 관계가 없는 것은? [18-19] 다음 글을 읽고, 물음에 답하시오. 18. 첫 단락의 내용과 가장 일치하는 것은? ① Introducing new phrases into English was the goal of the writers. ② Not all of the Gold Rush miners could read or write. ③ The miners wrote about their gold-mining experiences. ④ Miners preferred their lives as journalists, lawyers, and businessmen. 19. “pan out”이란 표현의 유래를 가장 적절하게 설명한 것은? ① Miners called their findings “pans.” ② Miners used pans to separate gold from worthless minerals. ③ Gold was found in places called pans. ④ Miners called selling gold “panning.” 20. 다음 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은? ① The World Health Organization ② The Eradication of Smallpox ③ Symptoms of Smallpox ④ Infectious Diseases The Internet has encouraged the freedoms of speech and expression. The Internet is a very large common public area that is shared by people all around the world. Due to the diversity of the Net's users, no one standard can be applied to govern speech on the Net. __________, the Internet's technology itself prevents anyone from blocking the free flow of information. In the late 1990s, many countries became alarmed at the freedom of speech accessible on the Internet and tried to restrict it. Singapore insisted that political and religious sites must register with the government. China ordered that all Internet users had to register with the police. And Saudi Arabia restricted Internet use to only universities and hospitals. __________, due to the nature of the Internet, none of these efforts has had much lasting effect. It is now feared that the Himalayan glaciers are rapidly retreating because of climate change. Since the mid-1970s, the average air temperature has risen by 1°C in the Himalayan region, and this trend has been most remarkable at high altitude sites. Almost 67% of the glaciers in the Himalayan and Tienshan mountain ranges have retreated in the past decade. One of the major impacts of this trend is related to ___________________. The melting of the snow will turn the snow-covered mountains, which have a truly magnificent appearance, into bare, rocky mountains. The dynamic glaciers will turn into lifeless rubble without their icy core. The Himalayas will no longer be such a splendid sight. A policeman was sent to investigate the disappearance of some property from a hotel. When he arrived, he found that the hotel staff had caught a boy in one of the rooms with a camera and some cash. ⓐ At the police station the boy could not give a satisfactory explanation for his actions and the police decided to charge him with the theft of the camera and cash. ⓑ The next morning he appeared in court before the magistrate. ⓒ When the policeman tried to arrest the boy, he became violent and the policeman had to handcuff him. 문장: It can be either coarse or fine. Coffee plants produce a bright red fruit. Inside each fruit is a single coffee bean. Workers pick the fruit and dry the beans in the sun. ( ① ) Then the beans are roasted at 550。F to bring out the true coffee flavor. ( ② ) Next the coffee is ground. ( ③ ) Many people brew coffee by putting it in a filter and pouring boiling water over it. ( ④ ) Some people add cream or sugar, while others add nothing. Lateralization is a developmental process during which the two sides of the brain become specialized for different functions. ① As a child develops, the two sides of the brain become asymmetric in that each side controls different abilities. ② Language, for instance, is controlled by the left side of the brain, and certain types of pattern recognition by the right. ③ It is also a system of conventional vocal signs by means of which human beings communicate. ④ However, there is some disagreement as to when this specialization is complete. Some researchers believe the process is not complete until puberty, while others maintain that the brain is lateralized by age five. The discovery of gold in California in 1848 marked the beginning of an economic boom known as the California Gold Rush. The miners, many of whom were originally journalists, lawyers, and businessmen, preserved their experiences in writing. Much of this was peppered with colorful phrases related to their new work. Interestingly, many of these phrases are still in use today in the English language. The popular phrase “pan out,” meaning “to be successful,” can be traced back to the gold rush. Miners would separate gold from worthless minerals using a pan; gold would settle to the bottom of the pan, and other sediments would be removed. The likely origin of “pan out,” then, is from the process of gathering all the gold in one's pan. Smallpox was the first widespread disease to be eliminated by human intervention. In May, 1966, the World Health Organization (WHO), an agency of the United Nations, was authorized to initiate a global campaign to eradicate smallpox. The goal was to eliminate the disease in one decade. At the time, the disease posed a serious threat to people in more than thirty nations. Because similar projects for malaria and yellow fever had failed, few believed that smallpox could actually be eradicated, but eleven years after the initial organization of the campaign, no cases were reported in the field. The strategy was not only to provide mass vaccinations but also to isolate patients with active smallpox in order to break the chain of human transmission. Rewards for reporting smallpox assisted in motivating the public to aid health workers. One by one, each smallpox victim was sought out, removed from contact with others, and treated. At the same time, the entire village where the victim had lived was vaccinated.
영어-인.pdf 영어-재.pdf 2013 국가직 7급 영어 해설 강수정.pdf 2013 국가직 7급 영어 해설 강호섭.pdf 2013 국가직 7급 영어 해설 김정연.pdf 2013 국가직 7급 영어 해설 두형호.pdf 2013 국가직 7급 영어 해설 손진숙.pdf 2013 국가직 7급 영어 해설 심상대.hwp 2013 국가직 7급 영어 해설 이동기.pdf 2013 국가직 7급 영어 해설 장종재.pdf 2013 국가직 7급 영어 해설 최영준.pdf 2013 국가직 7급 영어 해설 한덕현.pdf 영 어 인 책형 1 쪽 영 어 문 1. 밑줄 친 부분에 주어진 동사의 올바른 형태들로 묶인 것은? The moral wisdom of the Black community is extremely useful in ㉠ defy oppressive rules or standards of "law and order" that degrade Blacks. It helps Blacks purge themselves of self-hate, thus ㉡assert their own validity. ㉠ ㉡ ① defying asserted ② defying asserting ③ defied asserting ④ defied asserted ※ 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 옳지 않은 것은? [문 2 ～ 문 3] 문 2. Eli Broad, the billionaire financier and philanthropist, ①who has private collection of some 2,000 works of modern and contemporary art is one of the most sought-after by museums ② nationwide, has decided ③ to retain permanent control of his works in an independent foundation that ④ makes loans to museums rather than give any of the art away. 문 3. A final way to organize an essay is to ① proceeding from relatively simple concepts to more complex ones. By starting with generally ② accepted evidence, you establish rapport with your readers and assure them that the essay is ③ firmly grounded in shared experience. In contrast, if you open with difficult material, you risk ④ confusing your audience. 문 4. 어법상 옳은 것은? ① The elite campus-based programs which he will be taking it next semester are scheduled to be extremely difficult. ② That happens in a particular period does not have any significant effects on the long-term investors in the stock market. ③ The newly built conference room, though equipped with more advanced facilities, accommodates fewer people than the old one. ④ With such a diverse variety of economical appliances to choose from, it's important to decide what it is best. ※ 밑줄 친 부분과 의미가 가장 가까운 것은? [문 5 ～ 문 6] 문 5. Moreover, our brains impel us not only toward vices, but also toward virtues. In recent years, researchers have found that generosity isn't always a sacrifice; instead, it often exhilarates us. ① exasperates ② excoriates ③ exalts ④ exhorts 문 6. If you have an idea that seems a little out in left field, don't let that stop you from trying it. You'll be in good company. ① strange ② challenging ③ depressive ④ demanding 문 7. 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 가장 적절한 것은? United Nations envoys are dispatched to areas of tension around the world to assist in _____________ crises and brokering negotiated settlements to conflicts. Civilian-led "political missions" are deployed to the field with mandates to encourage dialogue and cooperation within and between nations, or to promote reconciliation and democratic governance in societies rebuilding after civil wars. ① deluding ② defusing ③ desponding ④ degenerating 문 8. 우리말을 영어로 바르게 옮긴 것은? ① 우리가 공항에 도착할 무렵, 비행기는 이미 이륙했다. → By the time we had arrived at the airport, the flight already took off. ② 당신이 바쁘지 않으면 오늘 저녁에 당신 집에 들르겠다. → I'll drop by your place this evening lest you should be busy. ③ 그녀가 콘서트에 왔었다면 좋아했을 것이다. → Had she come to the concert, she would have enjoyed it. ④ 그는 의사로서 자질이 없다. → He is cut out to be a doctor. 문 9. 우리말을 영어로 잘못 옮긴 것은? ① 그는 빚을 갚고 나니 먹고 살아갈 수가 없게 되었다. → The payment of his debts left him nothing to live on. ② 사람의 가치는 재산보다도 오히려 인격에 있다. → A person's value lies not so much in what he is as in what he has. ③ 나이를 먹음에 따라, 이 속담의 의미를 분명히 알게 될 것이다. → As you grow older, you will come to realize the meaning of this saying clearly. ④ 그들은 물이 부족했으므로 가능한 적게 마셨다. → They were short of water, so that they drank as little as possible. 영 어 인 책형 2 쪽 문 10. 다음 우리말을 영어로 가장 잘 옮긴 것은? 나는 불가피한 사정으로 그 일을 착수할 수밖에 없었다. ① I could not undertake the work because of unavoidable circumstances. ② I could avoid the circumstances, but I did not undertake the work. ③ Unavoidable circumstances prevented me from setting about the work. ④ Unavoidable circumstances led me to set about the work. 문 11. 두 사람의 대화 중 가장 어색한 것은? ① W : Honey! Can you give me a hand with the groceries? M : Wow! Do we really need all this stuff? ② W : Hey, wait! What are you doing? M : What does it look like I'm doing? I'm having your car towed away for illegal parking. ③ W : I bought this computer only a week ago, but it just isn't running right. M : By the way, our customers deserve friendly service every time they walk in our store. ④ W : What's your major? M : Well, I've been batting around the idea of going into business, but I haven't decided yet. 문 12. 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 표현으로 가장 적절한 것은? A : Would you like to go hiking this weekend? B : Why don't we go to the mall instead? A : But I have some new hiking gear I want to try out. B : Yes, but there's a sale at the department store. A : You always ___________________ at anything I want to do. B : It's not you. It's the outdoors. I hate it. I prefer air-conditioned stores instead. ① turn your nose up ② hold my hand ③ put your feet up ④ let your hair down ※ 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 가장 적절한 것은? [문 13 ～ 문 15] 문 13. Written and spoken texts have certain things in common: A person who wants something done uses language to get it done. The types of language that the speaker and the writer use, however, are different because distinct social activities are involved in the two types of texts. In the written text, wherein the writer has never met and will probably never meet the readers, the communication is one-way and consists to a large extent of neutral formulae. Thus, a distant and formal tone is appropriate for this kind of conventional exchange. ____________, the communication in the spoken text is a two-way process in which the interlocutors are necessarily engaged in some kind of personal interaction and thus a different type of language behavior is used to maintain a relationship. ① Meanwhile ② Similarly ③ Therefore ④ Otherwise 문 14. The simplest and most basic meaning of the symbol of Goddess is the acknowledgement of the legitimacy of female power as a beneficent and independent power. A woman who echoes Ntosake Shange's dramatic statement, "I found God in myself and I loved her fiercely," is saying "Female power is strong and creative." She is saying that the divine principle, the saving and sustaining power, is in herself, that she will no longer look to men or male figures as saviors. The strength and independence of female can be intuited by contemplating ancient and modern images of the Goddess. This meaning of the symbol of Goddess is simple and obvious, and yet it is difficult for many to comprehend. It stands ________________ to the paradigms of female dependence on males that have been predominant in Western religion and culture. ① in sharp contrast ② in passive obedience ③ at perfect ease ④ on its own 문 15. The globalization is a bit different. It has also one overarching feature ⎯ integration. The world has become an increasingly interwoven place, and today, whether you are a company or a country, your threats and opportunities increasingly derive from who you are connected to. This globalization system is also characterized by a single word: the Web. So in the broadest sense we have gone to a system increasingly built around integration and webs. This leads to many other differences between the globalization system and the Cold War system. The globalization system, unlike the Cold War system, is not frozen, but a dynamic ongoing process. That's why I define globalization this way: it is the inexorable _______________ of markets, nation-states and technologies to a degree never witnessed before ⎯ in a way that is enabling the world to reach into individuals, corporations and nation-states farther, faster, deeper than ever before. ① obliteration ② segregation ③ integration ④ perpetration 문 16. Katrina 이전의 모습으로 New Orleans를 재건하려는 것에 대한 필자의 시각은? Residences and decision-making alike must move to higher ground regarding the future of New Orleans. Cool pragmatism must prevail over emotional attachment to place. Those who expect a return to pre-Katrina New Orleans life are selfishly myopic. Not only were residents' lives devastated by the tragedy, but emotional and other costs were also borne by families, friends, and fellow citizens throughout the country. Rescue workers put their lives and health in harm's way. Taxpayers bore the costs of the devastation and will be required to do so once again, inevitably. To rebuild the residential life of New Orleans is nothing less than reckless endangerment. ① affirmative ② optimistic ③ indifferent ④ negative 영 어 인 책형 3 쪽 문 17. 다음 글에 나타난 Dr. Westhoff의 생각과 일치하는 것은? The new study, being published Monday in The American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, finds that pregnant women who consume 200 milligrams or more of caffeine a day ⎯ the amount in 10 ounces of coffee or 25 ounces of tea ⎯ may double their risk of miscarriage. However, Dr. Carolyn Westhoff, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology, and epidemiology, at Columbia University Medical Center, had reservations about the study, noting that miscarriage is difficult to study or explain. Dr. Westhoff said most miscarriages resulted from chromosomal abnormalities, and there was no evidence that caffeine could cause those problems. "I think we tend to go overboard on saying expose your body to zero anything when pregnant. The human race wouldn't have succeeded if the early pregnancy was so vulnerable to a little bit of anything. We're more robust than that." ① Caffeine could cause chromosomal abnormalities, which eventually result in miscarriages. ② The early pregnancy is very vulnerable to even a little caffeine. ③ You should expose your body to zero caffeine when pregnant. ④ Most miscarriages are caused by chromosomal abnormalities. 문 18. 다음 글의 내용과 일치하는 것은? Using biofuels made from corn, sugar cane and soy could have a greater environmental impact than burning fossil fuels, according to experts. Although the biofuels themselves emit fewer greenhouse gases, they all have higher costs in terms of biodiversity loss and destruction of farmland. The problems of climate change and the rising cost of oil have led to a race to develop environmentally-friendly biofuels, such as palm oil or ethanol derived from corn and sugar cane. The EU has proposed that 10 % of all fuel used in transport should come from biofuels by 2020 and the emerging global market is expected to be worth billions of dollars a year. ① Fossil fuels have higher costs than biofuels in terms of biodiversity loss. ② Climate change has no bearing on the development of biofuels. ③ About 10 percent of all European cars should use biofuels by 2020. ④ Ethanol is one of the environmentally-friendly biofuels. 문 19. 동물들이 단조로움을 극복하기 위해 하는 행동이 아닌 것은? Observations have revealed that there are probably four main ways in which animals in confined spaces try to overcome their monotony. The first is to invent new motor patterns for themselves such as new exercises and gymnastics. They may also try to increase the complexity of their environment by creating new stimulus situations: many carnivores play with their food as though it were a living animal. Alternatively the animal may increase the quantity of its reaction to normal stimuli. Hypersexuality is one common response to this type of behavior. Finally, they may increase the variability of their response to stimuli such as food. Many animals can be seen playing, pawing, advancing, and retreating from their food before eating it. These observations of caged animals lead us to think how far studies of this sort can throw light on human behavior under similar conditions. ① Animals may increase the variety of their motor patterns. ② Animals may increase the quality of their reaction to stimuli. ③ Animals may increase the variability of their response to stimuli. ④ Animals may increase the complexity of their environment. 문 20. 다음 글의 내용과 일치하지 않는 것은? The fall of the Soviet Union has given Vietnam a practical usefulness to the U.S. that it never had during a war in which fifty-eight thousand American soldiers died. The Soviet Union's collapse has created a power vacuum in East Asia. The American withdrawal from the Philippines and the decrease of the U.S. military because of the end of the Cold War and economic troubles at home are also partially responsible for this power vacuum. This could be more of an illusion than reality because the U.S. still maintains both the air and naval capability to assert itself in East Asia. However, this illusion is very powerful and the Chinese have begun to perceive it. The Chinese are intent on filling the vacuum. In order to curb Chinese regional ambitions, the U.S. must strive to lift the economic embargo, open diplomatic relations, and support the cause of economic reform in Vietnam. The Vietnamese believe that the more involved American business is in Vietnam, the more China will be discouraged to invade them. The constant threat from and fear of China encourages the Vietnamese to make peace with the U.S. ① The power vacuum is partly attributable to the dissolution of the Soviet Union. ② The end of the Cold War has resulted in the decrease of the U.S. military. ③ China remains a constant threat to the Vietnamese. ④ The power vacuum has led to economic troubles in the U.S.
영어-인.pdf 영어-재.pdf 2013 국가직 9급 영어 해설 강수정.pdf 2013 국가직 9급 영어 해설 김소영.hwp 2013 국가직 9급 영어 해설 김정연.pdf 2013 국가직 9급 영어 해설 김정호.pdf 2013 국가직 9급 영어 해설 박두일.pdf 2013 국가직 9급 영어 해설 박지나.pdf 2013 국가직 9급 영어 해설 손진숙.pdf 2013 국가직 9급 영어 해설 심상대.pdf 2013 국가직 9급 영어 해설 양재성.pdf 2013 국가직 9급 영어 해설 윤상원.hwp 2013 국가직 9급 영어 해설 이동기.pdf 2013 국가직 9급 영어 해설 이리라.pdf 2013 국가직 9급 영어 해설 이재훈.pdf 2013 국가직 9급 영어 해설 제석강.pdf 2013 국가직 9급 영어 해설 최영준.pdf 2013 국가직 9급 영어 해설 최종수.pdf 2013 국가직 9급 영어 해설 한덕현.pdf 2013 국가직 9급 영어 해설 헤더진.pdf 영 어 인 책형 1 쪽 영 어 ※ 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. [문 1 ～ 문 2] 문 1. Visaokay assists the Australian travel industry, corporations and government, and individuals by ___________ the entire visa advice and visa issuance process. Visaokay minimizes the complexity and time delays associated with applying for and obtaining travel visas. ① appreciating ② aggravating ③ meditating ④ facilitating 문 2. Given our awesome capacities for rationalization and self -deception, most of us are going to measure ourselves _________ : I was honest with that blind passenger because I’m a wonder person. I cheated the sighted one because she probably has too much money anyway. ① harshly ② leniently ③ honestly ④ thankfully ※ 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 표현으로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. [문 3～문 4] 문 3. A : Look at this letter. B : Ah yes, I thought it was something official looking. You're being fined for exceeding the speed limit, it says. Why weren't you fined on the spot? A : _____________________________________________. B : They're installing more and more of them around here. You're going to have to be more careful in future. A : You're not kidding. The fine is $60. ① Because the spot was too busy to be fined ② Because I could not find any camera to take it ③ Because I already paid for it when I was fined ④ Because I was photographed by one of speed cameras 문 4. Tom : Frankly, I don't think my new boss knows what he is doing. Jack : He is young, Tom. You have to give him a chance. Tom : How many chances do I have to give him? He's actually doing terribly. Jack : _________________________________. Tom : What? Where? Jack : Over there. Your new boss just turned around the corner. ① Speak of the devil ② I wish you good luck ③ Keep up the good work ④ Money makes the mare go 문 5. 어법상 옳은 것은? ① Few living things are linked together as intimately than bees and flowers. ② My father would not company us to the place where they were staying, but insisted on me going. ③ The situation in Iraq looked so serious that it seemed as if the Third World War might break out at any time. ④ According to a recent report, the number of sugar that Americans consume does not vary significantly from year to year. 문 6. 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 옳지 않은 것은? Noise pollution ①is different from other forms of pollution in ② a number of ways. Noise is transient: once the pollution stops, the environment is free of it. This is not the case with air pollution, for example. We can measure the amount of chemicals ③ introduced into the air, ④ whereas is extremely difficult to monitor cumulative exposure to noise. 문 7. 우리말을 영어로 잘못 옮긴 것은? ① 나이가 들어가면 들어갈수록 그만큼 더 외국어 공부하기가 어려워진다. → The older you grow, the more difficult it becomes to learn a foreign language. ② 우리가 가지고 있는 학식이란 기껏해야 우리가 모르고 있는 것과 비교할 때 지극히 작은 것이다. → The learning and knowledge that we have is at the least but little compared with that of which we are ignorant. ③ 인생의 비밀은 좋아하는 것을 하는 것이 아니라 해야 할 것을 좋아하도록 시도하는 것이다. → The secret of life is not to do what one likes, but to try to like what one has to do. ④ 이 세상에서 당신이 소유하고 있는 것은 당신이 죽을 때 다른 누군가에게 가지만, 당신의 인격은 영원히 당신의 것일 것이다. → What you possess in this world will go to someone else when you die, but your personality will be yours forever. 문 8. 우리말을 영어로 옮긴 것으로 가장 적절한 것은? ① 그들이 10년간 살았던 집이 폭풍에 심하게 손상되었다. → The house which they have lived for 10 years badly damaged by the storm. ② 수학 시험에 실패했을 때에서야 그는 공부를 열심히 하기로 결심했다. → It was not until when he failed the math test that he decided to study hard. ③ 냉장고에 먹을 것이 하나도 남아있지 않아서, 어젯밤에 우리는 외식을 해야 했다. → We had nothing to eat left in the refrigerator, we had to eat out last night. ④ 우리는 운이 좋게도 그랜드캐넌을 방문했는데, 거기에는 경치가 아름다운 곳이 많다. → We were enough fortunate to visit the Grand Canyon, that has much beautiful landscape. 문 9. 밑줄 친 ㉠과 ㉡에 공통으로 들어갈 가장 적절한 것은? ○ In Korea, the eldest son tends to ㉠ a lot of responsibility. ○ The same words ㉡ different meaning when said in different ways. ① take over ② take down ③ take on ④ take off 문 10. 밑줄 친 표현과 의미가 가장 가까운 것은? We need to iron out a few problems first. ① conceive ② review ③ solve ④ pose 영 어 인 책형 2 쪽 문 11. 주어진 글 다음에 이어질 글의 순서로 가장 적절한 것은? Year after year, a survey sponsored by Scotland's Centre for European Labour Market Research finds the same thing: If you want to be happy in life, be happy in your job. Okay, but what will make me happy in my job? Some researchers at the University of British Columbia in Canada have come up with an interesting way quantifying the seemingly unquantifiable. (A) For example, trust in management—by far the biggest component of job satisfaction—is worth as much in your overall happiness as a very substantial raise. Say you get a new boss and your trust in your workplace's management goes up a bit. (B) By analyzing life-satisfaction surveys that consider four key factors in job satisfaction, they have figured out how much each is worth when compared with salary increases. (C) Even that small increase in trust is like getting a thirty six percent pay raise, the researchers calculate. In other words, that will boost your level of overall satisfaction in life by about the same amount as a thirty six percent raise would. ① (A) － (B) － (C) ② (B) － (A) － (C) ③ (C) － (A) － (B) ④ (C) － (B) － (A) ※ 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. [문 12 ～ 문 14] 문 12. It can sometimes feel as if South Korea, overworked, overstressed and ever anxious, is ____________ a national nervous breakdown, with a rising divorce rate, students who feel suffocated by academic pressures, a suicide rate among the highest in the world and a macho corporate culture that still encourages blackout drinking sessions after work. More than 30 Koreans kill themselves everyday, and the suicides of entertainers, politicians, athletes and business leaders have become almost commonplace. ① by virtue of ② as opposed to ③ in favor of ④ on the verge of 문 13. Strategic thinking can make a positive impact on any area of life. The first step in strategic thinking is to _____________________________________ so that you can focus on it more effectively. That's what automotive innovator Henry Ford did when he created the assembly line, and that's why he said, "Nothing is particularly hard if you divide it into small jobs." He also said, "Only one person in a million can juggle the whole things at the same time and think strategically to create solid, valid plans." He is well known for his habit of splitting tasks. Right before the beginning of each weekday, he would think about daily issues, prioritizing the issues for the weekday. He made a rule to deal with the issues only allotted for the day. ① make a habit of taking notes ② break down an issue smaller ③ deal with daily tasks without delay ④ think twice before setting to a work 문 14. You as the parent must try to read their crying to be able to help them. This will also help you assess your children's perception of your discipline. In many cases, when a child feels that he has been punished wrongly, it is more difficult to console him. He cried pathetically. Others may receive the punishment in a defiant mood. ________________, when a child feels guilty and he is not punished or assured of forgiveness, he is likely to feel insecure and timid. In such a case when punished they may cry but quickly compose themselves and seek to attract love from the parent. Children usually want the crisp and clean punishment followed by fellowship rather than living with uncertainty. ① As a result ② For example ③ In other words ④ On the other hand ※ 주어진 글의 주제로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. [문 15 ～ 문 16] 문 15. The space shuttle Challenger had just taken off for its tenth flight in January 1986 when it exploded in the air and killed all seven people inside. Millions of people around the world were watching the liftoff because schoolteacher Christa McAuliffe was on board. McAuliffe, who had been chosen to be the first teacher in space, was planning to broadcast lessons directly to schools from the shuttle's orbit around Earth. This Challenger disaster led NASA to stop all space shuttle missions for nearly three years while they looked for the cause of the explosion and fixed the problem. They soon discovered that the shuttle had a faulty seal on one of the rocket boosters. Unfortunately, the teacher-in-space program was indefinitely put on hold. So were NASA's plans to send musicians, journalists, and artists to space. ① Schoolteacher Christa McAuliffe's pioneering participation in the space program ② The reason why the American space program was put on hold ③ The importance of the space research and training of astronauts ④ A satire on the unsuccessful or tragic space missions 문 16. A team of researchers has found that immunizing patients with bee venom instead of with the bee's crushed bodies can better prevent serious and sometimes fatal sting reactions in the more than one million Americans who are hypersensitive to bee stings. The crushed-body treatment has been standard for fifty years, but a report released recently said that it was ineffective. The serum made from the crushed bodies of bees produced more adverse reactions than the injections of the venom did. The research compared results of the crushed-body treatment with results of immunotherapy that used insect venom and also with results of a placebo. After six to ten weeks of immunization, allergic reactions to stings occurred in seven of twelve patients treated with the placebo, seven of twelve treated with crushed-body extract, and one of eighteen treated with the venom. ① A new treatment for people allergic to bee stings ② A more effective method of preventing bee stings ③ The use of placebos in treating hypersensitive patients ④ Bee venom causing fatal reactions in hypersensitive patients 영 어 인 책형 3 쪽 문 17. 다음 글을 요약한 문장에서 빈칸 ㉠, ㉡에 들어갈 가장 적절한 것은? Look at the following list of numbers: 4, 8, 5, 3, 9, 7, 6. Read them out loud and memorize that sequence. If you speak English, you have about a 50 percent chance of remembering that perfectly. If you're Chinese, though, you're almost certain to get it right every time. This is because pronouncing them in Chinese takes shorter time. In addition, the number－naming systems are in Western and Asian languages. In English, for example, they say fourteen and sixteen, so one might expect that they would also say oneteen and twoteen. But they don't. The number system in English is irregular. In contrast, Asians have logical counting systems. Those differences mean that Asian children learn to count much faster and perform basic functions better than Western children. ⇩ Being good at ㉠ may be rooted in the different ㉡ systems. ㉠ ㉡ ① pronunciations counting ② mathematics language ③ languages name ④ logic culture 문 18. 다음 글의 요지로 가장 적절한 것은? It's long been part of folk wisdom that birth order strongly affects personality, intelligence and achievement. However, most of the research claiming that firstborns are radically different from other children has been discredited, and it now seems that any effects of birth order on intelligence or personality will likely be washed out by all the other influences in a person's life. In fact, the belief in the permanent impact of birth order, according to Toni Falbo, a social psychologist at the University of Texas at Austin, comes from the psychological theory that your personality is fixed by the time you're six. That assumption simply is incorrect. The better, later and larger studies are less likely to find birth order a useful predictor of anything. When two Swiss social scientists, Cecile Ernst and Jules Angst, reviewed 1,500 studies a few years ago they concluded that "birth order differences in personality are nonexistent in our sample. In particular, there is no evidence for a firstborn personality." ① A firstborn child is kind to other people. ② Birth order influences a person's intelligence. ③ An elder brother's personality is different from that of his younger brother. ④ Birth order has nothing to do with personality. 문 19. 다음 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은? Late one night, Catherine Ryan Hyde was driving in Los Angeles. In a dangerous neighborhood, her car caught on fire. She got out. Three men ran toward her. She immediately felt afraid of them. They didn't hurt her, though. They put out the fire and called the fire department. When she turned to thank them, they were gone. Years later, that event became the subject of her novel called Pay It Forward. She never forgot that event. In the book, a teacher asks his students to "think of an idea for world change and put it into action." A boy named Trevor suggested doing kind acts for others. They used his ideas. Trevor's idea works like this. Someone chooses three people and does something nice for each one. In return, the recipients of that favor must do favors for three more people. In 2000, the novel inspired a movie. ① The Kindness of Strangers ② A Trauma in Early Childhood ③ A Movie which Influences Real Life ④ An Unintended Violation of Someone's Idea 문 20. 주어진 문장이 들어갈 위치로 가장 적절한 것은? He knew, though, he would never become an Olympic runner, so he looked for other sports that he could play. Many people have faced great obstacles in their lives but have found ways to overcome and actually benefit from these obstacles. For example, Greg Barton, the 1984, 1988, and 1992 U.S. Olympic medalist in kayaking, was born with a serious disability. ( A ) He had deformed feet, his toes pointed inward, and as a result, he could not walk easily. Even after a series of operations, he still had limited mobility. ( B ) Even so, Greg was never defeated. First, he taught himself to walk, and even to run. Then, he competed in his high school running team. ( C ) Happily, he discovered kayaking, a perfect sport for him because it required minimal leg and foot muscles. Using his upper body strength, he was able to master the sport. ( D ) Finally, after many years of training and perseverance, Greg made the 1984 Olympic team. ① A ② B ③ C ④ D
2013년-8급-영어(가형).pdf 2013 국회직 8급 영어 해설 김정연.pdf 2013 국회직 8급 영어 해설 심상대.pdf 2013년도 8급 공개경쟁채용시험 영 어 책형 가 - 1 - 영 어 1. Which of the following is a correct statement? The development of individual characters in the epic is apparent in the readiness and resistance with which they meet the directives of fate. Juno and Turnus both fight destiny every step of the way, and so the epic's final resolution involves a transformation in each of them, as a result of which they resign themselves to fate and allow the story, at last, to arrive at its destined end. Dido desires Aeneas, whom fate denies her, and her desire consumes her. Aeneas preserves his sanity, as well as his own life and those of his men, by subordinating his own anxieties and desires to the demands of fate and the rules of piety. Fate, to Virgil's Roman audience, is a divine, religious principle that determines the course of history and has culminated in the Roman Empire. ① The power of the gods stands above the power of fate. ② Aeneas eventually arrives at his destined end, Dido. ③ Often the fate is associated with the strong will of heroes. ④ Dido loses the support of Carthage's citizens and is dethroned. ⑤ The direction and destination of Aeneas's course are preordained. 2. Which of the following best completes the blank? In 1857, Alfred Russell Wallace sent Darwin a paper regarding the evolution of species. Wallace's theory was very similar to Darwin's. Wallace's paper and a sketch of Darwin's theory were presented at the Linnean Society. Darwin decided to produce an "abstract" of a longer book on evolution that he was working on, ___________ let anyone else take credit for an idea he had been developing for more than twenty years. ① so Wallace ② so as not to ③ so that he ④ if not to ⑤ in order to ※ [3～4] Read the following passage and answer the questions. Fitzgerald portrays the 1920s as an era of decayed social and moral values, evidenced in its overarching cynicism, greed, and empty pursuit of pleasure. The reckless jubilance that led to decadent parties and wild jazz music resulted ultimately in the corruption of the American dream, as the unrestrained desire for money and pleasure surpassed more noble goals. When World War Ⅰ ended in 1918, the generation of young Americans who had fought the war became intensely disillusioned, as the brutal carnage that they had just faced made the Victorian social morality of early-twentieth-century America seem like stuffy, empty hypocrisy. The dizzying rise of the stock market in the aftermath of the war led to a sudden, sustained increase in the national wealth and a newfound materialism, as people began to spend and consume at unprecedented levels. A person from any social background could, potentially, make a fortune, but the American aristocracy―families with old wealth―scorned the newly rich industrialists and speculators. 3. Which of the following is an incorrect statement? ① After World War Ⅰ, Americans enjoyed unprecedented prosperity. ② People's scramble for wealth was the consequence of the postwar economic boom. ③ There were clashes between "old money" and "new money." ④ World War Ⅰ veterans had a deep trust in the Victorian social morality. ⑤ After World War Ⅰ, young Americans did not believe in social and moral values. 4. Choose the one that best represents the meaning of American dream in the passage? ① An attitude of overarching cynicism. ② The passionate life with the unrestrained desire for money and pleasure. ③ The belief that a person from any social background could make a fortune in a fair way. ④ Americans' ability to spend and consume as much as they want. ⑤ The ethos of American aristocracy scorning the newly rich industrialists. 2013년도 8급 공개경쟁채용시험 영 어 책형 가 - 2 - 5. Which of the following is the most logical sequence of the three parts to complete the passage? The third major block to creative problem-solving lies in the assumption of a fixed pie: the less for you, the more for me. Rarely if ever is this assumption true. First of all, both sides can always be worse off than they are now. (A) This may take the form of developing a mutually advantageous relationship, or of satisfying the interests of each side with a creative solution. (B) Chess looks like a zero-sum game; if one loses, the other wins ― until a dog trots by and knocks over the table, spills the beer, and leaves you both worse off than before. (C) Even apart from a shared interest in averting joint loss, there almost always exists the possibility of joint gain. ① A - B - C ② A - C - B ③ B - A - C ④ B - C - A ⑤ C - B - A 6. Choose the underlined part that is not grammatically correct. In 2012, the 24-year-old set out to become the youngest Israeli to summit Mount Everest, with five years of ice climbing and three years of Israel Defense Forces training under his belt. Yet none of his training prepared him for the crowds he encountered at Everest base camp 18,000 feet ①on sea level. Ben Yehuda often climbed alone and welcomed run-ins ②with other adventurous souls, but there he found hundreds of people at the base of the world's highest peak. "It was like looking at the Woodstock festival," he said. "I saw all of those tents and I thought, 'Is it possible that all of the ice climbers in the world are here?'" With 10 deaths last year, the third-deadliest Everest climbing season on record, questions are being raised ③about the safety of granting government permits to so many climbers. ④Until the late 1970s, only a handful of climbers reached the top each year. The number topped 100 ⑤for the first time in 1993. By 2004, it was more than 300. Last year? More than 500. 7. Which of the following is not a reason that Dr. Matt and her team make a woman run on a treadmill? Without at least a minimal amount of stress to give us energy, we could not get through the day. However, a very stressful lifestyle can have a negative effect on our bodies. Dr. Kathy Matt and her colleagues are investigating what stress does to a body, and proving that stress is not just psychological, but physiological as well. When our body experiences physical stress, it produces two hormones that give us energy: adrenaline and cortisol. It also produces them in cases of psychological stress. Dr. Matt and her team have assembled a series of tests to show the effects of stress on the body. While running on a treadmill, the woman's body releases a lot of stress hormones, but she's also exploiting every bit of energy they create. However, when she is stressed psychologically instead of physically, the same hormones are created. The problem is that the type of energy they provide is not compatible with the situation of test-taking at a desk, because the physical energy cannot be used. Too much cortisol erodes the bones, weakening them and making them more likely to break. This could create problems that have an impact on longevity, perhaps taking years off a person's life. Therefore, it is important to exercise regularly. Putting the body through the stress of exercise is one way to relieve psychological stress, thereby preventing its harmful effects. And, it keeps a body lean by burning off extra calories, too! ① to test the effects of stress on human body ② to make her body experience physical stress ③ to make her body produce stress hormones ④ to make her body psychologically stressed ⑤ to examine stress hormones changing to energy 8. Choose the one that is most opposite in meaning to the underlined part. His vigorous denunciation of Utopian cosmopolitanism prevents his being considered an internationalist. ① loath ② enigma ③ virulency ④ trepidation ⑤ panegyric 2013년도 8급 공개경쟁채용시험 영 어 책형 가 - 3 - 9. Which of the following is the best title for the passage? The Government of the United States had long stated that democracy was one of the cornerstones of U.S. society, and therefore also that support for democracy should be reflected in U.S. foreign policy. But following the Second World War, dictatorships of various types continued to hold power over many of the world's most strategically and economically important regions. Many of these dictatorships were pro-capitalist, consistent with at least some U.S. ideological goals; thus the United States would form alliances with certain dictators, believing them to be the closest thing their respective nations had to a legitimate government ― and in any case much better than the alternative of a communist revolution in those nations. This struggle posed a question: if the end result was, in any realistic case, destined to be a dictatorship, should the U.S. not try to align itself with the dictator who will best serve American interests and oppose the Soviets? ① "The more the better" principle ② "Lesser of two evils" principle ③ Democracy or capitalism principle ④ Democracy or communist revolution principle ⑤ "Take it or leave it" principle 10. Which of the following best completes the blanks (A) and (B)? So now we must set ourselves very seriously to finding this gentleman, and (A) what part he has played in this little mystery. To do this, we must try the simplest means first, and these lie undoubtedly in an advertisement in all the evening papers. If this fails, I shall have (B) to other methods. (A) (B) ① abetting ― resort ② relaying ― aversion ③ underpinning ― reply ④ determining ― reliance ⑤ ascertaining ― recourse 11. Which of the following is a correct statement? One of the most well-known postmodernist concerns is "deconstruction," a concern for philosophy, literary criticism, and textual analysis developed by Jacques Derrida. The notion of a "deconstructive" approach implies an analysis that questions the already evident structure of a text in terms of presuppositions, ideological underpinnings, hierarchical values, and frames of reference. A deconstructive approach further depends on the techniques of close reading without reference to cultural, ideological, moral opinions or information derived from an authority over the text such as the author. Derrida implies that the world follows the grammar of a text undergoing its own deconstruction. Derrida's method frequently involves recognizing and destroying the structure of the meaning of a given text and the problematic implications of binary oppositions within the meaning of a text. ① In literary criticism, deconstruction is a reading strategy that Jacques Derrida proved valueless. ② It is possible to use deconstruction as a critical reading of a literary text only. ③ Deconstruction destroys the structure of the totalizing meaning of a given text. ④ Deconstruction denies postmodern mode of literary writing and reading. ⑤ Deconstruction is a reading of society and world in general, and it employs the events that occurred only in the past. 12. Choose the underlined part that is not grammatically correct. Nearly two years ago, when Obama administration officials ①were just beginning a search for a successor to FBI Director Robert Mueller, James Comey was on the short list. ②His broad law enforcement experience was a biography that all but spoke for itself. ③But that some analysts say makes him the ideal choice now, just as the White House and Justice Department ④are entangled in a series of national security controversies, ⑤is an unusual brand of independence rooted in his role as a former appointee of the George W. Bush administration. 2013년도 8급 공개경쟁채용시험 영 어 책형 가 - 4 - 13. Which of the following best completes the blanks (A) and (B)? Basho's masterpiece begins, "Each day is a journey, and the journey itself home." His words are on my mind (A) I prepare to walk in the footsteps of this great poet, along his narrow road he followed through Japan over 300 years ago. I, too, have brought writing materials and will keep a journal of my impression along the way. In the centuries (B) his death, Basho has become many things to many people ― wise man, outsider artist, wanderer, and above all, a great poet. (A) (B) ① if ― after ② as ― since ③ when ― owing to ④ because ― despite ⑤ although ― since 14. Which of the following best completes the blank? The controversy over baseball star Mark McGwire's use of two performance-enhancing drugs has been largely swept aside by the American media after the National League and McGwire's St. Louis Cardinals declared that the substances were legal, over-the-counter diet supplements whose use did not violate league rules. But the main issue is not the legality of the drugs, creatine and androstenedione, or whether they gave McGwire an unfair advantage, but the long-term health risks which the home run hitter is taking as he pursues the record of 61 home runs set by Roger Maris in 1961. The Association of Professional Team Physicians, whose members work as team doctors in baseball and several other U.S. sports, has recommended that androstenedione be taken off the over-the-counter market and banned from all professional sports. A statement from the group notes that androstenedione is chemically a steroid, and that its long-term complications include acne, breast enlargement, personality disorders, and liver and heart problems. Under the profit system, however, such risks are __________ by the enormous financial windfall which the owners and media bosses are reaping from the record-breaking home run pace set by McGwire. McGwire has played before sold-out crowds in every stadium around the league. ① dwarfed ② augmented ③ ennobled ④ underscored ⑤ rightly emphasized 15. The passage implies that modern man tends to prefer _____ _____________ . We still have, in short, all the weapons in the arsenal of satire: the rapier of wit, the broadsword of invective, the stiletto of parody, the Damoclean swords of sarcasm and irony. Their cutting edges are bright and sharp; they glisten with barbs guaranteed to stick and stay stuck in the thickest hide, or stab the most inflated Polonius in the arras. Yet though they hang well-oiled and ready to our hands, we tend to use them separately and gingerly. We are afraid of hurting someone's feelings or of being hurt in a return bout. We tremble at the prospect of treading on someone's moral corns. We are too full of the milquetoast of human kindness. We always see the Other Side of the Case, always remember that our Victim may have a Mom who loves him, always fear that we may be setting him back a few hundred hours in his psychiatric progress toward the Terrestrial City of Perfect Readjustment. Oh, yes. We poke and pry a bit. We pin an errant butterfly to a board or two. But for real lessons in the ungentlest of the arts we must turn back to the older masters. ① material wealth ② literary allusions ③ a spirit of satire ④ a feeling of aggressiveness ⑤ a sense of security 16. Which of the following is the most logical sequence of the four parts to complete the passage? (A) In the case of microwave ovens, the commonly used wave frequency is roughly 2,450 megahertz. (B) These waves boast another interesting, related property, too: They're not absorbed by most plastics, glass or ceramics. Metal reflects microwaves, which is why metal pans don't work well in a microwave oven. It's also why the devices have metal walls ― for reflection. (C) Waves in this frequency range have an interesting property: They're absorbed by water, fats and sugars. Once absorbed, they're converted directly into atomic motion ― heat. (D) Not surprisingly, a microwave oven uses microwaves to heat food. Microwaves are a type of wave that are sandwiched between radio waves and infrared radiation on the electromagnetic spectrum. ① A - B - D - C ② C - B - A - D ③ C - D - A - B ④ D - A - C - B ⑤ D - B - A - C 2013년도 8급 공개경쟁채용시험 영 어 책형 가 - 5 - 17. Which of the following is the best title for the passage? Schwartz discusses the significance of common research methods that utilize a Happiness Scale. He sides with the opinion of psychologists David Myers and Robert Lane, who independently conclude that the current abundance of choice often leads to depression and feelings of loneliness. Schwartz draws particular attention to Lane's assertion that Americans are paying for increased affluence and freedom with a substantial decrease in the quality and quantity of community. What was once given by family, neighborhood and workplace now must be achieved and actively cultivated on an individual basis. The social fabric is no longer a birthright but has become a series of deliberated and demanding choices. Schwartz also discusses happiness with specific products. For example, he cites a study by Sheena Iyengar of Columbia University and Mark Lepper of Stanford University who found that when participants were faced with a smaller rather than larger array of chocolates, they were actually more satisfied with their tasting. ① Utility of decisions ② American affluence ③ Paradox of choice ④ Happiness Scale ⑤ Freedom of choice 18. The underlined clause if at all in the end may be reduced from ____________________________________________ . Some wine labels suggest opening the bottle and letting the wine "breathe" for a couple of hours before serving, while others recommend drinking it immediately. Decanting (the act of pouring a wine into a special container just for breathing) is a controversial subject among wine enthusiasts. In addition to aeration, decanting with a filter allows the removal of bitter sediments that may have formed in the wine. Sediment is more common in older bottles, but aeration may benefit younger wines. During aeration, a younger wine's exposure to air often "relaxes" the drink, making it smoother and better integrated in aroma, texture, and flavor. Older wines generally "fade" (lose their character and flavor intensity) with extended aeration. Despite these general rules, breathing does not necessarily benefit all wines. Wine may be tasted as soon as the bottle is opened to determine how long it should be aerated, if at all. ① if you plan to immediately taste the wine at all ② if you actually allow to aerate the wine at all ③ if you determine the quality of wine at all ④ if you prefer older wines to younger wines at all ⑤ if you believe in extended aeration for older wines at all 19. Choose the underlined part that is not grammatically correct. The National Assembly on Tuesday passed a supplementary budget bill aimed at jump-starting the economy ①that has been lost steam in the face of tough economic conditions at home and abroad. ②After a three-week tug-of-war between the ruling and opposition parties, Parliament gave the nod to the 17.3 trillion won extra budget in a 130-69 vote, ③with 27 blank ballots. The government submitted the bill on April 18. Of the total, the amount of 12 trillion won ④has been set aside to fill the government's expected revenue shortfalls, while the remaining 5.3 trillion won has been allocated for spending to stimulate the economy. It is the second-largest supplementary budget in the country's history. In 2008, the government drew up a record extra budget of 28.4 trillion won ⑤to cushion the impact of the global financial crisis. 20. Choose the one that is most opposite in meaning to the underlined part. The marathoner did not realize that the pinnacle of her running career would not be reached until after her fortieth birthday. ① acme ② nadir ③ apex ④ neophyte ⑤ culmination 21. Which of the following best completes the blanks (A) and (B)? Somewhere between these extremes is the United States. Initially, the 2009 stimulus package shored up the safety net. But there are warning signs that health trends are (A) . Prescriptions for antidepressants have soared. Three-quarters of a million people (particularly out-of-work young men) have turned to binge drinking. Over five million Americans lost access to health care in the recession because they lost their jobs. Preventive medical visits (B) as people delayed medical care and ended up in emergency rooms. (A) (B) ① intact ― increased ② worsening ― rose ③ worsening ― dropped ④ improving ― rose ⑤ improving ― dropped 2013년도 8급 공개경쟁채용시험 영 어 책형 가 - 6 - ※ [22-23] Read the following passage and answer the questions. Antibacterial hand sanitizers are marketed to the public as an effective way to "wash one's hands" when traditional soap and water are not available. These "waterless" products are particularly popular with parents of small children. Manufacturers of hand sanitizers claim that the sanitizers kill 99.9 percent of germs. Since you naturally use hand sanitizers to cleanse your hands, the assumption is that 99.9 percent of harmful germs are killed by the sanitizers. Recent research suggests that this is not the case. Hand sanitizers work by stripping away the outer layer of oil on the skin. This usually prevents bacteria present in the body from coming to the surface of the hand. However, these bacteria that are normally present in the body are generally not the kinds of bacteria that will make us sick. In a review of the research, Barbara Almanza, an associate professor at Purdue University who teaches safe sanitation practices to workers, came to an interesting conclusion. (A) The manufacturers of the products test the products on inanimate surfaces hence they are able to derive the claims of 99.9 percent of bacteria killed. If the products were fully tested on hands, there would no doubt be different results. (B) She notes that the research shows that hand sanitizers do not significantly reduce the number of bacteria on the hand and in some cases may potentially increase the amount of bacteria on the hand. (C) So the question arises: how can the manufacturers make the 99.9 percent claim? (D) The Food and Drug Administration, in regards to regulations concerning proper procedures for food services, recommends that hand sanitizers not be used in place of soap and water but only as an adjunct. Likewise, Almanza recommends that to properly sanitize the hands, soap and water should be used. A hand sanitizer cannot and should not take the place of proper cleansing procedures with soap and water. 22. Which of the following is the best title for the passage? ① Do hand sanitizers really kill 99.9 percent of germs? ② In what respects do hand sanitizers differ from soap? ③ The most effective way of cleansing hands. ④ A new research on the functions of bacteria. ⑤ Why should we use soap and water instead of sanitizers? 23. Which of the following is the most logical sequence of the four parts to complete the passage? ① A - C - D - B ② B - C - A - D ③ B - D - C - A ④ C - A - B - D ⑤ C - B - D - A 24. Which of the following best completes the blank? There is a common lament that there are no more heroes... That perception is wrong. I have spent the last two years interviewing 51 people from 40 countries about the nature of courage. Imprisoned, tortured, threatened with death, these women and men spoke to me with compelling eloquence on the subjects to which they have devoted their lives and for which they are willing to sacrifice them ― from free expression to women's rights, from environmental defense to eradicating slavery. Among them are the internationally celebrated, including Nobel Prize laureates. But most of them are __________ beyond their national boundaries. ① trapped ② revered ③ hostile ④ eminent ⑤ unsung 25. Choose the one that is closest in meaning to the underlined part. In those private moments of play, something ordained my future and sealed my fate. As a boy, I dreamed of being either an actor or a classical guitarist; I grew up instead to become a political journalist, a job I worked hard at for a while before having the good fortune to become a golf writer. More important, at several particularly difficult moments in my life, when I drifted away from the game and even seemed to lose sight of my life's purpose, my father was always there to shepherd me back to golf, and myself. ① darkened ② improved ③ brightened ④ determined ⑤ intimidated
영어.pdf 2012 경찰 2차 영어 해설 이영신.pdf 2012 경찰 2차 영어 해설 강수정.pdf 2012 경찰 2차 영어 해설 김형섭.pdf 2012 경찰 2차 영어 해설 심상대.pdf 2012 경찰 2차 영어 해설 이리라.pdf - 3 - 1. 다음 빈 칸에 순서대로 들어갈 말로 가장 옳은 것은? ① good – good ② good – well ③ well – well ④ well – good 2. 다음 빈 칸에 순서대로 들어갈 말로 가장 옳은 것은? ① terrifying, shocked ② terrifying, shocking ③ terrified, shocked ④ terrified, shocking 3. 다음 빈 칸에 순서대로 들어갈 말로 가장 옳은 것은? ① repair - visit - talk ② repair - visiting - talked ③ repaired - visit - talk ④ repaired - visited - talk 4. 다음 글을 읽고, 주인공의 직업으로 가장 옳은 것은? ① She is a veterinarian. ② She is a dog trainer. ③ She is a pet stylist. ④ She is a shop owner. 5. 다음 빈 칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 옳은 것은? ① complex ② innate ③ mature ④ impressive 6. 다음 보기 중 밑줄 친 부분의 의미와 가장 가까운 것은? ① universal ② ordinary ③ common ④ peerless 7. 다음 빈 칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 옳은 것은? ① superficial ② aggressive ③ competitive ④ normal 8. 다음 빈 칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 옳은 것은? ① farmer ② car racer ③ sailor ④ doctor 9. 다음 빈 칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 옳은 것은? ① to reduce ② reduction ③ that reduces ④ have reduced 10. 다음 보기 중 밑줄 친 부분의 의미와 가장 가까운 것은? ① limit ② beginning ③ mobility ④ chamber 11. 다음 빈 칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 옳은 것은? ① issue ② make ③ receive ④ present 12. 다음 보기 중 밑줄 친 부분의 의미와 가장 가까운 것은? ① weak ② unassailable ③ invincible ④ impregnable ’12년 제2차 경찰공무원(순경)채용시험 문제 - 일 반 공 채 ․ 전 의 경 특 채 ․ 1 0 1경 비 단 - 【영 어】 응시번호 : 이름 : Her test scores were _______ because she did _______ on her tests. It was a really ______ experience. Afterwards everybody was extremely ______. I will have my car . My father made me my relatives. I heard the man about me. She makes the dog look cute. She offers grooming services like bathing and brushing. Much behavior of animals is ____________ : their genes determine the behavior. Every family is unique because each family's history is so different. Fear of falling is a(n) ________________ human reaction, so it's difficult not to feel fear when a person is learning how to climb a wall. Because John has a nautical bent, he wants to become a . As Sir Robert Peel, the founder of the British system of policing, explained in 1822, the basic mission for which the police exist is ________________ crime and disorder. Although Steve was young, the sudden onset of his phobia is exactly like that of many older adults. When we are involved in a car accident, we have to be prepared to __________ our driver's licence card and vehicle registration card to the police officer. A PC that is connected to the Internet via a cable modem is always vulnerable to a malicious hack attack whenever the PC is on. - 4 - 13. 다음 빈 칸에 공통으로 들어갈 단어로 가장 옳은 것은? ① frugal ② extravagant ③ luxurious ④ charitable 14. 다음 빈 칸에 들어갈 대사로 가장 옳은 것은? ① I'm afraid that I don't have enough time to go there. ② is it all right to bring my friends along? ③ what do you do when you're invited to someone's house here? ④ I want to invite many people for my birthday party. 15. 다음 빈 칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 옳은 것은? ① for a full refund ② on sale ③ in refund policy ④ sold-out 16. 다음 빈 칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 옳은 것은? ① Therefore ② For example ③ Certainly ④ Unfortunately 17. 다음 빈 칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 옳은 것은? ① association ② the press ③ business ④ religion 18. 다음 글을 읽고, 본문의 내용과 가장 일치하지 않는 것은? ① ‘콜롬보’라는 프로그램은 미국 경찰의 위선을 잘 보여주었다. ② 보통 미국에서 시민들이 접하는 경찰들은 제복을 입고 있다. ③ 미국 경찰 중에서 인종차별적 성향을 지닌 경찰들이 있다. ④ 가벼운 범죄보다 더 심각한 문제를 다루는 수사관은 보통 사복을 입는다. 【19∼20】다음 글을 읽고, 물음에 답하시오. 19. 다음 보기 중 빈 칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 옳은 것은? ① early life in Africa ② the origin of Earth in ancient times ③ the history of architecture ④ human origin 20. 본문의 내용과 가장 일치하는 것은? ① 생명은 지구의 형성과 같은 시대에 시작되었다. ② 유인원과 인류는 고대에 네 개의 다리로 걸었다. ③ 유인원과 첫 척추동물은 그 출현 시기가 각각 다르다. ④ 유인원과 인류는 치아의 개수가 다르다. Synonyms, words that have the same basic meaning, do not always have the same emotional meaning. For example, the words stingy and both mean "careful with money“. However, to call a person stingy is an insult, while the word has a much more positive connotation. Similarly, a person wants to be slender but not skinny, and aggressive but not pushy. Therefore, you should be careful in choosing words because many so-called synonyms are not really synonymous at all. A : Guess what! I just got invited to my teacher's house for dinner. B : How nice! A : Yes, but ___________________________________. B : Well, it's the custom to bring a small gift. A : Thanks for your tip. A : Would you like to go window-shopping at the mall today? B : You know we never just window-shop. One of us always picks something up that's . A : I know. At least we always hunt for bargains. B : Like the time we bought up all those cheap woolen socks! Stories from around the world are showing the dangers of video games. One report tells of a 22-year-old man killing his mother because she yelled at him for playing his video games too long. Another describes how a 32-year-old man from Seoul died after playing video games for five days and nights non-stop. These stories might seem shocking, but they are not new or uncommon in our modern society. The Korean government has proposed laws to limit playing times and treatment options for those addicted to video games. , none of these laws have passed yet into law. During colonial days, Peter Zenger printed newspaper stories that criticized the British governor of New York. For this act, Zenger was jailed and brought to trial in 1735. Zenger's lawyer successfully argued that printing the truth could not be called a crime. Zenger's innocence promoted the freedom of in North America. The members of the US police force who have most contact with the public are uniformed officers, who patrol in cars and are the first to arrive when a crime is reported. More serious crimes are investigated by detectives, who usually wear plain clothes instead of a uniform. In spite of the fact that police officers in the US wear guns, they are seen by many Americans as being honest, helpful people who work hard at a dangerous job. This is the image that has been shown in popular television programmes such as Columbo and Hill Street Blues. But in recent years it has become clear that many police officers are prejudiced against African Americans and Hispanics and that in some police forces, such as that in Los Angeles, prejudice and even violence by the police have been common. Anthropologists don't know exactly when our ancestors lived, and there are different theories, or ideas that have no clear conclusion, about our ancestors. Anthropology is the study of ___________. Anthropologists think that Earth formed five billion years ago and that life started about three billion years ago. Anthropologists say that the first animals with a spine lived 500 million years ago. We know that apes lived 33 million years ago. Apes are gorillas, chimpanzees, and other large monkeys. These apes lived in trees in Africa, had thirty-two teeth, and walked on four legs. Our ancestors also lived in Africa and had thirty-two teeth, but they were different : they walked on two legs. One theory is that our first ancestors lived three to four million years ago in Africa.
영어.pdf 2012 국회직 8급 영어 해설 심상대.pdf 2012년도 8급 공개경쟁채용시험 2교시 영 어 책형 가 - 1 - Researchers put together most of a fetus's genome using a mother's blood and father's saliva, heralding an era when parents might know much more about a child long before its birth. As consumers develop more sophisticated tastes for coffee, a shift has been observed in the countries of origin. Imports of Robusta from Vietnam, largely used for instant coffee, accounted for 13.8 percent of total amount last year, down from 34.8 percent in 2008. In contrast, imports of high-end Arabica coffee from Latin America posted huge growth. Korea imported the largest amount of coffee worth $100 million from Brazil this year, followed by Colombia ($91 million), Vietnam ($71 million), Honduras ($65 million) and Peru ($29 million). 영 어 ※ [1～2] Choose the one that is closest in meaning to the underlined part. 1. ① recalling ② depositing ③ opposing ④ revoking ⑤ foreshadowing 2. ① upmarket ② designer label ③ high profit margin ④ produced in high altitude ⑤ roasted in high temperature 3. Which of the following best completes the blanks (A) and (B)? Sub-Saharan Africa faces the problem of (A) of its resource base in an acute form. Many causes and effects have come together there to produce excessive demands on the environment, leading to expansion of the desert. Overgrazing, fuelwood gathering, and destructive cropping practices are the principal immediate causes of a series of (B) from open woodland, to scrub, to fragile semiarid range, to worthless weeds and bare earth. (A) (B) ① optimization transfers ② reclamation reactions ③ dissolution reformations ④ exhaustion transitions ⑤ disintegration improvements 4. Which of the following best completes the blank? John Elderfield, former chief curator of painting and sculpture at the Museum of Modern Art, remembers the days when scholars spoke freely about whether a particular work was genuine. They were ______________, this was their field of expertise, and a curator like Kirk Varnedoe, Mr. Elderfield’s predecessor at the Modern, would think nothing of offering his view of a drawing attributed to Rodin, his specialty. ① concierges ② philistines ③ cognoscenti ④ supervisors ⑤ dilettantes 5. Choose the underlined part that is NOT grammatically correct. Vacations were once the prerogative of the privileged few, ①even as late as the 19th century. Now they are considered the right of all, ②except for such unfortunate masses as the bulk of China's and India's population, ③for whom life, save for sleep and brief periods of rest, is uninterrupted toil. Vacations are more necessary now than before because today the average life is less well-rounded and ④become increasingly compartmentalized. I suppose the idea of vacations, as we conceive it, ⑤must be incomprehensible to primitive peoples. 6. Which of the following is the best title for this passage? In evolutionary biology, an organism is said to behave altruistically when its behaviour benefits other organisms, at a cost to itself. The costs and benefits are measured in terms of reproductive fitness, or expected number of offspring. So by behaving altruistically, an organism reduces the number of offspring it is likely to produce itself, but boosts the number that other organisms are likely to produce. This biological notion of altruism is not identical to the everyday concept. In everyday parlance, an action would only be called ‘altruistic’ if it was done with the conscious intention of helping another. But in the biological sense there is no such requirement. Indeed, some of the most interesting examples of biological altruism are found among creatures that are (presumably) not capable of conscious thought at all, e.g. insects. For the biologist, it is the consequences of an action for reproductive fitness that determine whether the action counts as altruistic, not the intentions, if any, with which the action is performed. ① Natural Selection of Darwinism ② How Animals Help Each Other ③ A New Trend in Biology ④ Evolutional Biology ⑤ Biological Altruism 2012년도 8급 공개경쟁채용시험 2교시 영 어 책형 가 - 2 - 7. Which of the following is true, according to the passage? Popular culture in Africa is a dynamic mixture of global and local influences. Kwaito, the latest craze in South Africa, sounds a lot like rap from the United States. A closer listen, however, reveals an incorporation of local rhythms, lyrics in Zulu and Xhosa, and themes about life in the postapartheid townships. Logos, Nigeria, has emerged as Africa's film capital. Referred to as Nollywood because over 500 films a year are made there, most are shot in a few days and with budgets of $10,000. These pulp movies are often criticized for being exploitive imitations of Hollywood B-movies. Yet the African movies touch on themes that resonate with Africans such as religion, ethnicity, corruption, witchcraft, and ritual killings. They can be seen all over English-speaking Africa. Recently, television viewers in Addis Ababa were able to phone in their votes for “Ethiopian Idols,” inspired by similar shows in the United Kingdom and the United States. ① Popular culture in Africa, in particular music, is unique in that it is still free from global influences. ② Despite low budgets, African films are made after a long and painstaking effort and procedure. ③ Recent African films boast of their independence from the influences from Hollywood. ④ African movies, even at a low level, have managed to reflect the themes that touch on the hearts of African people. ⑤ The recent success of “Ethiopian Idols” inspired Hollywood producers to make a movie about it. 8. Choose the most appropriate spot for the following sentence. Yet NBC may well have been right to share the package's contents with the public. Should NBC News have broadcast the videotaped tirade mailed in a package by the mass murderer, the Virginia Tech University student who shot and killed 32 people and then himself on April 16, 2007? Many said absolutely not and strongly criticized NBC for its decision. [A] There are, however, arguments that can be made in support of NBC's choice. Those who opposed the decision to air a homicidal maniac's disturbed and often incoherent ramblings accused the network of using sensational journalism to boost its ratings and profits, thereby damaging its reputation as a respected news source. [B] For two days a shocked and grieving nation had wanted to know why the man went on such a deadly rampage. [C] Letting himself reveal to the world his disturbed state of mind certainly didn't answer that question. But the broadcast did reveal the massacre to be the work of just one very sick young man. [D] Thus, to some degree, it allayed the nation's fear of terrorist and conspiratorial plots and served a useful purpose. [E] ① [A] ② [B] ③ [C] ④ [D] ⑤ [E] ※ [9～10] Read the following passage and answer the questions. (A) In a new five-year federal endeavor, the Human Microbiome Project, which has been compared to the Human Genome Project, 200 scientists at 80 institutions sequenced the genetic material of bacteria taken from nearly 250 healthy people. (B) No one really knew much about them. They are essential for human life, needed to digest food, to synthesize certain vitamins, to form a barricade against disease-causing bacteria. But what do they look like in healthy people, and how much do they vary from person to person? (C) But now researchers have taken a detailed look at another set of bacteria that may play even bigger roles in health and disease: the 100 trillion good bacteria that live in or on the human body. (D) For years, bacteria have had a bad name. They are the cause of infections, of diseases. They are something to be scrubbed away, things to be avoided. (E) They discovered more strains than they had ever imagined ― as many as a thousand bacterial strains on each person. And each person's collection of microbes, the microbiome, was different from the next person's. To the scientists' surprise, they also found genetic signatures of disease-causing bacteria ______________ in everyone's microbiome. But instead of making people ill, or even infectious, these disease-causing microbes simply live peacefully among their neighbors. 9. Which of the following is the most logical sequence of the five paragraphs? ① A-B-E-D-C ② A-E-B-C-D ③ B-D-C-E-A ④ B-E-D-C-A ⑤ D-C-B-A-E 10. Which of the following best completes the blank? ① lurking ② multiplying ③ dissolving ④ evaporating ⑤ disappearing 2012년도 8급 공개경쟁채용시험 2교시 영 어 책형 가 - 3 - The supercilious art dealer rolled her eyes when we asked if she had anything for under $1,000. The prekindergarten program is far more expensive in New York than it is elsewhere, and oversight by the city and state has often been lax, according to interviews with officials, regulators and contractors. A survey of some of the world's richest countries suggests that India ranks the worst for women, coming even lower than Saudi Arabia. The poll, by the Thomson Reuters Foundation, looked at a range of factors, from women's education and health care to job opportunities and violence against women. India scored poorly largely because of such practices as under-age marriage, dowry-abuse, domestic violence and female feticide. The country's Domestic Violence Act, passed seven years ago, was described as progressive. But gender violence fuelled by social prejudice against girls does persist, especially in low income families. ※ [11～12] Read the following passage and answer the questions. Two Australian Olympic swimmers who posted pictures on Facebook of themselves brandishing weapons have been ordered to take them down by the country's swimming authorities. The image, taken in a gun shop in Santa Clara, California, showed Nick D'Arcy with two pistols standing next to Kenrick Monk who is holding two shotguns across his chest, according to a Friday report in Australia's Herald Sun. The swimmers were training in the U.S. ahead of the Olympic Games in London later this year. Swimming Australia said in a statement that it does not condone “the posting of inappropriate content on Facebook, Twitter or any social media platform.” As of Friday morning, neither of the swimmers' Facebook pages or Twitter accounts contained the photo. “It was all just meant to be a bit of fun, the photos were just a bit of fun,” D'Arcy told local media after returning to Australia. “If anyone's been offended, I deeply apologize. It was never the intent; it was never supposed to be offensive.” Dozens of fans have posted on Monk's public Facebook page saying they support the athletes and that Swimming Australia had blown the photo out of proportion. Swimming Australia said they will be speaking with both athletes regarding the incident. While the pair faces possible Olympic sanctions, D'Arcy has been embroiled in controversy in the past. In 2008, he was dropped from the Beijing Olympic team following an assault charge for hitting teammate Simon Cowley and breaking his jaw, the Australian Daily Telegraph reported at the time. Both swimmers were named in Australia's team in March. 11. Which of the following does the incident refer to? ① meaning to be fun ② keeping making excuses ③ blowing the photo out of proportion ④ dropping from the Beijing Olympic team ⑤ posting the inappropriate photo on Facebook 12. Which of the following is NOT stated or implied by the above passage? ① The photo shows the two swimmers each holding two guns. ② The controversial photo was taken when the athletes were training in London. ③ Swimming Australia does not allow the posting of inappropriate photos online. ④ The two athletes may be punished for their misdemeanor. ⑤ The Olympic swimmers have already taken down the controversial photo from Facebook. ※ [13～15] Choose the one that is closest in meaning to the underlined part. 13. ① attentive ② ceaseless ③ accelerating ④ derelict ⑤ augmented 14. ① lofty ② competent ③ serious-looking ④ unpretentious ⑤ costly 15. ① discrimination ② sexual harassment ③ abortion ④ genocide ⑤ exploitation 2012년도 8급 공개경쟁채용시험 2교시 영 어 책형 가 - 4 - 16. Which of the following best completes the blanks (A) and (B)? Informality is the norm in Israel. People introduce themselves to strangers using only first names. First names are used between employees and employers, school children and their teachers, and soldiers and their commanders. Israelis seek to (A) status and power distance between individuals, and they have little patience for formality or protocol, for complicated ritual and procedure. This informality is associated with a display of openness and frankness that encourages people to speak their minds and offer their opinions free to another without feeling that they are being (B) for doing so. (A) (B) ① deemphasize presumptuous ② consolidate stubborn ③ foster arrogant ④ accumulate patronizing ⑤ disregard compensated 17. Choose the underlined part that is NOT grammatically correct. The business context is increasingly intercultural. ①Just as those working and receiving services in the health care and educational contexts must look to the development of competent intercultural communication, ②intercultural competence in our work lives is a critical asset. ③Commerce and trade are global and affect us daily life. ④Indeed, bookstores now regularly stock reference materials that provide insights into specific cultures and suggest some of the dos and don'ts of conducting business with individuals from those cultures. ⑤Just look at your possessions and you will see ample evidence of the products that have crossed national and cultural boundaries. People, however, are the key ingredients in the intercultural business world. 18. Which of the following best completes the blank? In the second half of the 19th century, nations increasingly linked their emerging identities with competition for world power. As well as bringing power and prestige to a nation, colonies were a source of valuable raw materials, markets for industrial goods and, in some cases, strategically vital naval bases. Influence in the world meant economic power. , imperialism was underpinned by the presumptions of 19th century social science, which lent intellectual cover to imperialist ventures. At its simplest, imperialism was perceived, or at least presented, in paternalistic terms. The self-image of British imperialism, for example, was that of the world's greatest empire nurturing the development of subject peoples around the globe until such time as they would be ready to govern themselves ― although of course only Britain would be able to determine when this might be. ① As a result ② Nonetheless ③ For example ④ However ⑤ Furthermore 19. Which of the following best completes the blank? Early studies of bilingualism tended to associate it with lowered intelligence, and it is unsurprising that many of them were conducted, in America, at a time of great concern with the flood of immigrants from Europe. The story of intelligence-testing movement itself, which flourished at this time, is a fascinating and detailed one, as well as an example of the misuse of 'science' allied to ignorance and prejudice. Suffice it to say here that the 'objective' intelligence tests of the time reflected a very culture-bound ideal and, consequently, immigrants ― especially those who were non-white, non-English -speaking, non-educated, and so on ― did not fare well. In such a climate, that the 'feeble-minded' immigrants (or hopefuls) were handicapped by their languages, and that the greater their use of English, the higher their measured intelligence. One well-known study concluded, for example, that the use of a foreign language in the home is one of the chief factors in producing mental retardation. ① it is easy to see ② it is highly implausible to imagine ③ many politicians complained ④ the power of English became so weak ⑤ scientists couldn't realize 2012년도 8급 공개경쟁채용시험 2교시 영 어 책형 가 - 5 - 20. Which of the following is the natural tendency of governments, according to the passage? In the long run a government will always encroach upon freedom to the extent to which it has the power to do so; this is almost a natural law of politics, since whatever the intentions of the men who exercise political power, the sheer momentum of government leads to a constant pressure upon the liberties of the citizen. But in many countries society has responded by throwing up its own defenses in the shape of social classes or organized corporations which, enjoying economic power and popular support, have been able to set limits to the scope of action of the executive. Such, for example, in England was the origin of all our liberties ― won from government by the stand first of the feudal nobility, then of churches and political parties, and latterly of trade unions, commercial organizations, and the societies for promoting various causes. ① to suppress churches and trade unions ② to exert more power on individuals ③ to increase individual liberties ④ to promote social welfare ⑤ to enjoy economic power ※  Read the following passage and answer the question. In a very broad sense, legislation plays the same role in civil law countries as judicial decisions play in common law countries. Legislative rules provide the starting point from which lawyers and judges work toward their goal, the most just solution for the problem at hand. Usually the statute provides a clear answer to the problem. In those cases, the statute is strictly applied, more because it is just than because it is a statute. Because of this it often appears that legislation is the law and the judge's role is simply to apply automatically the ready-made solutions provided by the legislature. Nevertheless, there are a great many cases where the judge's role is far more creative. 21. When civil law lawyers and judges strictly apply a statute, it is usually because _______________________________________. ① it provides a just solution to a problem ② statutes are laws and they must be obeyed ③ the judge's role is restricted to automatic application ④ flexible application of the statute is prohibited ⑤ the role of the civil law judiciary is never really creative ※ [22～23] Read the following passage and answer the questions. (A) It has become commonplace to report that America is in the midst of an epidemic of obesity. Recent studies have shown that almost a third of the country's children are overweight or obese. (B) But it's all part of a growing campaign to fight obesity. Last week, in the first move of its kind by an American city, the Mayor of New York, Michael Bloomberg, proposed a ban on the sale of sugary drinks over 480 milliliters in size at restaurants, food trucks, cinemas and sports arenas. It's a controversial step ― one poll over the weekend found that 53% of New Yorkers think it's a bad idea. (C) Part of the problem is advertising. Manufacturers of junk food and sugary drinks spend around a billion dollars a year on commercials directed at children under twelve years old. The Walt Disney Company says it will no longer be a part of this. Under new rules, its TV and radio channels, as well as its websites, will have to abide by new standards. (D) Inevitably, there is scepticism about Disney's move. The new rules won't come into effect for another three years and much will depend on how Disney actually defines junk food. 22. Which of the following is the most logical sequence of the four paragraphs? ① A-B-C-D ② A-C-B-D ③ A-C-D-B ④ B-C-D-A ⑤ B-D-A-C 23. Which of the following is true, according to the passage? ① The Walt Disney Company will not sell junk food and sugary drinks to children under twelve years old. ② The Walt Disney Company will not sell sugary drinks over 480 milliliters. ③ There are some people who are incredulous at the Disney's new policy. ④ New Yorkers will not be able to buy sugary drinks in sports arenas. ⑤ Over half of New Yorkers approve of the Mayor's idea. 2012년도 8급 공개경쟁채용시험 2교시 영 어 책형 가 - 6 - ※ [24～25] Read the following passage and answer the questions. Two paragraphs into Debra Prinzing and David E. Perry's book, “The 50 Mile Bouquet,” the facts of the flower growing industry are laid out quite clear: the $40 billion business is dominated by corporations that import their flower bouquets from overseas. With such a huge portion of the flower industry held by corporate interests, Prinzing, a freelance home design writer, and Perry, a floral-minded photographer, set about the country searching for flower farmers who followed the rule of the “50-mile bouquet.” In the book's case, the author and photographer interviewed farmers they felt embodied the “slow flower movement.” The idea takes its cues from the slow food movement: locally sourced ingredients and locally grown, cut and sold flowers. The 50 miles in the book's title comes from the maximum desired distance to obtain ingredients for a local bouquet. Although 50 was the number chosen, 100 also was considered. They considered 100 largely because it was synonymous with the similar food diet in which people are limited to eat only food grown within 100 miles of their home. “We twisted it into the floral world,” Prinzing said. “Floral designs have to source their ingredients from no more than 50 miles away. We tried a few different numbers but we landed on 50.” 24. Which of the following is NOT true, according to the passage? ① The flower growing industry is subdued by companies which import flowers from other countries. ② The idea for the book took its cues from the slow food movement. ③ The slow food movement means people only eat food grown locally. ④ The authors once considered different numbers for the book title. ⑤ The authors interviewed farmers who lived within 50 miles from their homes. 25. Which of the following best completes the blank? ① initial ② eventual ③ even ④ median ⑤ harmonic
영어.pdf 2012 법원직 9급 영어 해설 강수정.pdf 2012 법원직 9급 영어 해설 심상대.pdf 【 영어 25문 】 【문 1】다음 글을 읽고 주어진 문장의 빈칸에 가장 알맞은 것은? The idea of public works projects as a device to prevent or control depression was designed as a means of creating job opportunities for unemployed workers and as a "pump-priming" device to aid business to revive. By 1933, the number of unemployed worker had reached about 13 million. This meant that about 59 million people―about one-third of the nation―were without means of support. At first, direct relief in the form of cash or food was provided these people. This made them recipients of government charity. In order to remove this stigma and restore to the unemployed some measure of respectability and human dignity, a plan was devised to create governmentally sponsored work projects that private industry would not or could not provide. This would also stimulate production and revive business activity. ⇒ By using the expression "pump-priming" as a description of public works projects, the author implies that it ______________ . ① was useless ② lowered human dignity ③ was pouring money down the drain ④ provided business with initial impetus 【문 2】(A), (B), (C)의 각 괄호 속에서 어법에 맞는 표현으 로 가장 적절한 것은? Scientists, like other people, are always pleased to have their own ideas (A)[confirm / confirmed]. So I was gratified by a report which appeared in the August 1963 issue of the Journal of the British Astronomical Association. This report was written by the famous Soviet astronomer, Dr Nikolai Kozyrev, who several years ago discovered evidence in telescopic photographs to support the belief that some of the craters on the moon are sites of presently active volcanoes. When Dr. Kozyrev first published (B)[that / what] he thought he had seen on the moon, his interpretation was doubted by many astronomers in other lands. Subsequently, however, astronomers here have seen color changes (C)[which / where] they, too, believe are signs of continuing volcanic activity on the previously supposed dead body of the moon. (A) (B) (C) ① confirm that which ② confirmed what which ③ confirm that where ④ confirmed what where 【문 3】다음 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? A scorpion wanted to pass the pond but it could not swim. Thus, it climbed on a frog’s back, and asked the frog to take it to the other side of the pond. The frog refused because the scorpion might sting him when he swims. The scorpion promised not to do so. Though the frog knew how vicious the scorpion was, it felt that its words were correct. When they swam in the middle of the pond, the scorpion suddenly stung the frog. The heavily wounded frog yelled out, “Why did you sting me? Stinging me is not useful for you totally” “I know.” the scorpion said, while sinking down. “But I’m a scorpion. I must sting you because this is my instinct.” As the saying goes: , everyone has their own advantages and disadvantages. Therefore, we should be aware of that changing one person is limited. What we need to do is try not to eliminate these drawbacks, but to reasonably use their advantages. ① one good turn deserves another ② friends and wines improve with age ③ the leopard cannot change its spots ④ drowning men catch at a straw 【문 4】다음 글을 쓴 사람의 심정으로 가장 적절한 것은? My clothes were drenched. Sweat flowed in torrents from my forehead, requiring constant mopping with a bandanna to keep my glasses from steaming up to the point where I couldn't see anything. Keeping my eyes riveted to the ground wasn't enough because there was plenty to watch out for overhead too. Vines yanked my hat off. Thorns ripped at my sleeves. Trees with trunks and limbs encased in three-inch spikes threatened to impale an eyeball in a moment of carelessness. Deadly pit vipers also lurked in the trees, camouflaged bright green. ① excited ② relieved ③ bored ④ frightened 【문 5】다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 문맥상 낱말의 쓰임이 적절 하지 않은 것은? Political power in Rome had traditionally rested with the aristocrats; now, it lay increasingly with the families of the new commercial class. The ①attainment of high political office became the main goal of these families because it meant prestige, power, and more wealth. Individuals ②captured office not so much on the strength of their political philosophy and policy but on the appeal of their personalities, charisma, and conquests. Rome began to be ③dominated by men who were self-seeking, larger-than-life figures who won the support of the masses through the distribution of free food, olive oil, and wine, and the sponsoring of public entertainment. ④Shortages that flowed to Rome from the fertile fields of its provinces overseas―Carthage, Sicily, Sardinia, and Numidia―allowed free distributions to the restless and unemployed urban proletariat. ① attainment ② captured ③ dominated ④ Shortages 영어 (5-1) / 1교시 ①책형 (전체 20-16) 【문 6】(A), (B), (C)의 각 괄호 안에서 문맥에 맞는 낱말로 가 장 적절한 것은? A group of British psychologists have recently shown that the youngest children in class are more (A)[sensible / sensitive] to stress at school than their older classmates. The study examined over 20,000 school children between the ages of five and twelve in England, and symptoms were evaluated by psychopathology questionnaires (B)[competed / completed] by parents, teachers, and 10-12 year old study participants. According to the study, the youngest in each group experienced more emotional and behavioral problems at school, and this effect was (C)[observed / preserved] throughout all the age groups in the study. (A) (B) (C) ① sensible competed observed ② sensible completed preserved ③ sensitive completed observed ④ sensitive competed preserved 【문 7】다음 글의 주제로 가장 적절한 것은? The railroad was the first institution to impose regularity on society, or to draw attention to the importance of precise timekeeping. For as long as merchants have set out their wares at daybreak and religious services have begun on the hour, people have been in rough agreement with their neighbors as to the time of day. The value of this tradition is today more apparent than ever. Were it not for public acceptance of a single yardstick of time, social life would be unbearably chaotic: the massive daily transfers of goods, services, and information would proceed in fits and starts; the very fabric of modern society would begin to unravel. ① The traditions of society are timeless. ② Certain activities have to be conducted in time. ③ Modern society judges people by the times they conduct certain activities. ④ People's agreement on the measurement of time is essential for the functioning of society. 【문 8】다음 글 맨 뒤에 the colonel이 느낄 심경으로 가장 알 맞은 것은? Having just moved into his new office, a pompous colonel was sitting at his desk when a private knocked on the door. Conscious of his new position, the colonel told the private to enter, then quickly picked up the phone and said, "Yes, General, I'll pass along your message. In the meantime, thank you for your good wishes, sir." Feeling as though he had sufficiently impressed the young enlisted man, he asked, "What do you want?" "Nothing important, sir," the private replied. "Just here to hook up your telephone, sir." ① proud ② satisfied ③ ashamed ④ indifferent 【문 9】다음 글의 빈칸 (A), (B)에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? Fast food is everywhere. It’s available on the main corners of a busy street and in the luxury of your own home. Effects of fast food are quickly catching up with us. The nation has become a culture of fast food eating and on-the-go living, ultimately creating “fat” America. (A) , fast food has some advantages in the short term: people appreciate the fact that it’s fast and convenient. There is no other food that you can pick up and have ready at a moment’s notice. It involves no cooking, shopping, or dishwashing. In the end, you are saving an immense amount of time. (B) , there seems to be a direct link in America between obesity and fast food. A typical meal from a fast-food restaurant, say a serving of fries and cheeseburger, adds up to over 1,000 calories per serving. This is about half the recommended dietary allowance for an individual per day. (A) (B) ① However ………………………… As a result ② However ………………………… Nevertheless ③ In addition ……………………… As a result ④ In addition ……………………… Nevertheless 【문10】다음 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? Here is one scene from the drama of the differences in men’s and women’s ways of talking. A woman and a man return home from work. She tells everything that happened during the day: what she did, whom she met, what they said, what that made her think. Then she turns to him and asks, “How was your day?” He says, “Same fierce struggle for existence!” She feels locked out: “You don’t tell me anything.” He protests, “Nothing happened at work.” They have different assumptions about . To her, telling life’s daily events and impressions means she’s not alone in the world. Such talk is the essence of intimacy― evidence that she and her partner are best friends. Since he never spent time talking in this way with his friends, best or otherwise, he doesn’t expect it, doesn’t know how to do it, and doesn’t miss it when it isn’t there. ① which things are similar ② what is anything to tell ③ whether the drama is real or not ④ which words are better for them 영어 (5-2) / 1교시 ①책형 (전체 20-17) 【문11】다음 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? Given how little we know about our inner ecology, carpet-bombing it might not always be the best idea. “I would put it very bluntly,” Margulis told me. “When you advocate your soaps that say they kill all harmful bacteria, you are committing suicide.” The bacteria in the intestines can take up to four years to recover from a round of antibiotics, recent studies have found, and the steady attack of detergents, preservatives, and chemicals are also harmful. The immune system builds up fewer antibodies in a clean environment; the deadliest pathogens can grow more resistant to antibiotics. All of which may explain why a number of studies have found that children raised on farms are less likely to be influenced by allergies, asthma, and autoimmune diseases. It sometimes seems . * pathogen 병원균 ① people avoid an healthy lifestyle ② leading a rural life boost immunity ③ pollutants can trigger allergic effects ④ as we are cleaner, we get sicker 【문12】(A), (B), (C)의 각 괄호 안에서 문맥에 맞는 낱말로 가 장 적절한 것은? A tornado is a dark, funnel-shaped cloud made up of violently churning winds. A tornado's width can measure from a few feet to a mile, and its track can (A)[extend / contract] from less than a mile to several hundred miles. Tornados are most often caused by giant thunderstorms. These highly powerful storms form when warm, moist air along the ground rushes upward, meeting cooler, drier air. As the rising warm air cools, the moisture it carries (B) [condenses / condescends], forming a massive thundercloud. Winds at different levels of the atmosphere (C)[feed / thwart] the updraft and cause the formation of the tornado's characteristic funnel shape. (A) (B) (C) ① extend ……………… condenses ……………… feed ② extend ……………… condescends ……………… thwart ③ contract ……………… condenses ………………… feed ④ contract ……………… condescends ……………… thwart 【문13】다음 글의 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? It is crucial for parents to teach children that . Asians are particularly likely to believe that ability or intelligence is something you have to work for. Not surprisingly, Asian Americans work harder to achieve academic goals than European Americans. And Asians work harder after failure than after success—unlike North Americans of European descent who work harder after success than after failure. It is important to teach children that if at first you don't succeed, try again harder. ① intelligence is highly hereditary ② their intelligence is under their control ③ intelligent people are not always successful ④ success in life doesn't always guarantee happiness 【문14】다음 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은? The magnetic field is oddly prevalent in all kinds of animal orientation. Termites line up along its cardinal axes. Yellow eels also use the magnetic field. Homing pigeons, however, are more of a mystery. It was long thought that they, too, relied solely upon the magnetic field to find their way. In studies that disrupt the field, the pigeons’ path was thrown off. But after tracking pigeons with GPS satellites for ten years, researchers announced their findings: rather than using sun for directional bearings, it turns out that the pigeons use roads they’ve traveled in the past as a guide. Then, three years after this study, different scientists found that iron-containing structures within the birds’ beaks apparently also aid in their sense of direction. They might even have the ability to use atmospheric odors. * cardinal axes 기본 축 ① Homing Pigeons Follow Their Instinct ② Why Birds Migrate from Season to Season? ③ Constraints Birds Are Facing During Migration ④ Mysterious Sense of Direction of Homing Pigeons 【문15】다음 글의 요지로 가장 적절한 것은? Most native English speakers don’t actually talk in correct English. What we usually consider correct English is a set of guidelines developed over time to help standardize written expression. This standardization is a matter of use and convenience. Suppose you went to a vegetable stand and asked for a pound of peppers and the storekeeper gave you a half pound but charged you for a full one. When you complained, he said, “But that’s what I call a pound.” Life would be very frustrating if everyone had a different set of standards: Imagine what would happen if some states used a red light to signal “go” and a green one for “stop.” Languages are not that different. In all cultures, languages have gradually developed certain general rules and principles to make communication as clear and efficient as possible. ① 규칙에 얽매인 언어 사용은 대화를 방해한다. ② 이질적인 문화는 사회생활의 불편을 초래한다. ③ 언어는 명확한 의사소통을 위해 표준화되어 왔다. ④ 외국어의 문법 규칙은 맥락 속에서 습득해야 한다. 【문16】글의 내용으로 보아 밑줄 친 단어의 쓰임이 적절하지 않은 것은? The intangibles we attach to tangible property are still rapidly multiplying. Every day there are more legal precedents, more real-estate records, more transactional data and the like. Each piece of tangible property, therefore, contains ① higher component of untouchability. In advanced economies the degree of intangibility in society's property base is spiraling ② upward. What's more, even industrial-age manufacturing giants now depend on ③ ever-growing inputs of skill, R&D findings, smart management, market intelligence, etc. All this changes the tangibility ratio in the economy's property base, further ④ increasing the role of touchables. ① higher ② upward ③ ever-growing ④ increasing 영어 (5-3) / 1교시 ①책형 (전체 20-18) 【문17】다음 글에 드러난 ‘I’의 심경 변화로 가장 적절한 것은? I cannot believe what I am seeing: plants, and trees everywhere. The scents are sweet and the air is pure and clean. I like the silence that greets me as I arrive at hotel. Upstairs, my heart is all aflutter at finding I have a good room, with a good-enough balcony view of the distant water. I take out clean clothes, shower, and, camera in hand, head downstairs to ask the attendant where I can find Moreno gardens. The man at the desk looks puzzled and says he’s never heard of the Moreno gardens. He steps into the back office and comes out accompanied by a woman. She has never heard of the Moreno gardens, either. My second question, regarding the house painted by Monet, brings me no closer to the truth. Neither has heard of such a house. It makes my shoulders droop. ① bored → expectant ② worried → pleased ③ sorrowful → relieved ④ excited → disappointed 【문18】다음 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은? In composition, your purpose is your overall goal or aim in writing. It is basically what you hope to accomplish by writing―whether it is to promote or endorse a certain point of view, rally support for a cause, criticize a film or a book, or examine the effects of a social trend. Your purpose may or may not be expressed explicitly (in creative writing, for example, it rarely is), but in essays it is usually important that your reader understand the purpose behind your writing. An explicitly stated purpose not only helps the reader follow your argument or perspective but also helps ensure that everything you write reflects that purpose. A carefully expressed purpose will help anchor your essay and keep it from aimlessly floating all over. ① Criticism : The Goal of Writing an Essay ② Express Clearly the Purpose of Your Essay ③ Brevity : The Fundamental of Writing ④ Write Carefully, but Enjoy the Moment 【문19】다음 글의 목적으로 가장 적절한 것은? The U.S. is shrinking physically. It has lost nearly 20 meters of beach from its East Coast during the 20th century. The oceans have risen by roughly 17 centimeters since 1900 through expansion (warmer water taking up more space) and the ongoing melt down of polar ice. That increase, however, is a small fraction compared with what's to come. In fact, unless greenhouse gas emissions are tamed, the seas will keep rising as the ice sheets covering mountain ranges melt away. Just how humans will adapt to a more watery world is still not known. Of today's trend, Robert Bindschadler, an emeritus scientist at NASA, notes, "We're not going to avoid this one." ① 온실가스 배출로 인한 해수면 상승을 경고하려고 ② 미국의 해안가 오염문제에 대한 대책을 촉구하려고 ③ 세계적인 물 부족으로 인한 대책마련의 필요성을 강조하려고 ④ 빙하 감소로 인한 극지방 생물들의 멸종위기를 경고하려고 【문20】다음 글의 내용을 한 문장으로 요약하고자 한다. 빈칸 (A)와 (B)에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? In dealing with the inevitable behavior problems in their classrooms, teachers may sometimes go too far. Often, teachers will humiliate a misbehaving student in front of the entire class. Despite bringing about an immediate, temporary end to the problematic behavior, taking such action can cause long-term educational repercussions. Prominent psychologists have noted that humiliating experiences in school are correlated with a drop-off in academic performance. The students lose self-confidence and begin to believe that positive grades are out of their reach. Because embarrassing students can (A) their educational development, teachers should consider their (B) factors for academic performance. (A) (B) ① harm ………………………………… physical ② improve …………………………… physical ③ harm ……………………………… psychological ④ improve …………………………… psychological 【문21】다음 글의 요지를 아래와 같이 한 문장으로 요약하고자 한다. 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? Soccer is the man-on-the-street's game in Europe, and the politicians, academics, and high-end journalists who would normally shun exhibitionist patriotism support their national teams as a means of proving they are really men-in-the street themselves. But it may also be that high national emotions are permissible when a soccer team is playing precisely because they are impermissible at most other times. There aren't, simply, many other places where you can sing your national anthem until you lose your voice without causing a riot. From the passage above, it can be inferred that soccer is . ① an acceptable form of nationalism ② the best sport for relieving stress ③ the most popular sport ever created ④ a unique sport that unites people in harmony 【문22】다음 글의 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? Etiquette—the sets of rules that give expression to manners —can vary from culture to culture. In Japan, you would remove your shoes before entering someone's house. If you did this in America, people would give you strange looks and hold their noses. In some Asian and Middle Eastern countries, belching and smacking your lips is a way to compliment the chef. In the United States, it's a way to get sent to your room. It's important to know the manners of the culture in which you're operating. Otherwise, an innocent, friendly gesture could . ① help make new friends ② be interpreted correctly ③ cause offense or embarrassment ④ make other people think highly of you 영어 (5-4) / 1교시 ①책형 (전체 20-19) 【문23】다음 글의 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? An economist Gary Becker has applied Marshallian economics to family law and to criminal law. Becker's crime model posits criminals who apparently weigh the costs and benefits of committing offences. If we have a crime problem, Becker implies, it's because crime does pay. Economists have tried to calculate what deters criminals. Two variables seem most important: apprehension rates and severity of punishment. The deterrent effect differs for different types of crimes. For some crimes, police should concentrate on catching the criminals. For other crimes, apprehension rates do not scare offenders. Instead they are deterred by . ① police questioning ② higher arrest rates ③ severe punishments ④ the policy of appeasement 【문24】글의 흐름으로 보아, 주어진 문장이 들어가기에 가장 적절한 곳은? But not all arguments attempt to persuade, and many attempts to persuade do not involve arguments. Some writers define an argument as an attempt to persuade somebody of something. This is not correct. ( ① ) An argument attempts to prove or support a conclusion. ( ② ) When you attempt to persuade someone, you attempt to win him or her to your point of view; trying to persuade and trying to argue are logically distinct projects. ( ③ ) True, when you want to persuade somebody of something, you might use an argument. ( ④ ) In fact, giving an argument is often one of the least effective methods of persuading people― which, of course, is why so few advertisers bother with arguments. 【문25】글의 흐름으로 보아, 주어진 문장이 들어가기에 가장 적절한 곳은? They weren't quite green, however. Green buildings are not new. For thousands of years, humans have built structures with local natural materials. These structures did not use energy or damage the planet. ( ① ) When the people who lived in them moved on, the structures usually collapsed, and their materials returned to the earth. ( ② ) Before the 1930s, most buildings used far less energy than today's buildings. Instead of air-conditioning, they had windows that opened to let in breezes. ( ③ ) Coal-burning furnaces were used for heating. As a result, many buildings spewed dirty smoke into the air. ( ④ ) Beginning in the 1970s, in the United States and much of the world, air-pollution laws were passed to reduce or eliminate pollution given off by buildings. 영어 (5-5) / 1교시 ①책형 (전체 20-20)
영어.pdf 2012 서울시 9급 영어 해설 강수정.pdf 2012 서울시 9급 영어 해설 심상대.pdf 2012 서울시 9급 1. 밑줄 친 부분과 의미가 가장 가까운 것은? The financial manager gave down-to-earth advice to his client. ① distinct ② profitable ③ critical ④ venturesome ⑤ practical 2. 밑줄 친 부분과 의미가 가장 가까운 것은? At a very early age, human babies show signs of a strong urge to master the environment. ① utility ② craving ③ understanding ④ resistance ⑤ urchin 3. 빈칸에 가장 알맞은 것을 고르시오. There can be no doubt that if we decide we cannot cope with a particular kind of challenge we tend to _______ and avoid it. ① give up ② give over ③ give off ④ go off ⑤ go about 4. 빈칸에 가장 알맞은 것을 고르시오. _____ the adult smoking rate is gradually dropping is not good news for big tobacco companies. ① If ② Which ③ What ④ Where ⑤ That 5. 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 옳지 않은 것을 고르시오. Linguistics shares ① with other ② sciences a concern to be objective, systematic, ③ consistency, and ④ explicit in ⑤ its account of language. 6. 빈칸에 가장 알맞은 것을 고르시오. A: Bill, you don’t know when to stop using the computer. B: Sorry, Mom. But there’s always so much to do on the Internet. A: Well, _________________________. B: That’s just a small part of what I do on my computer. Most of the time I am studying English online. ① I don’t think you use your computer so much. ② I’ve never seen your classes on the Internet. ③ I do nothing but seeing you playing games. ④ I don’t see you do nothing but playing games. ⑤ I never see you do anything but play games. 7. 빈칸에 가장 알맞은 것을 고르시오. During World War Ⅱ, movies about Japan made little effort to develop a Japanese character or explain what Japan hoped to accomplish in the war. The Japanese remained nameless, faceless, and almost totally speechless. No attempt was made to show a Japanese soldier trapped by circumstances beyond his control, or a family man longing for home, or an officer who despised the militarists even if he supported the military campaign. This was ________ the portrayal of German soldiers, who were often shown as decent human beings altogether different from the Nazis. ① in sharp contrast to ② very similar to ③ analogous with ④ congruent with ⑤ unique to 8. 빈칸에 가장 알맞은 것을 고르시오. Rationalism is a philosophical view that regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge. Rationalism has long been the rival of empiricism, the doctrine that all knowledge of matters of fact ultimately derives from, and must be tested by, ___________________. ① reasonable belief ② universal mind ③ sense experience ④ intuitive knowledge ⑤ unanimous agreement 9. 빈칸에 가장 알맞은 것을 고르시오. The solution for slavery was not its abolition, at least that was not a total solution, because new forms of slavery were invented under another name. The factory workers who toiled in poisonous air from sunrise till sunset and never saw daylight except on Sundays, obeying in silence, probably ______________________. And today, all those who prefer to do what they are told rather than think for themselves and shoulder the responsibility ― one-third of Britons, according to a poll, say that is what they prefer ― are the spiritual heirs of the voluntary slaves of Russia. It is important to remember that it is tiring, and trying, being free; and in times of exhaustion affection for freedom has always waned, whatever lip-service might be paid to it. ① ate far more nutritious food than old slaves ② led even worse lives than many ancient slaves ③ were much happier than ancient slaves ④ were given still more independence than subjection ⑤ enjoyed the privileges of the aristocracy 10. 다음 빈칸 (A), (B)에 들어갈 말로 알맞은 것은? It is the business of the scientist to accumulate knowledge about the universe and all that is in it, and to find, if he is able, common factors which underline and account for the facts he knows. He choose, when he can, the method of the ‘controlled experiment.’ If he wants to find out the effect of light on growing plants, he takes many plants of the same kind. Some he stands in the sun, some in the shade, some in the dark; all the time keeping all other conditions(temperature, moisture, nourishment) the same. In this way, by ___________, and by ___________, the effect of light on the plants can be clearly seen. ① A: keeping other conditions constant B: varying the light only ② A: keeping other conditions varied B: controlling the light only ③ A: keeping other conditions focused B: sorting out the shade only ④ A: making other conditions controlled B: extinguishing the light only ⑤ A: keeping other conditions removed B: extinguishing the light only 11. 다음 빈칸에 공통으로 들어갈 가장 알맞은 것은? a. We can pick _________ where we left off tomorrow. b. New opportunities have opened ______ and they must not be neglected. c. David put _____ a lot of money for the art gallery. ① down ② up ③ over ④ for ⑤ out 12. 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 옳지 않은 것을 고르시 오.What ① is necessary is an income that will be the basis for a dignified human existence. As far as inequalities of income are concerned, it seems that ② it must not exceed the point ③ where differences in income lead to differences in the experience of life. The man with an income of millions, who can satisfy any costly wish without even thinking about ④ it, experiences life in a different way from the man who has to sacrifice one costly wish to satisfy another. The man who can never travel beyond his town, ⑤ who can never afford any luxury, again has a different life experience from his neighbor who can do so. 13. 빈칸에 가장 알맞은 것을 고르시오. The position you applied for has been filled but we appreciate your interest __________ by our company. ① of employment ② of being employed ③ in being employed ④ in having been employed ⑤ in position 14. 빈칸에 가장 알맞은 것을 고르시오. ______ such a terrible earthquake hit the area, no one can tell how devastating the aftermath will be. ① That ② Could ③ When ④ Should ⑤ Because [15~16] 다음 글을 읽고 물음에 답하시오. ____________________. One is to inform and educate. To make intelligent decisions about public policy, people need accurate, timely, unbiased information. Because opinions diverge, they also need access to a wide range of viewpoints. This role is specially important during election campaigns, when few voters will have the opportunity to see, much less talk with, candidates in person. Instead, they must rely on newspapers and television to explain the issues and characterize the respective positions of candidates and their political parties. 15. 윗글의 빈칸에 들어갈 이 글의 주제를 고르시오. ① To govern is to communicate. ② Commentators point to anther increasingly important role for the Media. ③ The area for communication and public debate is increasingly dominated by the News Media. ④ The News Media in democracy have a number of overlapping but distinctive functions. ⑤ The News Media are powerful ways of communicating. 16. 글의 흐름상 다음에 이어질 내용으로 가장 적절 한 것을 고르시오. ① A Second Function of the Media ② The Importance of the News Media ③ An Active Role of the Media ④ The Dangers of the Media ⑤ Media’s Passive Role in Politics 17. 다음 글을 읽고 추론할 수 있는 것은? In the near future, many Arctic animals, such as polar bears and seals, will feel the serious effects of global warming. Seals, for example, use snow caves to raise their young. Rising temperatures will cause these caves to collapse. Without protection, the baby seals will die in the bitter cold. With fewer seals, polar bears will starve. Also, every plant species will not escape from a global warming crisis, if temperatures continue rapid rise. In the Arctic, global warming is expected to reduce the world’s tundra by 30 percent over the next 100 years. These changes will be deadly for the plant species that live there. Consequently, the ecosystem will be destroyed, and life on Earth will never be the same. ① Seals are the staple food for polar bears. ② Seals regularly eat polar bears. ③ Snow caves protect young seals from global warming crisis. ④ 30% of plants will disappear from the tundra in 100 years. ⑤ Baby seals die from overheating caused by rising temperatures. 18. 다음 중 글의 흐름상 어색한 것을 고르시오. The dweller in northern countries goes into raptures over the fresh green leaves of the trees in spring. ① The desert dweller, on the other hand, composes poems about green trees and grass and running water whatever the season. ② Yet the dweller in the tropics, who is constantly surrounded by luxuriant vegetation, sees nothing remarkable or interesting about green trees, and still less about running water. ③ He cannot understand poets trouble to write about them. ④ There are some travelers who adapt themselves so successfully to foreign customs and habits that they feel no barriers to cultural differences. ⑤ It seems to be a fact that familiarity breeds contempt, and that those who seek excitement and romance cannot see it at home, under their noses, but only in distant lands. 19. Long Steel사의 CEO인 Bill Simpson이 AJ 철강 회사와 경쟁하기 위해 가장 필요로 하는 것은? AJ produces more than 70% of the country’s steel. Long Steel CEO Bill Simpson has said publicly that other companies which compete with AJ need to enhance the efficiency of their processes, especially those associated with the supply chain network from the island to the mainland. Recently, Long Steel hired some foreign specialists in the field of supply chain improvement to maximize profits and minimize losses, which has allowed the company to increase its productivity dramatically. Also, to entice the most experienced and skilled workers, the company developed a new pay scale for workers that has minimized profits and met all union demands. One of these demands is higher pay for workers with more experience. ① More efficiency in the financial service ② Better marketing schemes ③ More experienced workers ④ A greater degree of efficiency in financial reports ⑤ More foreign specialists 20. 다음 밑줄 친 He가 가리키는 것을 고르시오. In modern times, the unity the old world enjoyed is lacking. Freud speaks of three revolutions which have overturned and dispersed the old views of the world. The Copernican discoveries, he says, came first, removing man from the center of the universe, and then came the Darwinian and lastly the Freudian discoveries which completed the dispersal. He might have added more reasons, by which he has said enough for our purposes. In short, we can no longer expect to relate man, nature, and God as the old world did. ① the writer of this article ② Copernicus ③ Darwin ④ God ⑤ Freud
영어.pdf 2011 국회직 9급 영어 해설 강수정.pdf 2011 국회직 9급 영어 해설 심상대.pdf 2011년도 9급 공개경쟁채용시험 영 어 책형 가 - 5 - 영 어 ※ 밑줄 친 부분과 의미가 가장 가까운 것을 고르시오.(1 ～ 3) 1. Mother would not permit my brothers to impart a slap on my face or bottom, as she abhorred any display of violence. ① despised ② manipulated ③ valued ④ stimulated ⑤ abdicated 2. He made an impromptu address to the crowds. ① memorable ② infantile ③ impudent ④ fluent ⑤ unprepared 3. By the spring Richard found himself faced by a formidable coalition of enemies. ① cooperative ② precedented ③ unexpected ④ tremendous ⑤ reassuring ※ 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 옳지 않은 것을 고르시오.(4 ～ 5) 4. Communication is ①very often a way to exchange information or ②share thoughts and feelings ③what bring you closer to others. In addition, one of the most basic reasons ④for communicating is ⑤to get things that you need. 5. Playing dice has been ①a popular game for Western people, and 6 ②is considered to be the strongest number since it is the biggest number from a dice. Meanwhile, 7 is regarded ③as the lucky number probably because it is ④most likely to have 7 in a dice game when you roll two dice at ⑤a same time. 6. 다음 세 문장의 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 말이 순서대로 짝지어진 것은? ․ Many a student to pass the exam. ․ A number of people late for work because there was a traffic accident. ․ I could not read every of the library. ① tries-were-book ② try-was-books ③ tries-was-book ④ try-were-books ⑤ tries-was-books 7. 다음 문장을 가장 자연스럽게 옮긴 것은? 나는 날씨가 나빠서 낚시를 가지 못했다. ① The bad weather prevented me from going fishing. ② I could not help going fishing because of the bad weather. ③ Regardless of the bad weather, I gave up going fishing. ④ If the weather were bad, I could go fishing. ⑤ Even though it was bad, I had no choice but go fishing. 8. 대화의 흐름으로 보아 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? A: Do you have a double room with twin beds? B: Yes, we have one on the 7th floor. A: What is the daily rate? B: $55 per night, plus tax. A: Well, do you have something less expensive? B: ___________________________________ ① Surely you can have anything you want. ② No problem. Please show me another one. ③ Not with a double room having twin beds. ④ I hope that you like it. ⑤ Of course. That's a perfect fit, I think. 2011년도 9급 공개경쟁채용시험 영 어 책형 가 - 6 - 9. 다음 대화가 자연스럽게 연결될 수 있도록 밑줄 친 부분에 들어 갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? Mary: Ken! Ken! Ken: Hi, Mary. How are you? Mary: Hi, I'm fine. How are you? Ken: Good. Mary: Listen, I, , but, um ... has my dog been digging up your backyard again? Ken: I ... don't think so. I haven't noticed. Mary: Well, I sure hope he hasn't; I saw him running through your yard yesterday, and ... Ken: Oh, that's all right. I don't worry about it. ① cheer up ② I am not sure how to put this ③ if I were you, I'd be happy ④ you can say that again ⑤ that sounds fascinating 10. 다음 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은? The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model that explains the early development of the Universe. According to the Big Bang theory, the Universe was once in an extremely hot and dense state which expanded rapidly. This rapid expansion caused the young Universe to cool and resulted in its present continuously expanding state. According to recent measurements, observations, and scientific evidence, this original state existed around 13.7 billion years ago, which is considered the age of the Universe and the time inflation occurred. The Big Bang is a well tested scientific theory which is widely accepted within the scientific community because it is the best explanation for the full range of phenomena astronomers observe. Since its conception, abundant evidence has arisen to help further validate the theory. ① The Big Bang as a tool of scientific measurement ② The scientific evidence of the end of the Universe ③ The scientific community of the Big Bang theory ④ The Big Bang theory as an ungrounded idea on the Universe ⑤ The Big Bang as the beginning point of the expansion of the Universe 11. <보기>의 문장이 들어가기에 가장 적절한 곳은? <보 기> However, they realized that bodies placed in coffins decayed when they were not exposed to the hot, dry sand of the desert. The earliest ancient Egyptians buried their dead in small pits in the desert.〔A〕The heat and dryness of the sand dehydrated the bodies quickly, creating lifelike and natural 'mummies'.〔B〕Later, the ancient Egyptians began burying their dead in coffins to protect them from wild animals in the desert.〔C〕Over many centuries, the ancient Egyptians developed a method of preserving bodies so they would remain lifelike.〔D〕The process included embalming the bodies and wrapping them in strips of linen.〔E〕Today we call this process mummification. ①〔A〕 ②〔B〕 ③〔C〕 ④〔D〕 ⑤〔E〕 12. 다음 글의 주제로 가장 적절한 것은? The immediate effect of the printing press was to multiply the output and cut the costs of books. It thus made information available to a much larger segment of the population who were, of course, eager for information of any variety. Libraries could now store greater quantities of information at much lower cost. Printing also facilitated the dissemination and preservation of knowledge in standardized form―this was most important in the advance of science, technology and scholarship. The printing press certainly initiated an 'information revolution' on par with the Internet today. Printing could and did spread new ideas quickly and with greater impact. ① The role of the Internet on information revolution ② The storage of a large quantity of information ③ The relationship between printing and the Internet ④ The impact of science and technology on modern society ⑤ The contribution of printing press to information revolution 2011년도 9급 공개경쟁채용시험 영 어 책형 가 - 7 - 13. 밑줄 친 부분 (A)와 (B)에 들어갈 것끼리 바르게 짝지어진 것은? Some people believe that if they have much money, they will be happy. They believe that if they are wealthy, they will be able to do everything they want, and so they will be happy. (A) , some people value their religion, or their intelligence, or their health; these make them happy. For me, happiness is closely tied to my family. I am happy if my wife and children live in harmony. (B) all members of my family share good and sad times, and communicate with each other, I am happy. (A) (B) ① Therefore Since ② Therefore While ③ On the other hand Even though ④ On the other hand When ⑤ Then Because 14. 다음 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? There is a story about a schoolboy who was asked what he thought God was like. He replied that, as far as he could make out, God was "The sort of person who is always snooping round to see if anyone is enjoying himself and then trying to stop it." And I am afraid that is the sort of idea that the word Morality raises in a good many people's minds; something that interferes, something that stops you having a good time. In reality, moral rules are directions for running the human machine. Every moral rule is there to prevent a breakdown, or a strain, or a friction, in the running of that machine. That is why these rules at first seem to be constantly interfering with our . When you are being taught how to use any machine, the instructor keeps on saying, "No, don't do it like that," because, of course, there are all sorts of things that look all right and seem to you the natural way of treating the machine, but do not really work. ① past career ② business ③ mortality ④ natural inclinations ⑤ future religions 15. 다음 글의 요지로 가장 적절한 것은? Vegetarians insist that meat-eating can affect your brain and even your personality, sometimes making you cruel and mean. They say that when animals are killed, they generate a lot of stress hormones, which affect humans who consume their meat. But if you look at some famous vegetarians in history, that belief is somewhat questionable. Maximilien Robespierre was a vegetarian and he ordered thousands of people to be killed during the French Revolution. Adolf Hitler was also a strict vegetarian, yet he is infamous for his murderous and hateful personality. George Bernard Shaw was a vegetarian but there's no evidence to show that his diet ever quieted his trademark cynicism. ① Vegetarians contributed to making the world more peaceful. ② A vegetarian diet is more natural to humans than is meat eating. ③ A vegetarian diet does not necessarily change people's nature and behavior. ④ Most dictators and cynics in history are ironically vegetarians. ⑤ Vegetarians are always less cruel and mean than meat eaters. 16. 다음 글에서 말하고자 하는 바로 가장 적절한 것은? Most police officers decide whether you're getting a ticket or a warning before they even approach your vehicle. A good rule of thumb is to keep your car maintained in such a way that you wouldn't be embarrassed to drive it to a job interview. Keep it clean and free of bumper stickers that are anti-police or pro-violence. Forgo aftermarket add-ons like spoilers, tinted windows, and neon undercarriage lights. You want to say "I'm responsible and law-abiding," not "I hate the police, I speed all the time, and I'm trying to hide something from you." ① Maintaining your car can be advantageous for you to do well at a job interview. ② It is useless to say that you're responsible and law-abiding when you get caught by the police. ③ It is important for novice drivers to understand that anti-police slogans on a car cannot be tolerated. ④ In order to avoid getting a ticket, your car should be able to give the police a good impression. ⑤ If you get a speeding ticket, tell the police that you're going for a very important event. 2011년도 9급 공개경쟁채용시험 영 어 책형 가 - 8 - 17. 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? A University of Wisconsin study that followed 97 newlywed couples into their third year of marriage found that spouses who give their mates the cold shoulder cause as much marital distress as those who dish out scathing sarcasm and caustic criticism. Icy behavior included pouting, stomping out of the room, and more subtle brush-offs such as joking or changing the subject to avoid discussing a sticky subject. So it is crucial ____________________. ① to beware of icy behaviors when you talk to your spouse ② to make sure that you and your spouse want to discuss the same subject ③ to understand that nobody wants to talk about a sticky subject ④ to change the topic when your spouse doesn't want to talk about it ⑤ to make your spouse understand that criticism can spoil the whole discussion 18. 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? The National Safety Council called Monday for a nationwide ban on cell phone use while driving, a prohibition opposed by the industry. "Studies show that driving while talking on a cell phone is extremely dangerous and puts drivers at a four times greater risk of a crash," said Janet Froetscher, the council's president and CEO, in a news release, referring to a 1997 New England J urnal of Medicine examination of hospital records. "Driving drunk is also dangerous and against the law. When our friends have been drinking, we take the car keys away. It's time to _______________." Froetscher said. ① protest against restriction ② have regular check-ups ③ take the cell phone away ④ face a challenge nobody wants ⑤ prevent addiction to alcohol ※ 다음 글을 읽고 물음에 답하시오.(19 ～ 20) Potatoes were once hailed as history's most important vegetable, and the Incas―whose ancestors are credited with domesticating spuds in South America―worshiped a potato god. Potatoes are certified as a 'heart healthy' food by the American Heart Association. And just three years ago, the United Nations declared 2008 the International Year of the Potato, praising the tuber for being a good source of vitamin C, several B vitamins, and minerals including iron, potassium, phosphorus and magnesium. , when the team from Harvard Medical School and the Harvard School of Public Health in Boston examined the potato's role in the modern diet, they found that people who ate an extra serving of French fries every day gained an average of 3.4 pounds over a four-year period. On top of that, those who munched on an extra serving of potato chips daily gained an average of 1.7 pounds every four years. Overall, an extra serving of potatoes prepared in any non-chip form was found to contribute an average of 1.3 pounds to total weight over four years. 19. 이 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은? ① Origin of potatoes ② Pros and cons of potatoes ③ History of potato consumption ④ Market value of potatoes ⑤ Promotion of potato consumption 20. 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? ① Therefore ② However ③ Besides ④ In short ⑤ In other words
영어-A.pdf 영어-C.pdf 2011 사복직 9급 영어 해설 심상대.hwp 영 어 A 책형 1 쪽 영 어 문 1. 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 표현으로 가장 적절한 것은? Florence Nightingale made nursing a profession for women. ① retiring ② respective ③ respectable ④ recognizable ※ 다음 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 옳지 않은 것을 고르시오. [문 2 ～문 3] 문 2. While the world's eyes are focused ①to the deficiencies of the U.S. electoral system, ② bigger constitutional problems are ③ confronting ④ a few of Asia's fledgling democracies. 문 3. I was 16 when ①one day my father told me I could drive him into a remote village, on the condition that I take the car in ②to be serviced at a nearby garage. Having just learned to drive and ③ hard ever having the opportunity to use car, I readily accepted. I drove Dad into the village and promised to ④ pick him up at 4 p.m., then drove to a garage and dropped off the car. ※ 우리말을 영어로 잘못 옮긴 것을 고르시오. [문 4 ～ 문 5] 문 4. ① 그는 거짓말했다는 것을 인정했다. → He admitted being told a lie. ② 사람들은 특정 문화, 사고체계, 그리고 언어에 의해 물들어 간다. → People are instilled by a specific culture, thought system, and language. ③ 그녀는 아기의 울음을 멈추지 못했고, 따라서 한계에 이르렀다. → She couldn't stop the baby's crying, so she was at the end of her tether. ④ 수 주간 비가 내리고 있어 나는 이 날씨에 진저리가 난다. → Since it has been raining for weeks, I'm getting fed up with this weather.문 5. ① 그들은 그의 정직하지 못함을 비난했다. → They charged him with dishonesty. ② 그 사건은 심각한 양상을 띠기 시작했다. → The incident began to assume a serious aspect. ③ 언제 당신이 그녀의 어머니를 방문하는 것이 편하시겠습니까? → When will you be convenient to visit her mother? ④ 당신의 도움 덕분에 우리는 그 문제를 쉽게 해결할 수 있었습니다. → Thanks to your help, we were able to fix the problem with ease. ※ 밑줄 친 부분과 의미가 가장 가까운 것을 고르시오. [문 6 ～ 문 7] 문 6. Americans in general do not make a point of their personal honor. ① put in mind ② regard as important ③ express with unnecessary delicacy④ make a concession or exception of 문 7. Your point on the controversial issues came across at the meeting. ① made off ② was absurd ③ raised a question ④ was understood 문 8. 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 옳지 않은 것은? The week before I was scheduled to fly home from St. Louis, there ① were periods of bad weather － severe storms and tornadoes. I thought there was a good chance my flight to New York would be canceled. But that morning the weather was flyable and we took off as scheduled. The plane was full, every seat ②to take. We had not been aloft for long －the seat belt sign was still on －when the plane began to shudder. I travel often and have never been afraid of ③ flying. I assumed we were going through ④what is normally called turbulence, though I had never felt such lurching. 문 9. 다음 글의 내용과 일치하지 않는 것은? Cultural differences between Japanese and American managers have presented the biggest obstacles to Japanese companies investing in America. A seminar for Japanese executives working in America was attended by 25 men, nearly all of them in identical dark suits. Despite the room's stifling heating system, they resolutely refused to remove their jackets. Their coffee break lasted exactly the scheduled ten minutes. They did not ask any questions until after they had got to know one another a bit better at lunch. A similar seminar for 25 Americans working for Japanese subsidiaries in America included eight women. Several of the men removed their jackets on entering the room. A ten minute coffee break stretched beyond 20 minutes. Participants asked questions and several aggressively contradicted what the speakers had to say. ① Japanese executives in the seminar formed heterogeneous grouping in gender relationship. ② Japanese executives in the seminar put on the same dark suits. ③ After they had known one another, Japanese executives in the seminar came to ask questions. ④ American executives showed active reactions to the speakers of the seminar. 영 어 A 책형 2 쪽 ※ 다음 글을 읽고 질문에 답하시오. The United States and Canada will someday join the 95 percent of the world that uses the metric rather than the English system of measurement. Inches will become centimeters, pounds will become kilograms, quarts will become liters, and degrees Fahrenheit will become degrees centigrade (also called Celsius). The conversion to the metric system will not be easy, however, and will require enormous amounts of money and time. For example, every piece of machinery in every factory and every office will have to be replaced. Furthermore, every machine and tool that makes, repairs, or supplies another piece of equipment will have to be changed. Therefore, although the United States and Canada are committed to “going metric,” it will not happen next week or even next year. 문 10. The above passage suggests that the conversion to the metric system should be . ① drastic ② exigent ③ gradual ④ essential ※ 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 표현으로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. [문 11 ～ 문 12] 문 11. A : Excuse me. Could you tell me the way to City Hall? B : Sure, take this road until you pass the wedding hall on your left. Just after passing it, turn right. Continue down the road for about 10 minutes. When you see a bank, turn right and ... A : Sorry, can you say that again? ① Are you following me? ② Are you rooting for me? ③ Can you just pick one now? ④ Are you up and about sooner or later? 문 12. A : Fire Station, Human Resources Department. What can I do for you? B : Yes, I'm calling about your help-wanted ad in the newspaper. Is the job still available? A : Yes, it is. B : A : You have to turn in your resume and cover letter by mail. And then wait to be interviewed. B : All right. Thank you for your detailed information. ① What would you like about this job? ② What should I do to apply for the job?③ When is the due date for the application? ④ What qualifications do I need for this job?문 13. 다음 글의 내용과 일치하지 않는 것은? Americans over 65 are probably the fastest growing age group in the country. By the year 2030, according to the U.S. Census Bureau, nearly one-quarter of the United States population will be over 65. The major reasons for this graying of America are recent medical advances that have conquered many diseases that used to be fatal, so that more people are living longer. As a result of major social and economic changes in the United States, families, the traditional support system in other countries, are not in a position to take care of their elderly relatives. The majority of American women are currently working. Consequently, the traditional role of daughter or daughter -in-law as care-giver has become obsolete. Moreover, houses and apartments are often smaller than they used to be. Also, increased mobility has separated and spread families over thousands of miles. More often, however, it is the older people who do not want to move in with their children. ① In about twenty years, elderly citizens will constitute about 25 % of the U.S. population. ② Medical advances have contributed to increasing America's aging population. ③ American women traditionally served as a role to provide care in the family. ④ Increased mobility enabled the elderly to get together with their children. 문 14. 주어진 문장으로 시작하여 다음 글을 문맥에 맞게 순서대로 연결한 것은? When asked to make a donation, even those who would like to support the charity in some way say no, because they assume the small amount they can afford won't do much to help the cause. A. After introducing himself, the researcher asked the residents, “Would you be willing to help by giving a donation?” For half of the residents, the request ended there. For the other half, however, he added, “Even a penny will help.” B. Based on this reasoning, a researcher thought that one way to urge people to donate would be to inform them that even a small sum would be helpful. To test this hypothesis, he went to door-to-door to request donations for the American Cancer Society. C. When he analyzed the results, the researcher found that, consistent with his hypothesis, people in the “even-a-penny-will-help” condition were almost twice as likely as those in the other condition to donate to the cause. ① A － B － C ② A － C － B ③ B － A － C ④ C － A － B 영 어 A 책형 3 쪽 ※ 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 표현으로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. [문 15 ～ 문 16] 문 15. Native-born Alaskans include both native peoples and the descendants of the early settlers. The natives, which are the Eskimos, Aleuts, and Indians, migrated to Alaska from Siberia as far back as 15,000 years ago. Some of the natives still live the way their ancestors did, hunting and fishing in the wilderness. , others have modern lives in the cities. No matter where they live or when they got there or what ethnic group they belong to, all Alaskans have one thing in common. That is the splendors of the great land in which they live. ① Consequently ② Furthermore ③ Therefore ④ However 문 16. As soon as we are born, the world gets to work on us and transforms us from merely biological into social units. Every human being at every stage of history or pre-history is born into a society and from his earliest years is moulded by that society. The language which he speaks is not an individual inheritance, but a social acquisition from the group in which he grows up. In a word, the individual apart from society would be both speechless and mindless. The lasting fascination of the Robinson Crusoe myth is due to its attempt to imagine an individual independent of society. The attempt . Robinson is not an abstract individual, but an Englishman from York; he carries his Bible with him and prays to his tribal God. The myth quickly bestows on him his Man Friday; and the building of a new society begins. ① fails ② repeats ③ succeeds ④ helps 문 17. 다음 글의 주장으로 가장 적합한 것은? Some people have the ability to awaken at a particular time each day. But the rest of us need a little help. Lots of people use alarm clocks that generate harsh sounds like buzzes or beeps. They've always used alarm clocks, which are cheap and functional, so they never consider the alternative. They wake to an alarm day after day. Don't be one of them. Alarms signal danger and urgency. You don't need to start your day with that in mind. Instead, it's much better to ease into wakefulness as pleasant music wafts through the air and into your consciousness. If you want to get your day off to a good start, wake up to music. ① Get up early in the morning. ② Don't wake up to an alarm clock. ③ Listen to pleasant music all the time. ④ Buy a cheap and functional alarm clock. 문 18. 다음 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은? The customer who went into a retail store owned by an independent businessman was sure to get personal attention: his individual purchase was important to the owner of the store; he was received like somebody who mattered, his wishes were studied; the very act of buying gave him a feeling of importance and dignity. How different is the relationship of a customer to a department store. He is impressed by the vastness of the building, the number of employees, the profusion of commodities displayed; all this makes him feel small and unimportant by comparison. As an individual he is of no importance to the department store. There is nobody who is glad about his coming, nobody who is particularly concerned about his wishes. The act of buying has become similar to going to the post office and buying stamps. ① Historical Background of Department Store ② A Change in the Position of the Customers ③ Importance and Dignity of Customers in Our Era ④ Understanding Department Store and Its Customers 문 19. 다음 글의 내용과 일치하는 것은? In 1848, gold was discovered at Sutter's Mill, about 100 miles east of San Francisco, and the first great gold rush began. Within a year 100,000 people, only 8,000 of whom were women, had reached the coast of California. More than half of them had traveled overland across the American continent. “Gold fever” began to spread. Homes, farms, and stores were abandoned as everybody raced for California. Many came by sea, and in July 1850, more than 500 ships were anchored in San Francisco Bay, many of which had been deserted by gold-hungry sailors. A few people became fabulously rich, but it was a risky business. Law and order broke down. Even if a miner “struck it rich,” there were always those who would try to take it away: gamblers, outlaws, thieves, and saloon keepers. ① Among the people of gold rush, women occupied a larger portion. ② Over 50,000 people had crossed American continent only by plane. ③ During gold rush, many people became unbelievably rich. ④ American “Gold fever” had begotten various crimes. 문 20. 밑줄 친 부분에 공통으로 들어갈 표현으로 가장 적절한 것은? In the past few decades, governments have undertaken to control both prices and output in the agricultural sector, largely in response to the pressures of the farmers themselves. In the absence of such control, farm prices tend to more than do most other prices, and the incomes of farmers to an even greater degree. Not only are incomes in agriculture unstable, but they also tend to be lower than incomes in other economic sectors. ① discern ② increase ③ fluctuate ④ apprehend
영어.pdf 2010 국가직 9급 영어 해설 헤더진.pdf 2010 국가직 9급 영어 해설 강수정.pdf 2010 국가직 9급 영어 해설 두형호.pdf 2010 국가직 9급 영어 해설 심상대.pdf 2010 국가직 9급 영어 해설 안성호.pdf 2010 국가직 9급 영어 해설 이리라.pdf 2010 국가직 9급 영어 해설 이영규.pdf 2010 국가직 9급 영어 해설 장수용.pdf 2010 국가직 9급 영어 해설 제이디윤.pdf 2010 국가직 9급 영어 해설 한덕현.pdf 2010 국가직 9급 영어 해설 허민.pdf 영 어 고 책형 1 쪽 영 어 문 1. 다음 우리말을 영어로 옮긴 것으로 가장 옳은 것은? 우리가 작년에 그 아파트를 구입했었더라면 얼마나 좋을까. ① I wish we purchased the apartment last year. ② I wished we purchased the apartment last year. ③ I wish we had purchased the apartment last year. ④ I wished we had purchased the apartment last year. 문 2. 다음 글에서 전체적인 흐름과 관계없는 문장은? Some students make the mistake of thinking that mathematics consists solely of solving problems by means of formulas and rules. ① To become successful problem solvers, however, they have to appreciate the theory, recognizing the logical structure and reasoning behind the mathematical methods. ② To do so requires a precision of understanding the exact meaning of a mathematical statement and of expressing thoughts with accuracy and clarity. ③ However, this precision cannot be achieved without real appreciation of the subtleties of language. ④In fact, anyone can advance much beyond mere problem solving tasks without manipulating mathematical formulas and rules. That is, superior ability in the use of language is a prerequisite to become successful problem solvers. 문 3. 다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분의 의미로 가장 적절한 것은? An old woman came into her doctor's office and confessed to an embarrassing problem. "I fart all the time, Doctor Johnson, but they're soundless, and they have no odor. In fact, since I've been here, I've farted no less than twenty times. What can I do?" "Here's a prescription, Mrs. Harris. Take these pills three times a day for seven days and come back and see me in a week." Next week in upset Mrs. Harris marched into Dr. Johnson's office. "Doctor, I don't know what was in those pills, but the problem is worse! I'm farting just as much, but now they smell terrible! What do you have to say for yourself?" "Calm down, Mrs. Harris," said the doctor soothingly. "Now that we've fixed your sinuses, we'll work on your other sense!" ① oral ② sixth ③ visual ④ auditory ※ 다음 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. [문 4 ～ 문 5] 문 4. The sales talk of the old-fashioned businessman was essentially rational. He knew his merchandise, he knew the needs of the customer, and on the basis of this knowledge he tried to sell. To be sure his sales talk was not entirely objective and he used persuasion as much as he could; yet, in order to be efficient, it had to be a rather rational and sensible kind of talk. A vast sector of modern advertising is different; it does not appeal to reason but to emotion; like any other kind of hypnoid suggestion, it tries to impress its customers emotionally and then make them submit intellectually. This type of advertising impresses the customers by all sorts of means such as the repetition of the same formula again and again. All these methods are essentially irrational; they have nothing to do with the qualities of the merchandise, and they suppress and kill the critical capacities of the customers. ① Significance of the Sales Talk ② Change in Advertising Methods ③ Critical Capacities of the Customers ④ Importance of Emotional Advertising Slogans 문 5. Many of the greatest economic evils of our time are the fruits of risk, uncertainty, and ignorance. It is because particular individuals, fortunate in situation or in abilities, are able to take advantage of uncertainty and ignorance, and also because for the same reason big business is often a lottery, that great inequalities of wealth come about. And these same factors are also the cause of the unemployment of labor, or the disappointment of reasonable business expectations, and of the impairment of efficiency and production. Yet the cure lies outside of the operations of individuals. I believe that the cure for these things is partly to be sought in the deliberate control of the currency and of credit by a central institution, and partly in the collection and dissemination of data relating to the business situation including the full publicity, by law if necessary, of all business facts which it is useful to know. Even if these measures prove insufficient, they will furnish us with better knowledge than we have now for taking the next step. ① Economic Evils and Money-oriented Society ② Economic Evils and Solutions to Them ③ Role of the Central Institution ④ Origins of Economic Evils 영 어 고 책형 2 쪽 ※ 다음 밑줄 친 부분과 의미가 가장 가까운 것을 고르시오. [문 6～문 8] 문 6. Sarah frequently hurts others when she criticizes their work because she is so outspoken. ① reserved ② wordy ③ retrospective ④ candid 문 7. Mary and I have been friends over 10 years but I sometimes have a strange feeling to her. She is as deep as a well. ① easy to persuade ② simple to satisfy ③ impatient to deal with ④ difficult to understand 문 8. Quite often, the simple life feels out of reach because of all the problems and challenges that crop up. ① dominate ② finish ③ happen ④ increase 문 9. 다음 문장의 빈칸에 들어갈 가장 적절한 것은? The executives should estimate their debt-to-income ratios to see whether they run the risk of becoming . ① insolvent ② inverted ③ distracted ④ decoded ※ 다음 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 옳지 않은 것을 고르시오. [문 10～문 11] 문 10. I ① looked forward to this visit more than one ② would think, ③ considered I was flying seven hundred miles to sit alongside a ④ dying man. But I seemed to slip into a time warp when I visited Morrie, and I liked myself better when I was there. 문 11. New York's Christmas is featured in many movies ① while this time of year, ② which means that this holiday is the most romantic and special in the Big Apple. ③ The colder it gets, the brighter the city becomes ④ with colorful lights and decorations. 문 12. 다음 우리말을 영어로 옮긴 것으로 옳지 않은 것은? ① 영어를 배우는 것은 결코 쉬운 일은 아니다. → It is by no means easy to learn English. ② 비록 가난하지만 그녀는 정직하고 부지런하다. → Poor as she is, she is honest and diligent. ③ 사업에서 신용만큼 중요한 것은 없다. → Everything in business is so important as credit. ④ 그 남자뿐만 아니라 너도 그 실패에 책임이 있다. → You as well as he are responsible for the failure. ※ 다음 글의 빈칸에 들어갈 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. [문 13 ～문 14] 문 13. One custom that is common at weddings in the United States is throwing rice at the bride and groom as they leave the place where the wedding ceremony has just been held. No one knows exactly why people throw rice. One explanation is that the rice assures that the couple will have many children. If this is true, then the custom is not always a good one now because . ① a lot of couples do not want many children ② many people are pleased about it ③ many couples go on honeymoon the next day ④ it is unreasonable to clear away rice after the ceremony 문 14. "There is a huge drive to deep right," the announcer cries. His voice shrills with excitement, "It's high, it's far, it's going, going ..., gone." As the batter triumphantly circles the bases, the crowd cheers politely. However, their suspicion is nearly as audible as their pleasure. Where did the muscles come from? Was the homer legitimate? Should it count in this particular game? And what about the sport's records? Due to the widespread use in sports of anabolic steroids, the lords of the game must accept that the very integrity of the game is . These steroids were developed originally to help cancer patients. They promote weight gain and increase muscle mass. In recent years, athletes have taken them hoping to improve their performance on the playing field. The problem with this is two-fold. First, steroid use gives one group of athletes an unfair advantage. Second, steroid users incur a great risk of psychological and physical side effects. ① under a ban ② in abundance ③ at stake ④ in control ※ 다음 대화의 흐름으로 보아 빈칸에 들어갈 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. [문 15 ～ 문 16] 문 15. A : You know, I'm getting transferred to Seoul. B : Seoul? Is that good or bad? A : Oh, I was hoping for it. B : . ① I really wanted to go to Seoul ② Oh, it's not easy for me ③ In that case, I'm happy for you ④ I appreciate your patience 문 16. A : It doesn't make sense. Why should the power go off all of a sudden and the phone line? B : Maybe some kind of an electrical storm or something. A : Sky's just as blue as anything. Not a cloud. No lightening. No thunder. Nothing. How could it be a storm? ① That doesn't seem likely. ② You got the point. ③ Guess what? ④ I think so. 영 어 고 책형 3 쪽 ※ 다음 글의 내용과 일치하지 않는 것을 고르시오. [문 17 ～ 문 18] 문 17. In the late 20th century, the northern hemisphere experienced its most widespread warmth for 1,200 years, according to the journal Science. The findings support evidence pointing to unprecedented recent warming of the climate linked to greenhouse emissions. University of East Anglia(UEA) researchers measured changes in fossil shells, tree rings, ice cores and other past temperature records. They also looked at people's diaries from the last 750 years. Timothy Osborn and Keith Briffa of UEA analysed instrument measurements of temperatures from 1856 onwards to establish the geographic extent of recent warming. Then, they compared this data with evidence dating back as far as AD 800. The analysis confirmed periods of significant warmth in the northern hemisphere from AD 890 to 1170 (the socalled "Medieval Warm Period") and for much colder periods from AD 1580 to 1850 (the "Little Ice Age"). ① Researchers at UEA examined a variety of materials to check temperature changes. ② The Medieval Warm Period was shorter than the Little Ice Age. ③ The late 20th century is not the first in history that witnessed a temperature change. ④ Greenhouse emissions are considered to be the cause of the recent warming. 문 18. Ice wines are becoming increasingly popular across North America. While ice wines have always been fashionable in Western Europe, they were hard to find in North America and often ridiculously expensive. Ice wines are more expensive than other types of wine on account of the temperature requirements to make them. The grapes must be left on the vines until the first frost, after which they are harvested. If the first frost comes too late, the grapes will turn rotten, and the harvest will be lost. Add to that the cost of shipping the wines, and they become rather expensive. However, good quality North American ice wines, produced in California and British Columbia, have recently come onto the market, making ice wines more affordable. ① Specific temperature conditions are required to make ice wines. ② Ice wines used to be difficult to come by in North America. ③ The shipping costs contribute to the high prices of ice wines. ④ North America was well-known for its high quality ice wines. 문 19. 다음 글의 내용과 일치하는 것은? The umbrella is so old that no one knows where it came from －it was invented before man learned how to write. But for thousands of years, the umbrella was used only for protection from the sun, rather than from the rain. The word 'umbrella', in fact, comes from the Latin word 'umbra', which means 'shade', and ancient slaves held umbrellas over their masters to give them shade. At the beginning, umbrellas were carried only by women, for they weren't considered 'manly' enough to be used by men. It wasn't until about 300 years ago that people began to use waterproof umbrellas in the rain. ① The umbrella was invented after man learned how to write. ② The umbrella was used mainly for protection from the rain. ③ At the beginning, umbrellas were carried only by men. ④ People began to use waterproof umbrellas about 300 years ago. 문 20. 다음 글을 읽고 아래 문장의 빈칸에 들어갈 가장 적절한 것은? Euthanasia generally refers to mercy killing, the voluntary ending of the life of someone who is terminally or hopelessly ill. Euthanasia has become a legal, medical and ethical issue over which opinion is divided. Euthanasia can be either active or passive. Active euthanasia means that a physician or other medical personnel takes a deliberate action that will induce death. Passive euthanasia means letting a patient die for lack of treatment or suspending treatment that has begun. A good deal of the controversy about mercy killing stems from the decisionmaking process. Who decides if a patient is to die? This issue had not been established legally in the United States. The matter is left to state law, which usually allows the physician in charge to suggest the option of death to a patient's relatives, especially if the patient is brain-dead. The article suggests that euthanasia should be . ① primarily an ethical issue ② decided by physicians ③ determined by the federal government ④ a controversial issue not to be easily resolved