영어-A.pdf 영어-C.pdf 2019 지방직 9급 영어 해설 영스파.pdf 2019 지방직 9급 영어 해설 조재권.pdf 2019 지방직 9급 영어 해설 이동기.pdf 2019 지방직 9급 영어 해설 이충권.pdf 2019 지방직 9급 영어 해설 김기훈.pdf 2019 지방직 9급 영어 해설 손진숙.pdf 2019 지방직 9급 영어 해설 심우철.pdf 2019 지방직 9급 영어 해설 헤더진.pdf 2019 지방직 9급 영어 해설 김소영.pdf 2019 지방직 9급 영어 해설 승주영.pdf 2019 지방직 9급 영어 해설 김범재.pdf 2019 지방직 9급 영어 해설 망가진영어.pdf 2019 지방직 9급 영어 해설 장종재.pdf 2019 지방직 9급 영어 해설 박철우.pdf 2019 지방직 9급 영어 해설 김재운.pdf 2019 지방직 9급 영어 해설 손재석.pdf 2019년도 지방공무원 9급 등 공개경쟁임용 필기시험 영 어 A 책형 1 쪽 영 어 ※ 밑줄 친 부분의 의미와 가장 가까운 것을 고르시오. [문 1.～문 2.] 문 1. I came to see these documents as relics of a sensibility now dead and buried, which needed to be excavated. ① exhumed ② packed ③ erased ④ celebrated 문 2. Riding a roller coaster can be a joy ride of emotions: the nervous anticipation as you’re strapped into your seat, the questioning and regret that comes as you go up, up, up, and the sheer adrenaline rush as the car takes that first dive. ① utter ② scary ③ occasional ④ manageable 문 3. 두 사람의 대화 중 가장 어색한 것은 ① A: What time are we having lunch? B: It’ll be ready before noon. ② A: I called you several times. Why didn’t you answer? B: Oh, I think my cell phone was turned off. ③ A: Are you going to take a vacation this winter? B: I might. I haven’t decided yet. ④ A: Hello. Sorry I missed your call. B: Would you like to leave a message? 문 4. 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은 A: Hello. I need to exchange some money. B: Okay. What currency do you need? A: I need to convert dollars into pounds. What’s the exchange rate? B: The exchange rate is 0.73 pounds for every dollar. A: Fine. Do you take a commission? B: Yes, we take a small commission of 4 dollars. A: ______________________________? B: We convert your currency back for free. Just bring your receipt with you. ① How much does this cost ② How should I pay for that ③ What’s your buy-back policy ④ Do you take credit cards 문 5. 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 옳지 않은 것은 Each year, more than 270,000 pedestrians ①lose their lives on the world’s roads. Many leave their homes as they would on any given day never ②to return. Globally, pedestrians constitute 22% of all road traffic fatalities, and in some countries this proportion is ③as high as two thirds of all road traffic deaths. Millions of pedestrians are non-fatally ④ injuring ― some of whom are left with permanent disabilities. These incidents cause much suffering and grief as well as economic hardship. 문 6. 어법상 옳은 것은 ① The paper charged her with use the company’s money for her own purposes. ② The investigation had to be handled with the utmost care lest suspicion be aroused. ③ Another way to speed up the process would be made the shift to a new system. ④ Burning fossil fuels is one of the lead cause of climate change. 문 7. 주어진 글 다음에 이어질 글의 순서로 가장 적절한 것은 There is a thought that can haunt us: since everything probably affects everything else, how can we ever make sense of the social world? If we are weighed down by that worry, though, we won’t ever make progress. (A) Every discipline that I am familiar with draws caricatures of the world in order to make sense of it. The modern economist does this by building models, which are deliberately stripped down representations of the phenomena out there. (B) The economist John Maynard Keynes described our subject thus: “Economics is a science of thinking in terms of models joined to the art of choosing models which are relevant to the contemporary world.” (C) When I say “stripped down,” I really mean stripped down. It isn’t uncommon among us economists to focus on one or two causal factors, exclude everything else, hoping that this will enable us to understand how just those aspects of reality work and interact. ① (A)－(B)－(C) ② (A)－(C)－(B) ③ (B)－(C)－(A) ④ (B)－(A)－(C) 문 8. 다음 글의 내용과 일치하는 것은 Prehistoric societies some half a million years ago did not distinguish sharply between mental and physical disorders. Abnormal behaviors, from simple headaches to convulsive attacks, were attributed to evil spirits that inhabited or controlled the afflicted person’s body. According to historians, these ancient peoples attributed many forms of illness to demonic possession, sorcery, or the behest of an offended ancestral spirit. Within this system of belief, called demonology, the victim was usually held at least partly responsible for the misfortune. It has been suggested that Stone Age cave dwellers may have treated behavior disorders with a surgical method called trephining, in which part of the skull was chipped away to provide an opening through which the evil spirit could escape. People may have believed that when the evil spirit left, the person would return to his or her normal state. Surprisingly, trephined skulls have been found to have healed over, indicating that some patients survived this extremely crude operation. ※ convulsive: 경련의 ※ behest: 명령 ① Mental disorders were clearly differentiated from physical disorders. ② Abnormal behaviors were believed to result from evil spirits affecting a person. ③ An opening was made in the skull for an evil spirit to enter a person’s body. ④ No cave dwellers survived trephining. 2019년도 지방공무원 9급 등 공개경쟁임용 필기시험 영 어 A 책형 2 쪽 문 9. 다음 글의 주제로 가장 적절한 것은 As the digital revolution upends newsrooms across the country, here’s my advice for all the reporters. I’ve been a reporter for more than 25 years, so I have lived through a half dozen technological life cycles. The most dramatic transformations have come in the last half dozen years. That means I am, with increasing frequency, making stuff up as I go along. Much of the time in the news business, we have no idea what we are doing. We show up in the morning and someone says, “Can you write a story about (pick one) tax policy/immigration/climate change?” When newspapers had once-a-day deadlines, we said a reporter would learn in the morning and teach at night―write a story that could inform tomorrow’s readers on a topic the reporter knew nothing about 24 hours earlier. Now it is more like learning at the top of the hour and teaching at the bottom of the same hour. I’m also running a political podcast, for example, and during the presidential conventions, we should be able to use it to do real-time interviews anywhere. I am just increasingly working without a script. ① a reporter as a teacher ② a reporter and improvisation ③ technology in politics ④ fields of journalism and technology 문 10. 글의 흐름상 가장 어색한 문장은 Children’s playgrounds throughout history were the wilderness, fields, streams, and hills of the country and the roads, streets, and vacant places of villages, towns, and cities. ①The term playground refers to all those places where children gather to play their free, spontaneous games. ②Only during the past few decades have children vacated these natural playgrounds for their growing love affair with video games, texting, and social networking. ③Even in rural America few children are still roaming in a free-ranging manner, unaccompanied by adults. ④ When out of school, they are commonly found in neighborhoods digging in sand, building forts, playing traditional games, climbing, or playing ball games. They are rapidly disappearing from the natural terrain of creeks, hills, and fields, and like their urban counterparts, are turning to their indoor, sedentary cyber toys for entertainment. ※ 밑줄 친 부분의 의미와 가장 가까운 것을 고르시오. [문 11.～문 12.] 문 11. Time does seem to slow to a trickle during a boring afternoon lecture and race when the brain is engrossed in something highly entertaining. ① enhanced by ② apathetic to ③ stabilized by ④ preoccupied with 문 12. These daily updates were designed to help readers keep abreast of the markets as the government attempted to keep them under control. ① be acquainted with ② get inspired by ③ have faith in ④ keep away from ※ 밑줄 친 (A), (B)에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. [문 13. ～문 14.] 문 13. In the 1840s, the island of Ireland suffered famine. Because Ireland could not produce enough food to feed its population, about a million people died of (A) ; they simply didn’t have enough to eat to stay alive. The famine caused another 1.25 million people to (B) ; many left their island home for the United States; the rest went to Canada, Australia, Chile, and other countries. Before the famine, the population of Ireland was approximately 6 million. After the great food shortage, it was about 4 million. (A) (B) ① dehydration be deported ② trauma immigrate ③ starvation emigrate ④ fatigue be detained 문 14. Today the technology to create the visual component of virtual-reality (VR) experiences is well on its way to becoming widely accessible and affordable. But to work powerfully, virtual reality needs to be about more than visuals. (A) what you are hearing convincingly matches the visuals, the virtual experience breaks apart. Take a basketball game. If the players, the coaches, the announcers, and the crowd all sound like they’re sitting midcourt, you may as well watch the game on television ― you’ll get just as much of a sense that you are “there.” (B) , today’s audio equipment and our widely used recording and reproduction formats are simply inadequate to the task of re-creating convincingly the sound of a battlefield on a distant planet, a basketball game at courtside, or a symphony as heard from the first row of a great concert hall. (A) (B) ① If By contrast ② Unless Consequently ③ If Similarly ④ Unless Unfortunately 문 15. 주어진 문장이 들어갈 위치로 가장 적절한 것은 The same thinking can be applied to any number of goals, like improving performance at work. The happy brain tends to focus on the short term. ( ① ) That being the case, it’s a good idea to consider what short-term goals we can accomplish that will eventually lead to accomplishing long-term goals. ( ② ) For instance, if you want to lose thirty pounds in six months, what short-term goals can you associate with losing the smaller increments of weight that will get you there? ( ③ ) Maybe it’s something as simple as rewarding yourself each week that you lose two pounds. ( ④ ) By breaking the overall goal into smaller, shorter-term parts, we can focus on incremental accomplishments instead of being overwhelmed by the enormity of the goal in our profession. 2019년도 지방공무원 9급 등 공개경쟁임용 필기시험 영 어 A 책형 3 쪽 문 16. 우리말을 영어로 잘못 옮긴 것은 ① 혹시 내게 전화하고 싶은 경우에 이게 내 번호야. →This is my number just in case you would like to call me. ② 나는 유럽 여행을 준비하느라 바쁘다. →I am busy preparing for a trip to Europe. ③ 그녀는 남편과 결혼한 지 20년 이상 되었다. →She has married to her husband for more than two decades. ④ 나는 내 아들이 읽을 책을 한 권 사야 한다. →I should buy a book for my son to read. ※ 다음 글의 내용과 일치하지 않는 것을 고르시오. [문 17.～문 18.] 문 17. In the nineteenth century, the most respected health and medical experts all insisted that diseases were caused by “miasma,” a fancy term for bad air. Western society’s system of health was based on this assumption: to prevent diseases, windows were kept open or closed, depending on whether there was more miasma inside or outside the room; it was believed that doctors could not pass along disease because gentlemen did not inhabit quarters with bad air. Then the idea of germs came along. One day, everyone believed that bad air makes you sick. Then, almost overnight, people started realizing there were invisible things called microbes and bacteria that were the real cause of diseases. This new view of disease brought sweeping changes to medicine, as surgeons adopted antiseptics and scientists invented vaccines and antibiotics. But, just as momentously, the idea of germs gave ordinary people the power to influence their own lives. Now, if you wanted to stay healthy, you could wash your hands, boil your water, cook your food thoroughly, and clean cuts and scrapes with iodine. ① In the nineteenth century, opening windows was irrelevant to the density of miasma. ② In the nineteenth century, it was believed that gentlemen did not live in places with bad air. ③ Vaccines were invented after people realized that microbes and bacteria were the real cause of diseases. ④ Cleaning cuts and scrapes could help people to stay healthy. 문 18. Followers are a critical part of the leadership equation, but their role has not always been appreciated. For a long time, in fact, “the common view of leadership was that leaders actively led and subordinates, later called followers, passively and obediently followed.” Over time, especially in the last century, social change shaped people’s views of followers, and leadership theories gradually recognized the active and important role that followers play in the leadership process. Today it seems natural to accept the important role followers play. One aspect of leadership is particularly worth noting in this regard: Leadership is a social influence process shared among all members of a group. Leadership is not restricted to the influence exerted by someone in a particular position or role; followers are part of the leadership process, too. ① For a length of time, it was understood that leaders actively led and followers passively followed. ② People’s views of subordinates were influenced by social change. ③ The important role of followers is still denied today. ④ Both leaders and followers participate in the leadership process. ※ 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. [문 19.～ 문 20.] 문 19. Language proper is itself double-layered. Single noises are only occasionally meaningful: mostly, the various speech sounds convey coherent messages only when combined into an overlapping chain, like different colors of ice-cream melting into one another. In birdsong also, ________________________________________: the sequence is what matters. In both humans and birds, control of this specialized sound-system is exercised by one half of the brain, normally the left half, and the system is learned relatively early in life. And just as many human languages have dialects, so do some bird species: in California, the white-crowned sparrow has songs so different from area to area that Californians can supposedly tell where they are in the state by listening to these sparrows. ① individual notes are often of little value ② rhythmic sounds are important ③ dialects play a critical role ④ no sound-system exists 문 20. Nobel Prize-winning psychologist Daniel Kahneman changed the way the world thinks about economics, upending the notion that human beings are rational decision-makers. Along the way, his discipline-crossing influence has altered the way physicians make medical decisions and investors evaluate risk on Wall Street. In a paper, Kahneman and his colleagues outline a process for making big strategic decisions. Their suggested approach, labeled as “Mediating Assessments Protocol,” or MAP, has a simple goal: To put off gut-based decision-making until a choice can be informed by a number of separate factors. “One of the essential purposes of MAP is basically to _____________ intuition,” Kahneman said in a recent interview with The Post. The structured process calls for analyzing a decision based on six to seven previously chosen attributes, discussing each of them separately and assigning them a relative percentile score, and finally, using those scores to make a holistic judgment. ① improve ② delay ③ possess ④ facilitate
영어_9급_A형.pdf 영어_9급_B형.pdf 2019 서울시 9급 영어 해설 심우철.pdf 2019 서울시 9급 영어 해설 이동기.hwp 2019 서울시 9급 영어 해설 김기훈.pdf 2019 서울시 9급 영어 해설 손진숙.pdf 2019 서울시 9급 영어 해설 승주영.hwp 2019 서울시 9급 영어 해설 망가진영어.pdf 2019 서울시 9급 영어 해설 성정혜.pdf 2019 서울시 9급 영어 해설 손재석.pdf 영 어(9급) A책형 1/3쪽 ※ 밑줄 친 부분의 의미와 가장 가까운 것은? (1~2) 1. At least in high school she made one decision where she finally saw eye to eye with her parents. ① quarreled② disputed ③ parted④ agreed 2. Justifications are accounts in which one accepts responsibility for the act in question, but denies the pejorative quality associated with it. ① derogatory ② extrovert ③ mandatory ④ redundant ※ 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? (3~5) 3. Tests ruled out dirt and poor sanitation as causes of yellow fever, and a mosquito was the carrier. ① suspected② uncivilized ③ cheerful ④ volunteered 4. Generally speaking, people living in 2018 are pretty fortunate when you compare modern times to the full scale of human history. Life expectancy at around 72 years, and diseases like smallpox and diphtheria, which were widespread and deadly only a century ago, are preventable, curable, or altogether eradicated. ① curtails ② hovers ③ initiates ④ aggravates 5. To imagine that there are concrete patterns to past events, which can provide for our lives and decisions, is to project on to history a hope for a certainty which it cannot fulfill. ① hallucinations ② templates ③ inquiries ④ commotion 6. 대화 중 가장 어색한 것은? ① A : What was the movie like on Saturday? B : Great. I really enjoyed it. ② A : Hello. I’d like to have some shirts pressed. B : Yes, how soon will you need them? ③ A : Would you like a single or a double room? B : Oh, it’s just for me, so a single is fine. ④ A : What time is the next flight to Boston? B : It will take about 45 minutes to get to Boston. ※ 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 가장 옳지 않은 것은? (7~10) 7. Inventor Elias Howe attributed the discovery of the sewing machine ① for a dream ② in which he was captured by cannibals. He noticed as they danced around him ③ that there were holes at the tips of spears, and he realized this was the design feature he needed ④ to solve his problem. 8. By 1955 Nikita Khrushchev ① had been emerged as Stalin’s successor in the USSR, and he ② embarked on a policy of “peaceful coexistence” ③ whereby East and West ④ were to continue their competition, but in a less confrontational manner. 9. Squid, octopuses, and cuttlefish are all ① types of cephalopods. ② Each of these animals has special cells under its skin that ③ contains pigment, a colored liquid. A cephalopod can move these cells toward or away from its skin. This allows it ④ to change the pattern and color of its appearance. 10. There is a more serious problem than ① maintaining the cities. As people become more comfortable working alone, they may become ② less social. It’s ③ easier to stay home in comfortable exercise clothes or a bathrobe than ④ getting dressed for yet another business meeting! 영 어(9급) A책형 2/3쪽 11. 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은? Economists say that production of an information good involves high fixed costs but low marginal costs. The cost of producing the first copy of an information good may be substantial, but the cost of producing(or reproducing) additional copies is negligible. This sort of cost structure has many important implications. For example, cost-based pricing just doesn’t work: a 10 or 20 percent markup on unit cost makes no sense when unit cost is zero. You must price your information goods according to consumer value, not according to your production cost. ① Securing the Copyright ② Pricing the Information Goods ③ Information as Intellectual Property ④ The Cost of Technological Change 12. 밑줄 친 부분이 지칭하는 대상이 다른 것은? Dracula ants get their name for the way they sometimes drink the blood of their own young. But this week, ① the insects have earned a new claim to fame. Dracula ants of the species Mystrium camillae can snap their jaws together so fast, you could fit 5,000 strikes into the time it takes us to blink an eye. This means ② the blood-suckers wield the fastest known movement in nature, according to a study published this week in the journal Royal Society Open Science. Interestingly, the ants produce their record-breaking snaps simply by pressing their jaws together so hard that ③ they bend. This stores energy in one of the jaws, like a spring, until it slides past the other and lashes out with extraordinary speed and force―reaching a maximum velocity of over 200 miles per hour. It’s kind of like what happens when you snap your fingers, only 1,000 times faster. Dracula ants are secretive predators as ④ they prefer to hunt under the leaf litter or in subterranean tunnels. 13. 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 말로 가장 옳은 것은? I am writing to you from a train in Germany, sitting on the floor. The train is crowded, and all the seats are taken. However, there is a special class of “comfort customers” who are allowed to make those already seated their seats. ① give up ② take ③ giving up ④ taken ※ 글의 흐름상 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? (14~16) 14. A country’s wealth plays a central role in education, so lack of funding and resources from a nation-state can weaken a system. Governments in sub-Saharan Africa spend only 2.4 percent of the world’s public resources on education, yet 15 percent of the school-age population lives there. , the United States spends 28 percent of all the money spent in the world on education, yet it houses only 4 percent of the school-age population. ① Nevertheless ② Furthermore ③ Conversely ④ Similarly 15. “Highly conscientious employees do a series of things better than the rest of us,” says University of Illinois psychologist Brent Roberts, who studies conscientiousness. Roberts owes their success to “hygiene” factors. Conscientious people have a tendency to organize their lives well. A disorganized, unconscientious person might lose 20 or 30 minutes rooting through their files to find the right document, an inefficient experience conscientious folks tend to avoid. Basically, by being conscientious, people they’d otherwise create for themselves. ① deal with setbacks ② do thorough work ③ follow norms ④ sidestep stress 16. Climate change, deforestation, widespread pollution and the sixth mass extinction of biodiversity all define living in our world today ― an era that has come to be known as “the Anthropocene”. These crises are underpinned by production and consumption which greatly exceeds global ecological limits, but blame is far from evenly shared. The world’s 42 wealthiest people own as much as the poorest 3.7 billion, and they generate far greater environmental impacts. Some have therefore proposed using the term “Capitalocene” to describe this era of ecological devastation and growing inequality, reflecting capitalism’s logic of endless growth and . ① the better world that is still within our reach ② the accumulation of wealth in fewer pockets ③ an effective response to climate change ④ a burning desire for a more viable future 영 어(9급) A책형 3/3쪽 17. 글의 흐름상 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? Ever since the time of ancient Greek tragedy, Western culture has been haunted by the figure of the revenger. He or she stands on a whole series of borderlines: between civilization and barbarity, between and the community’s need for the rule of law, between the conflicting demands of justice and mercy. Do we have a right to exact revenge against those who have destroyed our loved ones? Or should we leave vengeance to the law or to the gods? And if we do take action into our own hands, are we not reducing ourselves to the same moral level as the original perpetrator of murderous deeds? ① redemption of the revenger from a depraved condition ② divine vengeance on human atrocities ③ moral depravity of the corrupt politicians ④ an individual’s accountability to his or her own conscience 18. 글의 흐름상 가장 적절하지 않은 문장은? It seems to me possible to name four kinds of reading, each with a characteristic manner and purpose. The first is reading for information ― reading to learn about a trade, or politics, or how to accomplish something. ① We read a newspaper this way, or most textbooks, or directions on how to assemble a bicycle. ② With most of this material, the reader can learn to scan the page quickly, coming up with what he needs and ignoring what is irrelevant to him, like the rhythm of the sentence, or the play of metaphor. ③ We also register a track of feeling through the metaphors and associations of words. ④ Courses in speed reading can help us read for this purpose, training the eye to jump quickly across the page. 19. <보기>의 문장이 들어갈 위치로 가장 적절한 것은? <보기> In this situation, we would expect to find less movement of individuals from one job to another because of the individual’s social obligations toward the work organization to which he or she belongs and to the people comprising that organization. Cultural differences in the meaning of work can manifest themselves in other aspects as well. ( ① ) For example, in American culture, it is easy to think of work simply as a means to accumulate money and make a living. ( ② ) In other cultures, especially collectivistic ones, work may be seen more as fulfilling an obligation to a larger group. ( ③ ) In individualistic cultures, it is easier to consider leaving one job and going to another because it is easier to separate jobs from the self. ( ④ ) A different job will just as easily accomplish the same goals. 20. 글을 문맥에 가장 어울리는 순서대로 배열한 것은? ㉠ To navigate in the dark, a microbat flies with its mouth open, emitting high-pitched squeaks that humans cannot hear. Some of these sounds echo off flying insects as well as tree branches and other obstacles that lie ahead. The bat listens to the echo and gets an instantaneous picture in its brain of the objects in front of it. ㉡ Microbats, the small, insect-eating bats found in North America, have tiny eyes that don’t look like they’d be good for navigating in the dark and spotting prey. ㉢ From the use of echolocation, or sonar, as it is also called, a microbat can tell a great deal about a mosquito or any other potential meal. With extreme exactness, echolocation allows microbats to perceive motion, distance, speed, movement, and shape. Bats can also detect and avoid obstacles no thicker than a human hair. ㉣ But, actually, microbats can see as well as mice and other small mammals. The nocturnal habits of bats are aided by their powers of echolocation, a special ability that makes feeding and flying at night much easier than one might think. ① ㉠-㉢-㉡-㉣ ② ㉡-㉣-㉠-㉢ ③ ㉡-㉢-㉣-㉠ ④ ㉠-㉣-㉢-㉡ 이 면은 여백입니다.
스터디 영어-나.pdf 영어-라.pdf 2019 국가직 9급 영어 해설 조재권.pdf 2019 국가직 9급 영어 해설 심우철.pdf 2019 국가직 9급 영어 해설 정수현.hwp 2019 국가직 9급 영어 해설 손진숙.pdf 2019 국가직 9급 영어 해설 이동기.pdf 2019 국가직 9급 영어 해설 닥터K.pdf 2019 국가직 9급 영어 해설 이충권.pdf 2019 국가직 9급 영어 해설 영스파.pdf 2019 국가직 9급 영어 해설 줄리아.pdf 2019 국가직 9급 영어 해설 방재운.pdf 2019 국가직 9급 영어 해설 박철우.pdf 2019 국가직 9급 영어 해설 한덕현.pdf 2019 국가직 9급 영어 해설 김세현.pdf 2019 국가직 9급 영어 해설 성정혜.pdf 2019 국가직 9급 영어 해설 김범재.pdf 2019 국가직 9급 영어 해설 김재운.pdf 2019 국가직 9급 영어 해설 정진영.hwp 2019 국가직 9급 영어 해설 이아람.pdf 2019 국가직 9급 영어 해설 박지성.pdf 2019년도 국가공무원 9급 공채 필기시험 영 어 나 책형 1 쪽 영 어 ※ 밑줄 친 부분의 의미와 가장 가까운 것을 고르시오. [문 1. ～문 2.] 문 1. Natural Gas World subscribers will receive accurate and reliable key facts and figures about what is going on in the industry, so they are fully able to discern what concerns their business. ① distinguish ② strengthen ③ undermine ④ abandon 문 2. Ms. West, the winner of the silver in the women's 1,500 m event, stood out through the race. ① was overwhelmed ② was impressive ③ was depressed ④ was optimistic 문 3. 두 사람의 대화 중 가장 어색한 것은? ① A: I'm traveling abroad, but I'm not used to staying in another country. B: Don't worry. You'll get accustomed to it in no time. ② A: I want to get a prize in the photo contest. B: I'm sure you will. I'll keep my fingers crossed! ③ A: My best friend moved to Sejong City. I miss her so much. B: Yeah. I know how you feel. ④ A: Do you mind if I talk to you for a moment? B: Never mind. I'm very busy right now. 문 4. 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? A: Would you like to try some dim sum? B: Yes, thank you. They look delicious. What's inside? A: These have pork and chopped vegetables, and those have shrimps. B: And, um, ________________________? A: You pick one up with your chopsticks like this and dip it into the sauce. It's easy. B: Okay. I'll give it a try. ① how much are they ② how do I eat them ③ how spicy are they ④ how do you cook them ※ 우리말을 영어로 잘못 옮긴 것을 고르시오. [문 5. ～ 문 6.] 문 5. ① 제가 당신께 말씀드렸던 새로운 선생님은 원래 페루 출신입니다. → The new teacher I told you about is originally from Peru. ② 나는 긴급한 일로 자정이 5분이나 지난 후 그에게 전화했다. → I called him five minutes shy of midnight on an urgent matter. ③ 상어로 보이는 것이 산호 뒤에 숨어 있었다. → What appeared to be a shark was lurking behind the coral reef. ④ 그녀는 일요일에 16세의 친구와 함께 산 정상에 올랐다. → She reached the mountain summit with her 16-year-old friend on Sunday. 문 6. ① 개인용 컴퓨터를 가장 많이 가지고 있는 나라는 종종 바뀐다. → The country with the most computers per person changes from time to time. ② 지난여름 나의 사랑스러운 손자에게 일어난 일은 놀라웠다. → What happened to my lovely grandson last summer was amazing. ③ 나무 숟가락은 아이들에게 매우 좋은 장난감이고 플라스틱 병 또한 그렇다. → Wooden spoons are excellent toys for children, and so are plastic bottles. ④ 나는 은퇴 후부터 내내 이 일을 해 오고 있다. → I have been doing this work ever since I retired. ※ 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 옳지 않은 것을 고르시오. [문 7. ～ 문 8.] 문 7. Domesticated animals are the earliest and most effective 'machines' ① available to humans. They take the strain off the human back and arms. ② Utilizing with other techniques, animals can raise human living standards very considerably, both as supplementary foodstuffs (protein in meat and milk) and as machines ③ to carry burdens, lift water, and grind grain. Since they are so obviously ④ of great benefit, we might expect to find that over the centuries humans would increase the number and quality of the animals they kept. Surprisingly, this has not usually been the case. 문 8. A myth is a narrative that embodies ―and in some cases ① helps to explain ― the religious, philosophical, moral, and political values of a culture. Through tales of gods and supernatural beings, myths ② try to make sense of occurrences in the natural world. Contrary to popular usage, myth does not mean "falsehood." In the broadest sense, myths are stories ―usually whole groups of stories ― ③ that can be true or partly true as well as false; regardless of their degree of accuracy, however, myths frequently express the deepest beliefs of a culture. According to this definition, the Iliad and the Odyssey, the Koran, and the Old and New Testaments can all ④refer to as myths. 문 9. 다음 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은? Mapping technologies are being used in many new applications. Biological researchers are exploring the molecular structure of DNA ("mapping the genome"), geophysicists are mapping the structure of the Earth's core, and oceanographers are mapping the ocean floor. Computer games have various imaginary "lands" or levels where rules, hazards, and rewards change. Computerization now challenges reality with "virtual reality," artificial environments that stimulate special situations, which may be useful in training and entertainment. Mapping techniques are being used also in the realm of ideas. For example, relationships between ideas can be shown using what are called concept maps. Starting from a general or "central" idea, related ideas can be connected, building a web around the main concept. This is not a map by any traditional definition, but the tools and techniques of cartography are employed to produce it, and in some ways it resembles a map. ① Computerized Maps vs. Traditional Maps ② Where Does Cartography Begin? ③ Finding Ways to DNA Secrets ④ Mapping New Frontiers 2019년도 국가공무원 9급 공채 필기시험 영 어 나 책형 2 쪽 문 10. 다음 글의 요지로 가장 적절한 것은? When giving performance feedback, you should consider the recipient's past performance and your estimate of his or her future potential in designing its frequency, amount, and content. For high performers with potential for growth, feedback should be frequent enough to prod them into taking corrective action, but not so frequent that it is experienced as controlling and saps their initiative. For adequate performers who have settled into their jobs and have limited potential for advancement, very little feedback is needed because they have displayed reliable and steady behavior in the past, knowing their tasks and realizing what needs to be done. For poor performers ― that is, people who will need to be removed from their jobs if their performance doesn't improve ― feedback should be frequent and very specific, and the connection between acting on the feedback and negative sanctions such as being laid off or fired should be made explicit. ① Time your feedback well. ② Customize negative feedback. ③ Tailor feedback to the person. ④ Avoid goal-oriented feedback. 문 11. 다음 글의 내용과 일치하지 않는 것은? Langston Hughes was born in Joplin, Missouri, and graduated from Lincoln University, in which many African-American students have pursued their academic disciplines. At the age of eighteen, Hughes published one of his most wellknown poems, "Negro Speaks of Rivers." Creative and experimental, Hughes incorporated authentic dialect in his work, adapted traditional poetic forms to embrace the cadences and moods of blues and jazz, and created characters and themes that reflected elements of lower-class black culture. With his ability to fuse serious content with humorous style, Hughes attacked racial prejudice in a way that was natural and witty. ① Hughes는 많은 미국 흑인들이 다녔던 대학교를 졸업하였다. ② Hughes는 실제 사투리를 그의 작품에 반영하였다. ③ Hughes는 하층 계급 흑인들의 문화적 요소를 반영한 인물을 만들었다. ④ Hughes는 인종편견을 엄숙한 문체로 공격하였다. 문 12. 밑줄 친 부분 중 글의 흐름상 가장 어색한 것은? In 2007, our biggest concern was "too big to fail." Wall Street banks had grown to such staggering sizes, and had become so central to the health of the financial system, that no rational government could ever let them fail. ①Aware of their protected status, banks made excessively risky bets on housing markets and invented ever more complicated derivatives. ② New virtual currencies such as bitcoin and ethereum have radically changed our understanding of how money can and should work. ③The result was the worst financial crisis since the breakdown of our economy in 1929. ④ In the years since 2007, we have made great progress in addressing the too-big-to-fail dilemma. Our banks are better capitalized than ever. Our regulators conduct regular stress tests of large institutions. 문 13. 다음 글의 주제로 가장 적절한 것은? Imagine that two people are starting work at a law firm on the same day. One person has a very simple name. The other person has a very complex name. We've got pretty good evidence that over the course of their next 16 plus years of their career, the person with the simpler name will rise up the legal hierarchy more quickly. They will attain partnership more quickly in the middle parts of their career. And by about the eighth or ninth year after graduating from law school the people with simpler names are about seven to ten percent more likely to be partners ― which is a striking effect. We try to eliminate all sorts of other alternative explanations. For example, we try to show that it's not about foreignness because foreign names tend to be harder to pronounce. But even if you look at just white males with Anglo-American names ―so really the true in-group, you find that among those white males with Anglo names they are more likely to rise up if their names happen to be simpler. So simplicity is one key feature in names that determines various outcomes. ① the development of legal names ② the concept of attractive names ③ the benefit of simple names ④ the roots of foreign names ※ 밑줄 친 부분의 의미와 가장 가까운 것을 고르시오. [문 14. ～ 문 15.] 문 14. Schooling is compulsory for all children in the United States, but the age range for which school attendance is required varies from state to state. ① complementary ② systematic ③ mandatory ④ innovative 문 15. Although the actress experienced much turmoil in her career, she never disclosed to anyone that she was unhappy. ① let on ② let off ③ let up ④ let down 문 16. 밑줄 친 (A), (B)에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? Visionaries are the first people in their industry segment to see the potential of new technologies. Fundamentally, they see themselves as smarter than their opposite numbers in competitive companies ― and, quite often, they are. Indeed, it is their ability to see things first that they want to leverage into a competitive advantage. That advantage can only come about if no one else has discovered it. They do not expect, (A) , to be buying a well-tested product with an extensive list of industry references. Indeed, if such a reference base exists, it may actually turn them off, indicating that for this technology, at any rate, they are already too late. Pragmatists, (B) , deeply value the experience of their colleagues in other companies. When they buy, they expect extensive references, and they want a good number to come from companies in their own industry segment. (A) (B) ① therefore on the other hand ② however in addition ③ nonetheless at the same time ④ furthermore in conclusion 2019년도 국가공무원 9급 공채 필기시험 영 어 나 책형 3 쪽 문 17. 주어진 문장이 들어갈 위치로 가장 적절한 것은? Some of these ailments are short-lived; others may be long-lasting. For centuries, humans have looked up at the sky and wondered what exists beyond the realm of our planet. ( ① ) Ancient astronomers examined the night sky hoping to learn more about the universe. More recently, some movies explored the possibility of sustaining human life in outer space, while other films have questioned whether extraterrestrial life forms may have visited our planet. ( ② ) Since astronaut Yuri Gagarin became the first man to travel in space in 1961, scientists have researched what conditions are like beyond the Earth's atmosphere, and what effects space travel has on the human body. ( ③ ) Although most astronauts do not spend more than a few months in space, many experience physiological and psychological problems when they return to the Earth. ( ④ ) More than two-thirds of all astronauts suffer from motion sickness while traveling in space. In the gravity-free environment, the body cannot differentiate up from down. The body's internal balance system sends confusing signals to the brain, which can result in nausea lasting as long as a few days. 문 18. 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? Why bother with the history of everything? ___________ ___________________________________. In literature classes you don't learn about genes; in physics classes you don't learn about human evolution. So you get a partial view of the world. That makes it hard to find meaning in education. The French sociologist Emile Durkheim called this sense of disorientation and meaninglessness anomie, and he argued that it could lead to despair and even suicide. The German sociologist Max Weber talked of the "disenchantment" of the world. In the past, people had a unified vision of their world, a vision usually provided by the origin stories of their own religious traditions. That unified vision gave a sense of purpose, of meaning, even of enchantment to the world and to life. Today, though, many writers have argued that a sense of meaninglessness is inevitable in a world of science and rationality. Modernity, it seems, means meaninglessness. ① In the past, the study of history required disenchantment from science ② Recently, science has given us lots of clever tricks and meanings ③ Today, we teach and learn about our world in fragments ④ Lately, history has been divided into several categories 문 19. 다음 글의 내용과 일치하지 않는 것은? The earliest government food service programs began around 1900 in Europe. Programs in the United States date from the Great Depression, when the need to use surplus agricultural commodities was joined to concern for feeding the children of poor families. During and after World War II, the explosion in the number of working women fueled the need for a broader program. What was once a function of the family ― providing lunch ― was shifted to the school food service system. The National School Lunch Program is the result of these efforts. The program is designed to provide federally assisted meals to children of school age. From the end of World War II to the early 1980s, funding for school food service expanded steadily. Today it helps to feed children in almost 100,000 schools across the United States. Its first function is to provide a nutritious lunch to all students; the second is to provide nutritious food at both breakfast and lunch to underprivileged children. If anything, the role of school food service as a replacement for what was once a family function has been expanded. ① The increase in the number of working women boosted the expansion of food service programs. ② The US government began to feed poor children during the Great Depression despite the food shortage. ③ The US school food service system presently helps to feed children of poor families. ④ The function of providing lunch has been shifted from the family to schools. 문 20. 주어진 문장 다음에 이어질 글의 순서로 가장 적절한 것은? South Korea boasts of being the most wired nation on earth. (A) This addiction has become a national issue in Korea in recent years, as users started dropping dead from exhaustion after playing online games for days on end. A growing number of students have skipped school to stay online, shockingly self-destructive behavior in this intensely competitive society. (B) In fact, perhaps no other country has so fully embraced the Internet. (C) But such ready access to the Web has come at a price as legions of obsessed users find that they cannot tear themselves away from their computer screens. ① (A) － (B) － (C) ② (A) － (C) － (B) ③ (B) － (A) － (C) ④ (B) － (C) － (A)
스터디 영어_7급_A형.pdf 영어_7급_B형.pdf 2018 서울시 7급 영어 해설 손진숙.pdf 2018 서울시 7급 영어 해설 성정혜.pdf 2018 서울시 7급 영어 해설 곽지영.pdf 2018 서울시 7급 영어 해설 문덕.pdf 2018 서울시 7급 영어 해설 공수코.pdf Ⓐ - 4 영 어 ―――――― (1번∼20번) (1번∼20번) (7급) 1. 글의 요지로 가장 옳은 것은? Young people like us use shorthand language a lot. We use it so much in fact, that it often becomes a bad habit. We may even find ourselves using it in more traditional forms of communication, like speaking or writing letters. People should realize that there are circumstances when using shorthand is not always appropriate. Moreover, compared to full language, shorthand is rather inadequate. In order to truly express how we feel, we need to communicate in complete sentences. ① Shorthand language should not be used everywhere. ② Shorthand language will replace full language in the future. ③ Using complete sentences is always recommended for young people. ④ People who use shorthand language should still be able to express their emotions in full language. ※ 빈칸에 들어갈 단어로 가장 옳은 것은? (2~6) 2. Winston Churchill was an inspirational statesman, writer, and leader who led Britain to victory in the Second World War. ① odium ② orator ③ oracle ④ obscurantism 3. When we take more than the recommended dosage of medicine or rely on luck instead of paying the parking meter, we rarely expect negative consequences from our actions. The optimism bias makes us believe we are , that nothing bad will ever happen to us. ① conscientious ② submissive ③ perplexed ④ invincible 4. To be sure, political debates about the meaning of human rights are by no means dead. Affirmative Action, the program designed to past discrimination by reserving places in educational and governmental institutions for minority group members and women, has been attacked both from the left and the right as unfair and damaging to the self-esteem of minorities and women. ① calumniate ② wangle ③ suffuse ④ redress 5. The term ‘subject’ refers to something quite different from the more familiar term ‘individual’. The latter term dates from the Renaissance and presupposes that man is a free, intellectual agent and thinking processes are not coerced by historical or cultural circumstances. ① that ② what ③ which ④ whose 6. I find that is a very powerful way to channel the power of manifesting great things in your life; the energy of is simply too powerful not to create amazing things in your life, especially when you feel the depths of it. Don’t force yourself to be grateful—just take small steps to recognize what is going right, and let a calmer mood set in, slowly. It’s okay to build up to it. ① predisposition ② resentment ③ demeanor ④ gratitude 7. 어법상 (A), (B), (C)에 들어갈 표현으로 가장 옳은 것은? When forecasters predict hurricanes, we can prepare in advance. Modern technology has given us the ability to know when one of these fierce storms is barreling toward the coastline. As the grave storm looms (A)[close/closely], forecasters can often predict the date it (B)[has struck/will strike] land. Most people do not refrain (C)[into/from] following emergency measures, so that they can survive even through severe hurricanes. ① close - has struck - into ② close - will strike - from ③ closely - will strike - from ④ closely - has struck - into 8. 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 가장 옳지 않은 것은? No one can really stop growing old; he can only cheat himself for not admitting that he is growing old. ① growing ② can only ③ for ④ that 9. 어법상 가장 옳지 않은 것은? ① Culture shock is the mental shock of adjusting to a new country and a new culture which may be dramatically different from your own. ② A recent study finds that listening to music before and after surgery helps patients cope with related stress. ③ By brushing at least twice a day and flossing daily, you will help minimize the plaque buildup. ④ The existence of consistent rules are important if a teacher wants to run a classroom efficiently. ⒶⒶ - 5 (7급) ※ 글의 흐름상 <보기>의 문장이 들어갈 곳으로 가장 옳은 것은? (10~11) 10. <보기> That possibility was suggested in 1997 after British scientist Jonathan Slack created a headless frog. It would be hard to find any subject more controversial than human cloning. ( ① ) People find it either totally fantastic or totally repugnant. ( ② ) Human cloning holds the promise of cures for what are now incurable diseases, sight for the blind, hearing for the deaf, new organs to replace damaged or worn-out ones. (③) The word cloning also brings to mind the possibility of headless human bodies grown only to be picked apart for their parts. ( ④ ) He was criticized by scientists all around the world who were afraid that it would lead to the creation of headless humans. 11. <보기> I spent two days just riffling uncertainly through the dictionary’s pages. I saw that the best thing I could do was get hold of a dictionary—to study, to learn some words. I was lucky enough to reason also that I should try to improve my penmanship. ( ① ) It was sad. I couldn’t even write in a straight line. ( ② ) It was both ideas together that moved me to request a dictionary along with some tablet and pencils from the Norfolk Prison Colony school. ( ③ ) I’d never realized so many words existed! I didn’t know which words I needed to learn. ( ④ ) Finally, just to start some kind of action, I began copying. 12. 밑줄 친 부분 중 문맥상 가장 어색한 것은? Potatoes are among the earliest vegetables planted in the garden. All varieties can be planted in March or early April. ① Potatoes are started from “seed pieces”. These seed pieces may be small whole potatoes or potatoes that are cut into roughly 2-ounce pieces. ② The genetic patterns of potato distribution indicate that the potato probably originated in the mountainous west-central region of the continent. Plant the pieces soon after cutting. ③ Be sure that there is one good “eye” in each seed piece. Plant seed pieces 10 to 12 inches apart. Cover in a furrow between 1 and 3 inches deep. Space rows 24 to 36 inches apart. ④ This helps to shade the soil and keep it cool in hot weather. Potatoes need cool soil to grow. 13. A와 B의 대화 중 가장 어색한 것은? ① A : Did you hear the exam results? B : They really cut corners when they built an extension. ② A : Tomorrow is the D-day. I am really nervous. B : Break a leg, Sam. I’m sure your performance will be great. ③ A : Why don’t we get this purse? It looks great. B : We can’t afford this purse! It costs an arm and a leg. ④ A : How often do you go to a cinema? B : I only go to the cinema once in a blue moon. ※ 글의 흐름상 빈칸에 들어갈 표현으로 가장 옳은 것은? (14~15) 14. Similarly, although languages differ in their color words, speakers can readily perceive colors that are not named in their language. Grand Valley Dani is a language spoken in New Guinea with only two color words, black and white(dark and light). In experimental studies, speakers of the language were able to learn to recognize the color red, and they did better with fire-engine red than off-red. This would not be possible if their color perceptions were fixed by their language. Our perception of color is determined by the structure of the human eye, . ① not by the structure of language ② with the perception of fire-engine ③ not with speakers of the language ④ with the names of colors 15. In the event of an emergency, local emergency officials may order you to evacuate your premises. In some cases, they may instruct you to shut off the water, gas, and electricity. If you have access to radio or television, listen to newscasts to keep informed and follow whatever the officials order. In other cases, a designated person within your business should be responsible for making the decision to . Protecting the health and safety of everyone in the facility should be the first priority. ① clear away the debris ② protect the facility and property ③ develop an emergency action plan ④ evacuate or shut down operations ⒶⒶ - 6 (7급) 16. 글의 흐름상 빈칸 ㉠, ㉡에 들어갈 표현으로 가장 옳은 것은? Automated cars — once a far-off dream — have in recent years left the realm of science fiction and leapt closer to the American garage. Leading U.S. automakers say that bona fide ㉠ are coming within two decades and they’re fighting to stay competitive, from Ford’s ＄1 billion investment in an artificial-intelligence company earlier this year to Uber’s 2016 purchase of self-driving truck company Otto. These ㉡ promise relief to drivers sick of two-hour commutes and bumper-to-bumper traffic, but they leave open questions for a society shaped for the past century around the automobile. ㉠ ㉡ ① self-destructive driver automakers ② self-driving cars advances ③ advances automakers ④ dreaming self-control ※ 글을 읽고 물음에 답하시오. (17~18) When materials engineer Edgar Zanotto gave a talk at a glass technology conference, he might not have expected that he would spark a heated debate about the nature of ㉠ materials. Despite humans having used glass for around 6000 years, it still seems to defy definition: glass is rigid and breaks like a crystalline solid, but it also flows like a liquid. While this movement is too slow to observe in typical window pane glass, some glasses flow quickly enough to allow measurements. The researchers argue that glass should be classed as a frozen liquid, because its structure is closer to that of its parent supercooled liquid than to the crystalline state. Glasses, like liquids, relax and deform under the action of gravity alone. Solids, on the other hand, deform only under external pressure. 17. 글의 제목으로 가장 옳은 것은? ① Glass can be transformed to crystal ② Glass has a variety of different uses ③ Glass should be redefined as a liquid ④ Glass technology has been remarkably developed 18. ㉠에 들어갈 단어로 가장 옳은 것은? ① acute ② ornate ③ vitreous ④ obdurate ※ 글의 내용과 일치하는 것은? (19~20) 19. The Berlin Games are best remembered for Adolf Hitler’s failed attempt to use them to prove his theories of Aryan racial superiority. As it turned out, the most popular hero of the Games was the African-American sprinter and long jumper Jesse Owens, who won four gold medals in the 100m, 200m, 4×100m relay and long jump. The 1936 Games were the first to be broadcast on television. Twenty-five television viewing rooms were set up in the Greater Berlin area, allowing the locals to follow the Games free of charge. Thirteen-year-old Marjorie Gestring of the US won the gold medal in springboard diving. She remains the youngest female gold medallist in the history of the Summer Olympic Games. Twelve-year-old Inge Sorensen of Denmark earned a bronze medal in the 200m breaststroke, making her the youngest medallist ever in an individual event. Basketball, canoeing and field handball all made their first appearances. The Berlin Games also became the first to introduce the torch relay, in which a lighted torch is carried from Olympia in Greece to the site of the current Games. ① The Berlin Games were the first to be broadcast on television, and television viewing rooms were built in the Greater Berlin region. ② Marjorie Gestring, a Canadian athelete, was the youngest female gold medallist in the history of the Olympic Games. ③ Inge Sorensen of Denmark earned a bronze medal in the 200m breaststroke, which made her the youngest medallist in the history of the Olympic Games. ④ Jesse Owens was a proof that Hitler’s use of the 1936 Games to prove his theories of Aryan racial superiority was attempted. 20. Biosphere 2 is a tightly sealed greenhouse made of glass and steel. It was created in 1991 to help scientists better understand planet Earth, which is referred to as Biosphere 1. Biosphere 2 covers 3.15 acres(1.28 hectares) and is 91 feet(23 meters) tall at its highest point. It is located in the desert north Tucson, Arizona. Biosphere 2 contains five ecosystems that are similar to those on Earth. An ecosystem is a self-sustaining community of living things. The ecosystems include a rain forest with its own tiny mountain, a million-gallon ocean with a coral reef, a desert like the one in Baja, California, a savanna planted with grasses from three continents, and a marsh imported from the Florida Everglades. ① Biosphere 2 is located near Baja, California. ② Biosphere 2 contains more than 5 ecosystems. ③ Biosphere 2 in Arizona helps scientists better understand our planet. ④ Biosphere 2 is a study of a rain forest with its tiny mountain. Ⓐ
스터디 영어_9급_A형.pdf 영어_9급_B형.pdf 2018 서울시 9급 영어 해설 손진숙.pdf 2018 서울시 9급 영어 해설 조재권.pdf 2018 서울시 9급 영어 해설 문덕.pdf 2018 서울시 9급 영어 해설 공수코.pdf 2018 서울시 9급 영어 해설 곽지영.pdf 2018 서울시 9급 영어 해설 성정혜.pdf 2018 서울시 9급 영어 해설 장종재.pdf 2018 서울시 9급 영어 해설 이동기.pdf Ⓐ - 3 영 어 ―――――― (1번∼20번) (1번∼20번) (9급) ※ 밑줄 친 부분과 의미가 가장 가까운 것은? (1~3) 1. Man has continued to be disobedient to authorities who tried to muzzle new thoughts and to the authority of long-established opinions which declared a change to be nonsense. ① express ② assert ③ suppress ④ spread 2. Don’t be pompous. You don’t want your writing to be too informal and colloquial, but you also don’t want to sound like someone you’re not―like your professor or boss, for instance, or the Rhodes scholar teaching assistant. ① presumptuous ② casual ③ formal ④ genuine 3. Surgeons were forced to call it a day because they couldn’t find the right tools for the job. ① initiate ② finish ③ wait ④ cancel 4. 대화 중 가장 어색한 것은? ① A：I’d like to make a reservation for tomorrow, please. B：Certainly. For what time? ② A：Are you ready to order? B：Yes, I’d like the soup, please. ③ A：How’s your risotto? B：Yes, we have risotto with mushroom and cheese. ④ A：Would you like a dessert? B：Not for me, thanks. 5. 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 가장 옳지 않은 것은? His survival ① over the years since independence in 1961 does not alter the fact that the discussion of real policy choices in a public manner has hardly ② never occurred. In fact, there have always been ③ a number of important policy issues ④ which Nyerere has had to argue through the NEC. 6. 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 가장 옳은 것은? More than 150 people ① have fell ill, mostly in Hong Kong and Vietnam, over the past three weeks. And experts ② are suspected that ③ another 300 people in China’s Guangdong province had the same disease ④ begin in mid-November. 7. 글의 흐름상 빈칸에 들어갈 단어로 가장 옳은 것은? Social learning theorists offer a different explanation for the counter-aggression exhibited by children who experience aggression in the home. An extensive research on aggressive behavior and the coercive family concludes that an aversive consequence may also elicit an aggressive reaction and accelerate ongoing coercive behavior. These victims of aggressive acts eventually learn via modeling to aggressive interchanges. These events perpetuate the use of aggressive acts and train children how to behave as adults. ① stop ② attenuate ③ abhor ④ initiate 8. 밑줄 친 인물(Marcel Mauss)에 대한 설명으로 가장 옳지 않은 것은? Marcel Mauss (1872-1950), French sociologist, was born in Épinal (Vosges) in Lorraine, where he grew up within a close-knit, pious, and orthodox Jewish family. Emile Durkheim was his uncle. By the age of 18 Mauss had reacted against the Jewish faith; he was never a religious man. He studied philosophy under Durkheim’s supervision at Bordeaux; Durkheim took endless trouble in guiding his nephew’s studies and even chose subjects for his own lectures that would be most useful to Mauss. Thus Mauss was initially a philosopher (like most of the early Durkheimians), and his conception of philosophy was influenced above all by Durkheim himself, for whom he always retained the utmost admiration. ① He had a Jewish background. ② He was supervised by his uncle. ③ He had a doctrinaire faith. ④ He was a sociologist with a philosophical background. 9. 글의 문맥에 가장 어울리는 순서대로 배열한 것은? ⓐ Today, however, trees are being cut down far more rapidly. Each year, about 2 million acres of forests are cut down. That is more than equal to the area of the whole of Great Britain. ⓑ There is not enough wood in these countries to satisfy the demand. Wood companies, therefore, have begun taking wood from the forests of Asia, Africa, South America, and even Siberia. ⓒ While there are important reasons for cutting down trees, there are also dangerous consequences for life on earth. A major cause of the present destruction is the worldwide demand for wood. In industrialized countries, people are using more and more wood for paper. ⓓ There is nothing new about people cutting down trees. In ancient times, Greece, Italy, and Great Britain were covered with forests. Over the centuries those forests were gradually cut back. Until now almost nothing is left. ① ⓐ-ⓑ-ⓒ-ⓓ ② ⓓ-ⓐ-ⓑ-ⓒ ③ ⓑ-ⓐ-ⓒ-ⓓ ④ ⓓ-ⓐ-ⓒ-ⓑ ⒶⒶ - 4 (9급) 10. 글의 흐름상 빈칸에 들어갈 표현으로 가장 옳은 것은? Contemporary art has in fact become an integral part of today’s middle class society. Even works of art which are fresh from the studio are met with enthusiasm. They receive recognition rather quickly―too quickly for the taste of the surlier culture critics. , not all works of them are bought immediately, but there is undoubtedly an increasing number of people who enjoy buying brand new works of art. Instead of fast and expensive cars, they buy the paintings, sculptures and photographic works of young artists. They know that contemporary art also adds to their social prestige. , since art is not exposed to the same wear and tear as automobiles, it is a far better investment. ① Of course - Furthermore ② Therefore - On the other hand ③ Therefore - For instance ④ Of course - For example 11. 밑줄 친 부분과 의미가 가장 먼 것은? As a prerequisite for fertilization, pollination is essential to the production of fruit and seed crops and plays an important part in programs designed to improve plants by breeding. ① crucial ② indispensable ③ requisite ④ omnipresent 12. 글의 흐름상 빈칸에 들어갈 단어로 가장 옳은 것은? Mr. Johnson objected to the proposal because it was founded on a principle and also was at times. ① faulty - desirable ② imperative - reasonable ③ conforming - deplorable ④ wrong - inconvenient ※ 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 가장 옳지 않은 것은? (13~14) 13. I’m ① pleased that I have enough clothes with me. American men are generally bigger than Japanese men so ② it’s very difficult to find clothes in Chicago that ③ fits me. ④ What is a medium size in Japan is a small size here. 14. Blue Planet II, a nature documentary ① produced by the BBC, left viewers ② heartbroken after showing the extent ③ to which plastic ④ affects on the ocean. 15. 글의 흐름상 빈칸에 들어갈 가장 적절한 문장은? What became clear by the 1980s, however, as preparations were made for the ‘Quincentenary Jubilee’, was that many Americans found it hard, if not impossible, to see the anniversary as a ‘jubilee’. There was nothing to celebrate the legacy of Columbus. ① According to many of his critics, Columbus had been the harbinger not of progress and civilization, but of slavery and the reckless exploitation of the environment. ② The Chicago World’s Fair of 1893 reinforced the narrative link between discovery and the power of progress of the United States. ③ This reversal of the nineteenth-century myth of Columbus is revealing. ④ Columbus thus became integrated into Manifest Destiny, the belief that America’s progress was divinely ordained. 16. 글의 흐름상 빈칸에 들어갈 단어로 가장 옳지 않은 것은? Following his father’s imprisonment, Charles Dickens was forced to leave school to work at a boot-blacking factory alongside the River Thames. At the run-down, rodent-ridden factory, Dickens earned six shillings a week labeling pots of “blacking,” a substance used to clean fireplaces. It was the best he could do to help support his family. Looking back on the experience, Dickens saw it as the moment he said goodbye to his youthful innocence, stating that he wondered “how he could be so easily cast away at such a young age.” He felt by the adults who were supposed to take care of him. ① abandoned ② betrayed ③ buttressed ④ disregarded 17. 글의 내용과 일치하는 것은? A family hoping to adopt a child must first select an adoption agency. In the United States, there are two kinds of agencies that assist with adoption. Public agencies generally handle older children, children with mental or physical disabilities, or children who may have been abused or neglected. Prospective parents are not usually expected to pay fees when adopting a child from a public agency. Fostering, or a form of temporary adoption, is also possible through public agencies. Private agencies can be found on the Internet. They handle domestic and international adoption. ① Public adoption agencies are better than private ones. ② Parents pay huge fees to adopt a child from a foster home. ③ Children in need cannot be adopted through public agencies. ④ Private agencies can be contacted for international adoption. ⒶⒶ - 5 (9급) 18. 글의 흐름상 빈칸에 들어갈 단어로 가장 옳은 것은? Moths and butterflies both belong to the order Lepidoptera, but there are numerous physical and behavioral differences between the two insect types. On the behavioral side, moths are and butterflies are diurnal (active during the day). While at rest, butterflies usually fold their wings back, while moths flatten their wings against their bodies or spread them out in a “jet plane” position. ① nocturnal ② rational ③ eternal ④ semi-circular 19. 글의 흐름상 빈칸에 들어갈 표현으로 가장 옳은 것은? The idea of clowns frightening people started gaining strength in the United States. In South Carolina, for example, people reported seeing individuals wearing clown costumes, often hiding in the woods or in cities at night. Some people said that the clowns were trying to lure children into empty homes or the woods. Soon, there were reports of threatening-looking clowns trying to frighten both children and adults. Although there were usually no reports of violence, and many of the reported sightings were later found to be false, this . ① benefited the circus industry ② promoted the use of clowns in ads ③ caused a nationwide panic ④ formed the perfect image of a happy clown 20. 글의 내용과 가장 부합하는 속담은? It is one thing to believe that our system of democracy is the best, and quite another to impose it on other countries. This is a blatant breach of the UN policy of non-intervention in the domestic affairs of independent nations. Just as Western citizens fought for their political institutions, we should trust the citizens of other nations to do likewise if they wish to. Democracy is also not an absolute term ― Napoleon used elections and referenda to legitimize his hold on power, as do leaders today in West Africa and Southeast Asia. States with partial democracy are often more aggressive than totally unelected dictatorships which are too concerned with maintaining order at home. The differing types of democracy make it impossible to choose which standards to impose. The U.S. and European countries all differ in terms of restraints on government and the balance between consensus and confrontation. ① The grass is always greener on the other side of the fence. ② One man’s food is another’s poison. ③ There is no rule but has exceptions. ④ When in Rome, do as the Romans do. ⒶⒶ - 6 이 면은 여백입니다.
스터디 영어A.pdf 영어B.pdf 2018 지방교행 9급 영어 해설 손진숙.pdf 2018 지방교행 9급 영어 해설 이동기.pdf 2018 지방교행 9급 영어 해설 공수코.pdf 2018 지방교행 9급 영어 해설 박철우.pdf 영어 A형 1 / 4 ※ 다음 각 물음에 알맞은 답을 골라 답안지의 같은 번호에 컴퓨 터용 수성 사인펜으로 정확히 표기하시오. 영어 [1～3] 다음 빈칸에 들어갈 단어로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. 1. In talking with other people, don’t begin by discussing the things on which you differ. Begin by emphasizing ― and keep on emphasizing — the things on which you . Keep emphasizing, if possible, that you are both striving for the same end and that your only difference is one of method and not of purpose. Get the other person saying “Yes, yes” at the outset. Keep your opponent, if possible, from saying “No.” ① live ② agree ③ charge ④ doubt 2. The postmodern is everywhere and nowhere. It has no zero point, no fixed essence. It contains all the traces of everything that has come before. Its dominating logic is that of a , never pure, always compromising, not ‘either-or’, but ‘both-and’. The postmodern impulse is playful and paradoxical. It mocks and absorbs historical forms, always having it both ways, always modern and postmodern, nothing escapes its attention. ① reality ② hybrid ③ specialty ④ simulation 3. Under ordinary circumstances, individuals will take significant measures to avoid the huge expense of having a car stolen ― parking in safe places, locking the car, using an antitheft device, etc. But once that car is insured for nearly its full replacement value, the driver has significantly less incentive to take such . ① discounts ② rewards ③ risks ④ precautions 4. 다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중 문맥상 단어의 쓰임이 적절하지 않은 것은? It is important to remember that making and responding to works of art, in many media, are social practices. It is ① inconceivable that these practices are the invention of any distinct individual. Any intention on the part of an individual to make art would be ② meaningful, were there no already going practices of artistic production and response. If there are no shared criteria for artistic success, then the word art cannot be used ③ objectively, as a descriptive term. If I have only myself to go on, then “whatever is going to seem right to me to call art is ④ right. And that only means that here we can’t talk about ‘right.’” [5～6] 다음 빈칸 (A), (B)에 들어갈 표현으로 어법상 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. 5. (A) the Wright Brothers’ maiden voyage on December 17, 1903, lasted just twelve seconds and covered only 120 feet ―“you could have thrown a ball farther” ― it displayed the possibility of conquering air itself to the world. The flight proved highly (B) to the U.S. government, which through the army had given seed money to a similar program under the direction of Samuel P. Langley. (A) (B) ① Despite ― embarrassed ② Despite ― embarrassing ③ Although ― embarrassed ④ Although ― embarrassing 6. Modern industrial societies and their problems are becoming increasingly complex, and because (A) one person today can master all the social sciences, growing emphasis is placed on the interdisciplinary approach to many social problems. The interdisciplinary approach means (B) a group of social scientists with different specialties will work together on a certain problem, not all of whose aspects any one of the group fully understands. (A) (B) ① no ― that ② any ― that ③ no ― what ④ any ― what 2018년도 지방공무원 공개(경력)경쟁임용시험 영어 A형 영어 A형 2 / 4 7. 다음 밑줄 친 단어가 가리키는 대상이 나머지 셋과 다른 것은? Alexander loved sport, and riding more than anything. No one rode better than he. His father once bought a beautiful horse that no one could tame. His name was Bucephalus. Whenever anyone tried to mount ① him they were thrown off. But Alexander worked out why ② he did it: the horse was afraid of his own shadow. So Alexander turned the horse’s head towards the sun so that he couldn’t see ③ his shadow on the ground. Stroking him gently, ④ he swung himself onto his back and rode round to the applause of the whole court. [8~9] 다음 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 옳지 않은 것을 고르시오. 8. In agreement with the Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiquities, Franck Goddio and his team ensured that artifacts ① found in their exploration would remain in the East Port until a decision can be made about the possible creation of an underwater museum at the site. Yet the significance of some of their finds was such that they were unwilling to leave ② them untouched on the seabed without establishing a precise visual record of their appearance that would permit future scholars to study them in detail. The solution lay in temporarily removing some objects from their underwater sites to permit casting and then ③ returning them to the seabed. The replication process ④ overseen by Georges Brocot, a French artist who specializes in molding techniques. 9. Sustainability is a difficult and complex issue, and an elusive one. It is enormously important ① since it has to do with nothing less than the chances of humankind surviving on this planet. At the rate that the human race is using scarce and limited resources it appears that, unless measures are taken now ― and if there is still time ― the future of civilization, at least as we understand it now, ② is uncertain, to say the least. It follows that such a complex subject has no simple and straightforward treatment, especially ③ considered that sustainability is not a goal but a process. It leads to a better life for the present generation and survival for generations to come, ④ enhancing their ability to cope with the world that they will inherit. 10. 다음 대화의 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? A: Jenny, have you signed up for the in-service training next week? B: No, I haven’t. How about you? A: I’ve already signed up for the Wednesday session. B: Good for you. But I’m afraid I can’t make it on weekdays. A: No worries. I heard there are weekend programs, too. B: Really? A: Yes, but the spaces must be limited. B: Then, . A: Yeah, you should. You know, first come, first served. ① you should have gone to them ② if I were you, I’d sign up for them ③ I’d better go and sign up right away ④ you should take a rain check this time 11. 다음 글의 주제로 가장 적절한 것은? Cholesterol-lowering drugs are among the most widely used medications in the world. Your body produces cholesterol, and it’s found in many foods. But what is it for? Clearly, there is a reason for cholesterol because your liver naturally makes it, but why? You may be surprised to know that your body does need cholesterol as a foundation of good health in many ways. For example, cholesterol is used by the body to make hormones that help your body respond to physical and mental stress. It also is the foundation for the production of sex hormones, contributing to regulation of body actions from puberty to pregnancy, including all aspects of reproductive function. ① the reasons we need cholesterol in our body ② the way cholesterol is produced in the body ③ the mechanism of cholesterol-lowering drugs ④ the reproductive function of cholesterol 12. 다음 빈칸에 들어갈 단어로 가장 적절한 것은? Although the cinema has most often been compared with literature, it really has far more in common with architecture. Both forms are public, collaborative, and above all, . In both arts, economic constraints have always dictated the shape of the work produced. By comparison, literature (especially “serious” literature) seems almost a priestly calling: novelists and poets, at least since Romanticism, have (for better or worse) been largely able to write whatever pleased them, without regard for audience or expense. ① artistic ② expensive ③ sacred ④ productive 영어 A형 3 / 4 13. 다음 빈칸 (A), (B)에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? The motivating concepts that guide disaster management ― the reduction of harm to life, property, and the environment ― are largely the same throughout the world. (A) , the capacity to carry out this mission is by no means uniform. Whether due to political, cultural, economic, or other reasons, the unfortunate reality is that some countries and some regions are more capable than others at addressing the problem. But no nation, regardless of its wealth or influence, is advanced enough to be fully immune from disasters’ negative effects. (B) , the emergence of a global economy makes it more and more difficult to contain the consequences of any disaster within one country’s borders. (A) (B) ① However ― Furthermore ② Otherwise ― Furthermore ③ However ― In contrast ④ Otherwise ― In contrast 14. 다음 글의 내용과 일치하는 것은? The bright butterflies and moths number 140,000 species, exceeded only by the beetles. “Lepidoptera,” the order’s scientific name, means “scaly-winged,” and tiny scales cover the wings and bodies of most adult forms. In size, butterflies and moths vary more than any other insect group. An owlet moth of South America is a foot across; the Eriocranid moth has a quarter-inch wingspan. Some species are even smaller. There are no hard and fast rules for telling a butterfly from a moth. But in general, moths spin cocoons, butterflies do not. When at rest, the moth tends to fold its wings like a tent while the butterfly presses them together overhead. ① Lepidoptera는 모든 성충의 몸이 큰 비늘로 덮여 있다는 것을 뜻한다. ② 나비와 나방은 다른 어떤 곤충집단보다 크기가 더 다양하다. ③ Eriocranid 나방은 날개 길이가 2분의 1인치이다. ④ 나비는 쉴 때 텐트처럼 날개를 접는 경향이 있다. 15. Spencer Stanhope에 관한 다음 글의 내용과 일치하지 않는 것은? Spencer Stanhope came from a middle-class family and was educated at Rugby and Christchurch, Oxford. He began to study art with G. F. Watts in 1850, visiting Italy with him in 1853. He became one of the circle of young artists around the Pre-Raphaelites in the mid-1850s and was particularly friendly with Burne-Jones, who influenced his painting and became a lifelong friend. He first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1859 and later at the Grosvenor Gallery. Like his artist friends, he had a sympathy for ordinary people and often chose subjects showing them at work, though often in an idealized manner. Washing Day in which the women wash the clothes while the men get on with the business of fishing, is typical of Stanhope’s work. ① 1853년에 G. F. Watts와 함께 이탈리아를 방문했다. ② Burne-Jones가 그의 그림에 영향을 주었다. ③ 1859년에 Grosvenor Gallery에서 첫 전시회를 열었다. ④ Washing Day는 그의 작품의 전형적인 특징을 보여 준다. 16. 다음 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은? Archaeological finds come in many forms ― as artifacts, food remains, houses, human skeletons, and so on. These finds are usually cleaned, identified, and cataloged in the field before being packed for transport to the laboratory. Once back from the field, these data ― including not only finds but also the detailed notes, drawings, and other recorded data acquired in the field ― are subjected to analysis. At this stage some specific materials, such as radiocarbon samples and pollen grains, are sent to specialists for analysis. Most laboratory analysis involves detailed artifact classification and study of animal bones and other food remains ― the basis for the later interpretation of data. ① Various Laboratory Analyses of Archaeological Finds ② Processing and Analysis of Archaeological Finds ③ Importance of Archaeology in Human History ④ Different Types of Archaeological Finds 영어 A형 4 / 4 17. 주어진 글 다음에 이어질 글의 순서로 가장 적절한 것은? The metaphors or analogies that we chose to think about ourselves can have different effects on our understandings and our actions. (A) For example, Michael White and David Epston explain that if we think that people and relationships are like complex machines, we will probably see their problems as malfunctions in the machinery and the solution would be to repair them, as a mechanic would. (B) Someone who is guided by this metaphor would probably encourage the person to “vent” and express that anger to release the growing pressure. (C) An example of this is when we say that anger was building up inside us like steam in a pressure cooker and that the steam has to be let out or the cooker will explode. ① (A) — (C) — (B) ② (B) — (A) — (C) ③ (B) — (C) — (A) ④ (C) — (A) — (B) 18. 글의 흐름으로 보아 주어진 문장이 들어가기에 가장 적절한 곳은? The closer the individual film came to being described by the first term in each pair, the more its difference from Hollywood films was regarded as “innovative” and hence positive. Something in the German films was obviously viewed as “aesthetic,” but what was it? ( ① ) In America, the term “German cinema” came to mark out an aesthetic space, if you will, somewhere outside the normative boundaries of conventional Hollywood style. ( ② ) At issue was how far outside, and whether this aesthetic distance from the Hollywood cinema constituted a positive or negative aesthetic difference. ( ③ ) Discussions of individual films tended to be framed by three aesthetic criteria, each having both a positive and a negative dimension: spectacular / excessive, complex / elitist, and artistic / self-indulgent. ( ④ ) A film defined by the latter terms, however, was seen as too different and hence too “strange.” 19. 다음 글에서 전체 흐름과 관계 없는 문장은? Leadership is centered on the communication between leaders and followers rather than on the unique qualities of the leader. ① Thought of as a relationship, leadership becomes a process of collaboration that occurs between leaders and followers. ② A leader affects and is affected by followers, and both leader and followers are affected in turn by the situation that surrounds them. ③ For example, a leader in the fund-raising campaign knows every step and procedure in the fund-raising process and is able to use this knowledge to run an effective campaign. ④ This approach emphasizes that leadership is not a linear one-way event, but rather an interactive event. 20. 다음 글의 요지로 가장 적절한 것은? When the state spends money which it has raised by taxation, it is taking money out of the pockets of the taxpayers to put it into the pockets of those upon whom it is spending. The expenditure may be really an investment: education, for instance, is an investment in the young, and is universally recognised as part of the duty of the state. In such a case, provided the investment is sound, public expenditure is obviously justified: the community would not be ultimately enriched by ceasing to educate its children, nor yet by neglecting harbours, roads, and public works generally. ① The state should inform its taxpayers of its investment plans. ② Reducing public expenditure will make the community richer. ③ Public expenditure can be justified through a proper investment. ④ The state should spend more money on public works than on education.
스터디 영어-B.pdf 영어-D.pdf 2018 지방직 9급 영어 해설 손진숙.pdf 2018 지방직 9급 영어 해설 영스파.pdf 2018 지방직 9급 영어 해설 이동기.pdf 2018 지방직 9급 영어 해설 정수현.hwp 2018 지방직 9급 영어 해설 문덕.pdf 2018 지방직 9급 영어 해설 이충권.pdf 2018 지방직 9급 영어 해설 장종재.pdf 2018 지방직 9급 영어 해설 공수코.pdf 2018 지방직 9급 영어 해설 이현아.pdf 2018 지방직 9급 영어 해설 성정혜.pdf 2018 지방직 9급 영어 해설 오동훈.pdf 2018 지방직 9급 영어 해설 한덕현.pdf 2018 지방직 9급 영어 해설 박철우.pdf 2018 지방직 9급 영어 해설 김범재.pdf 2018 지방직 9급 영어 해설 최호철.pdf 2018 지방직 9급 영어 해설 김재운.pdf 영 어 B 책형 1 쪽 영 어 ※ 밑줄 친 부분의 의미와 가장 가까운 것을 고르시오. [문 1. ～문 2.] 문 1. The paramount duty of the physician is to do no harm. Everything else ―even healing ―must take second place. ① chief ② sworn ③ successful ④ mysterious 문 2. It is not unusual that people get cold feet about taking a trip to the North Pole. ① become ambitious ② become afraid ③ feel exhausted ④ feel saddened 문 3. 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 옳지 않은 것은? I am writing in response to your request for a reference for Mrs. Ferrer. She has worked as my secretary ① for the last three years and has been an excellent employee. I believe that she meets all the requirements ② mentioned in your job description and indeed exceeds them in many ways. I have never had reason ③to doubt her complete integrity. I would, therefore, recommend Mrs. Ferrer for the post ④ what you advertise. 문 4. 우리말을 영어로 잘못 옮긴 것은? ① 모든 정보는 거짓이었다. → All of the information was false. ② 토마스는 더 일찍 사과했어야 했다. → Thomas should have apologized earlier. ③ 우리가 도착했을 때 영화는 이미 시작했었다. → The movie had already started when we arrived. ④ 바깥 날씨가 추웠기 때문에 나는 차를 마시려 물을 끓였다. → Being cold outside, I boiled some water to have tea. 문 5. 밑줄 친 부분의 의미와 가장 가까운 것은? The student who finds the state-of-the-art approach intimidating learns less than he or she might have learned by the old methods. ① humorous ② friendly ③ convenient ④ frightening 문 6. 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? Since the air-conditioners are being repaired now, the office workers have to _______________ electric fans for the day. ① get rid of ② let go of ③ make do with ④ break up with 문 7. 어법상 옳은 것은? ① Please contact to me at the email address I gave you last week. ② Were it not for water, all living creatures on earth would be extinct. ③ The laptop allows people who is away from their offices to continue to work. ④ The more they attempted to explain their mistakes, the worst their story sounded. 문 8. 우리말을 영어로 옳게 옮긴 것은? ① 그는 며칠 전에 친구를 배웅하기 위해 역으로 갔다. → He went to the station a few days ago to see off his friend. ② 버릇없는 그 소년은 아버지가 부르는 것을 못 들은 체했다. → The spoiled boy made it believe he didn't hear his father calling. ③ 나는 버팔로에 가본 적이 없어서 그곳에 가기를 고대하고 있다. → I have never been to Buffalo, so I am looking forward to go there. ④ 나는 아직 오늘 신문을 못 읽었어. 뭐 재미있는 것 있니? → I have not read today's newspaper yet. Is there anything interested in it? 문 9. 다음 글의 흐름상 가장 어색한 문장은? The Renaissance kitchen had a definite hierarchy of help who worked together to produce the elaborate banquets. ① At the top, as we have seen, was the scalco, or steward, who was in charge of not only the kitchen, but also the dining room. ②The dining room was supervised by the butler, who was in charge of the silverware and linen and also served the dishes that began and ended the banquet ― the cold dishes, salads, cheeses, and fruit at the beginning and the sweets and confections at the end of the meal. ③This elaborate decoration and serving was what in restaurants is called "the front of the house." ④ The kitchen was supervised by the head cook, who directed the undercooks, pastry cooks, and kitchen help. 문 10. 다음 글의 요지로 가장 적절한 것은? My students often believe that if they simply meet more important people, their work will improve. But it's remarkably hard to engage with those people unless you've already put something valuable out into the world. That's what piques the curiosity of advisers and sponsors. Achievements show you have something to give, not just something to take. In life, it certainly helps to know the right people. But how hard they go to bat for you, how far they stick their necks out for you, depends on what you have to offer. Building a powerful network doesn't require you to be an expert at networking. It just requires you to be an expert at something. If you make great connections, they might advance your career. If you do great work, those connections will be easier to make. Let your insights and your outputs ― not your business cards ― do the talking. ① Sponsorship is necessary for a successful career. ② Building a good network starts from your accomplishments. ③ A powerful network is a prerequisite for your achievement. ④ Your insights and outputs grow as you become an expert at networking. 영 어 B 책형 2 쪽 문 11. 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? A: My computer just shut down for no reason. I can't even turn it back on again. B: Did you try charging it? It might just be out of battery. A: Of course, I tried charging it. B: __________________________________________________ A: I should do that, but I'm so lazy. ① I don't know how to fix your computer. ② Try visiting the nearest service center then. ③ Well, stop thinking about your problems and go to sleep. ④ My brother will try to fix your computer because he's a technician. 문 12. 다음 글에 나타난 화자의 심경으로 가장 적절한 것은? My face turned white as a sheet. I looked at my watch. The tests would be almost over by now. I arrived at the testing center in an absolute panic. I tried to tell my story, but my sentences and descriptive gestures got so confused that I communicated nothing more than a very convincing version of a human tornado. In an effort to curb my distracting explanation, the proctor led me to an empty seat and put a test booklet in front of me. He looked doubtfully from me to the clock, and then he walked away. I tried desperately to make up for lost time, scrambling madly through analogies and sentence completions. "Fifteen minutes remain," the voice of doom declared from the front of the classroom. Algebraic equations, arithmetic calculations, geometric diagrams swam before my eyes. "Time! Pencils down, please." ① nervous and worried ② excited and cheerful ③ calm and determined ④ safe and relaxed 문 13. 주어진 문장 다음에 이어질 글의 순서로 가장 적절한 것은? Devices that monitor and track your health are becoming more popular among all age populations. (A) For example, falls are a leading cause of death for adults 65 and older. Fall alerts are a popular gerotechnology that has been around for many years but have now improved. (B) However, for seniors aging in place, especially those without a caretaker in the home, these technologies can be lifesaving. (C) This simple technology can automatically alert 911 or a close family member the moment a senior has fallen. ※ gerotechnology: 노인을 위한 양로 기술 ① (B) － (C) － (A) ② (B) － (A) － (C) ③ (C) － (A) － (B) ④ (C) － (B) － (A) ※ 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. [문 14. ∼문 15.] 문 14. A: Where do you want to go for our honeymoon? B: Let's go to a place that neither of us has been to. A: Then, why don't we go to Hawaii? B: _____________________________________ ① I've always wanted to go there. ② Isn't Korea a great place to live? ③ Great! My last trip there was amazing! ④ Oh, you must've been to Hawaii already. 문 15. The secret of successful people is usually that they are able to concentrate totally on one thing. Even if they have a lot in their head, they have found a method that the many commitments don't impede each other, but instead they are brought into a good inner order. And this order is quite simple: _________________________. In theory, it seems to be quite clear, but in everyday life it seems rather different. You might have tried to decide on priorities, but you have failed because of everyday trivial matters and all the unforeseen distractions. Separate off disturbances, for example, by escaping into another office, and not allowing any distractions to get in the way. When you concentrate on the one task of your priorities, you will find you have energy that you didn't even know you had. ① the sooner, the better ② better late than never ③ out of sight, out of mind ④ the most important thing first 문 16. 다음 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은? With the help of the scientist, the commercial fishing industry has found out that its fishing must be done scientifically if it is to be continued. With no fishing pressure on a fish population, the number of fish will reach a predictable level of abundance and stay there. The only fluctuation would be due to natural environmental factors, such as availability of food, proper temperature, and the like. If a fishery is developed to take these fish, their population can be maintained if the fishing harvest is small. The mackerel of the North Sea is a good example. If we increase the fishery and take more fish each year, we must be careful not to reduce the population below the ideal point where it can replace all of the fish we take out each year. If we fish at this level, called the maximum sustainable yield, we can maintain the greatest possible yield, year after year. If we catch too many, the number of fish will decrease each year until we fish ourselves out of a job. Examples of severely overfished animals are the blue whale of the Antarctic and the halibut of the North Atlantic. Fishing just the correct amount to maintain a maximum annual yield is both a science and an art. Research is constantly being done to help us better understand the fish population and how to utilize it to the maximum without depleting the population. ① Say No to Commercial Fishing ② Sea Farming Seen As a Fishy Business ③ Why Does the Fishing Industry Need Science? ④ Overfished Animals: Cases of Illegal Fishing 영 어 B 책형 3 쪽 문 17. 밑줄 친 (A), (B)에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? Does terrorism ever work? 9/11 was an enormous tactical success for al Qaeda, partly because it involved attacks that took place in the media capital of the world and the actual capital of the United States, (A) ensuring the widest possible coverage of the event. If terrorism is a form of theater where you want a lot of people watching, no event in human history was likely ever seen by a larger global audience than the 9/11 attacks. At the time, there was much discussion about how 9/11 was like the attack on Pearl Harbor. They were indeed similar since they were both surprise attacks that drew America into significant wars. But they were also similar in another sense. Pearl Harbor was a great tactical success for Imperial Japan, but it led to a great strategic failure: Within four years of Pearl Harbor the Japanese empire lay in ruins, utterly defeated. (B) , 9/11 was a great tactical success for al Qaeda, but it also turned out to be a great strategic failure for Osama bin Laden. (A) (B) ① thereby Similarly ② while Therefore ③ while Fortunately ④ thereby On the contrary 문 18. 다음 글의 내용과 일치하지 않는 것은? We entered a new phase as a species when Chinese scientists altered a human embryo to remove a potentially fatal blood disorder ― not only from the baby, but all of its descendants. Researchers call this process "germline modification." The media likes the phrase "designer babies." But we should call it what it is, "eugenics." And we, the human race, need to decide whether or not we want to use it. Last month, in the United States, the scientific establishment weighed in. A National Academy of Sciences and National Academy of Medicine joint committee endorsed embryo editing aimed at genes that cause serious diseases when there is "no reasonable alternative." But it was more wary of editing for "enhancement," like making already-healthy children stronger or taller. It recommended a public discussion, and said that doctors should "not proceed at this time." The committee had good reason to urge caution. The history of eugenics is full of oppression and misery. ※ eugenics: 우생학 ① Doctors were recommended to immediately go ahead with embryo editing for enhancement. ② Recently, the scientific establishment in the U.S. joined a discussion on eugenics. ③ Chinese scientists modified a human embryo to prevent a serious blood disorder. ④ "Designer babies" is another term for the germline modification process. 문 19. 주어진 문장이 들어갈 위치로 가장 적절한 것은? If neither surrendered, the two exchanged blows until one was knocked out. The ancient Olympics provided athletes an opportunity to prove their fitness and superiority, just like our modern games. ( ① ) The ancient Olympic events were designed to eliminate the weak and glorify the strong. Winners were pushed to the brink. ( ② ) Just as in modern times, people loved extreme sports. One of the favorite events was added in the 33rd Olympiad. This was the pankration, or an extreme mix of wrestling and boxing. The Greek word pankration means "total power." The men wore leather straps with metal studs, which could make a terrible mess of their opponents. ( ③ ) This dangerous form of wrestling had no time or weight limits. In this event, only two rules applied. First, wrestlers were not allowed to gouge eyes with their thumbs. Secondly, they could not bite. Anything else was considered fair play. The contest was decided in the same manner as a boxing match. Contenders continued until one of the two collapsed. ( ④ ) Only the strongest and most determined athletes attempted this event. Imagine wrestling "Mr. Fingertips," who earned his nickname by breaking his opponents' fingers! 문 20. 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? In our time it is not only the law of the market which has its own life and rules over man, but also the development of science and technique. For a number of reasons, the problems and organization of science today are such that a scientist does not choose his problems; the problems force themselves upon the scientist. He solves one problem, and the result is not that he is more secure or certain, but that ten other new problems open up in place of the single solved one. They force him to solve them; he has to go ahead at an ever-quickening pace. The same holds true for industrial techniques. The pace of science forces the pace of technique. Theoretical physics forces atomic energy on us; the successful production of the fission bomb forces upon us the manufacture of the hydrogen bomb. We do not choose our problems, we do not choose our products; we are pushed, we are forced ― by what? By a system which has no purpose and goal transcending it, and which ________________________________________. ① makes man its appendix ② creates a false sense of security ③ inspires man with creative challenges ④ empowers scientists to control the market laws
스터디 영어-가.pdf 영어-다.pdf 2018 국가직 9급 영어 해설 조만구.pdf 2018 국가직 9급 영어 해설 영스파.pdf 2018 국가직 9급 영어 해설 손진숙.pdf 2018 국가직 9급 영어 해설 정수현.pdf 2018 국가직 9급 영어 해설 이충권.pdf 2018 국가직 9급 영어 해설 이동기.pdf 2018 국가직 9급 영어 해설 문덕.pdf 2018 국가직 9급 영어 해설 조태정.pdf 2018 국가직 9급 영어 해설 이현아.pdf 2018 국가직 9급 영어 해설 성정혜.pdf 2018 국가직 9급 영어 해설 오동훈.pdf 2018 국가직 9급 영어 해설 한덕현.pdf 2018 국가직 9급 영어 해설 윤광덕.pdf 2018 국가직 9급 영어 해설 조재권.pdf 2018 국가직 9급 영어 해설 박철우.pdf 2018 국가직 9급 영어 해설 김범재.pdf 2018 국가직 9급 영어 해설 김재운.pdf 2018 국가직 9급 영어 해설 김지영.pdf 2018 국가직 9급 영어 해설 김영국.pdf 2018 국가직 9급 영어 해설 공수코.pdf 영 어 가 책형 1 쪽 영 어 ※ 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. [문 1. ～문 2.] 문 1. A: Can I ask you for a favor? B: Yes, what is it? A: I need to get to the airport for my business trip, but my car won't start. Can you give me a lift? B: Sure. When do you need to be there by? A: I have to be there no later than 6 : 00. B: It's 4 : 30 now. _________________________________. We'll have to leave right away. ① That's cutting it close ② I took my eye off the ball ③ All that glitters is not gold ④ It's water under the bridge 문 2. Fear of loss is a basic part of being human. To the brain, loss is a threat and we naturally take measures to avoid it. We cannot, however, avoid it indefinitely. One way to face loss is with the perspective of a stock trader. Traders accept the possibility of loss as part of the game, not the end of the game. What guides this thinking is a portfolio approach; wins and losses will both happen, but it's the overall portfolio of outcomes that matters most. When you embrace a portfolio approach, you will be __________________________________________________ because you know that they are small parts of a much bigger picture. ① less inclined to dwell on individual losses ② less interested in your investments ③ more averse to the losses ④ more sensitive to fluctuations in the stock market 문 3. 다음 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은? Over the last years of traveling, I've observed how much we humans live in the past. The past is around us constantly, considering that, the minute something is manifested, it is the past. Our surroundings, our homes, our environments, our architecture, our products are all past constructs. We should live with what is part of our time, part of our collective consciousness, those things that were produced during our lives. Of course, we do not have the choice or control to have everything around us relevant or conceived during our time, but what we do have control of should be a reflection of the time in which we exist and communicate the present. The present is all we have, and the more we are surrounded by it, the more we are aware of our own presence and participation. ① Travel: Tracing the Legacies of the Past ② Reflect on the Time That Surrounds You Now ③ Manifestation of a Hidden Life ④ Architecture of a Futuristic Life 문 4. 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 옳지 않은 것은? It would be difficult ①to imagine life without the beauty and richness of forests. But scientists warn we cannot take our forest for ② granted. By some estimates, deforestation ③has been resulted in the loss of as much as eighty percent of the natural forests of the world. Currently, deforestation is a global problem, ④ affecting wilderness regions such as the temperate rainforests of the Pacific. 문 5. 밑줄 친 부분의 의미와 가장 가까운 것은? Robert J. Flaherty, a legendary documentary filmmaker, tried to show how indigenous people gathered food. ① native ② ravenous ③ impoverished ④ itinerant 문 6. 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? Listening to music is ______________ being a rock star. Anyone can listen to music, but it takes talent to become a musician. ① on a par with ② a far cry from ③ contingent upon ④ a prelude to 문 7. 다음 글의 흐름상 가장 어색한 문장은? Biologists have identified a gene that will allow rice plants to survive being submerged in water for up to two weeks ―over a week longer than at present. Plants under water for longer than a week are deprived of oxygen and wither and perish. ① The scientists hope their discovery will prolong the harvests of crops in regions that are susceptible to flooding. ②Rice growers in these flood-prone areas of Asia lose an estimated one billion dollars annually to excessively waterlogged rice paddies. ③They hope the new gene will lead to a hardier rice strain that will reduce the financial damage incurred in typhoon and monsoon seasons and lead to bumper harvests. ④ This is dreadful news for people in these vulnerable regions, who are victims of urbanization and have a shortage of crops. Rice yields must increase by 30 percent over the next 20 years to ensure a billion people can receive their staple diet. 문 8. 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? A: Do you know how to drive? B: Of course. I'm a great driver. A: Could you teach me how to drive? B: Do you have a learner's permit? A: Yes, I got it just last week. B: Have you been behind the steering wheel yet? A: No, but I can't wait to _____________________. ① take a rain check ② get my feet wet ③ get an oil change ④ change a flat tire 영 어 가 책형 2 쪽 문 9. 다음 글의 내용과 일치하는 것은? Sharks are covered in scales made from the same material as teeth. These flexible scales protect the shark and help it swim quickly in water. A shark can move the scales as it swims. This movement helps reduce the water's drag. Amy Lang, an aerospace engineer at the University of Alabama, studies the scales on the shortfin mako, a relative of the great white shark. Lang and her team discovered that the mako shark's scales differ in size and in flexibility in different parts of its body. For instance, the scales on the sides of the body are tapered ―wide at one end and narrow at the other end. Because they are tapered, these scales move very easily. They can turn up or flatten to adjust to the flow of water around the shark and to reduce drag. Lang feels that shark scales can inspire designs for machines that experience drag, such as airplanes. ① A shark has scales that always remain immobile to protect itself as it swims. ② Lang revealed that the scales of a mako shark are utilized to lessen drag in water. ③ A mako shark has scales of identical size all over its body. ④ The scientific designs of airplanes were inspired by shark scales. 문 10. 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 옳지 않은 것은? Focus means ① getting stuff done. A lot of people have great ideas but don't act on them. For me, the definition of an entrepreneur, for instance, is someone who can combine innovation and ingenuity with the ability to execute that new idea. Some people think that the central dichotomy in life is whether you're positive or negative about the issues ② that interest or concern you. There's a lot of attention ③ paying to this question of whether it's better to have an optimistic or pessimistic lens. I think the better question to ask is whether you are going to do something about it or just ④ let life pass you by. 문 11. 밑줄 친 부분 중 글의 흐름상 가장 어색한 것은? Most people like to talk, but few people like to listen, yet listening well is a ① rare talent that everyone should treasure. Because they hear more, good listeners tend to know more and to be more sensitive to what is going on around them than most people. In addition, good listeners are inclined to accept or tolerate rather than to judge and criticize. Therefore, they have ②fewer enemies than most people. In fact, they are probably the most beloved of people. However, there are ③exceptions to that generality. For example, John Steinbeck is said to have been an excellent listener, yet he was hated by some of the people he wrote about. No doubt his ability to listen contributed to his capacity to write. Nevertheless, the result of his listening didn't make him ④ unpopular. 문 12. 다음 글의 주제로 가장 적절한 것은? Worry is like a rocking horse. No matter how fast you go, you never move anywhere. Worry is a complete waste of time and creates so much clutter in your mind that you cannot think clearly about anything. The way to learn to stop worrying is by first understanding that you energize whatever you focus your attention on. Therefore, the more you allow yourself to worry, the more likely things are to go wrong! Worrying becomes such an ingrained habit that to avoid it you consciously have to train yourself to do otherwise. Whenever you catch yourself having a fit of worry, stop and change your thoughts. Focus your mind more productively on what you do want to happen and dwell on what's already wonderful in your life so more wonderful stuff will come your way. ① What effects does worry have on life? ② Where does worry originate from? ③ When should we worry? ④ How do we cope with worrying? 문 13. 다음 글의 내용과 일치하지 않는 것은? Students at Macaulay Honors College (MHC) don't stress about the high price of tuition. That's because theirs is free. At Macaulay and a handful of other service academies, work colleges, single-subject schools and conservatories, 100 percent of the student body receive a full tuition scholarship for all four years. Macaulay students also receive a laptop and $7,500 in "opportunities funds" to pursue research, service experiences, study abroad programs and internships. "The most important thing is not the free tuition, but the freedom of studying without the burden of debt on your back," says Ann Kirschner, university dean of Macaulay Honors College. The debt burden, she says, "really compromises decisions students make in college, and we are giving them the opportunity to be free of that." Schools that grant free tuition to all students are rare, but a greater number of institutions provide scholarships to enrollees with high grades. Institutions such as Indiana University Bloomington offer automatic awards to high-performing students with stellar GPAs and class ranks. ① MHC에서는 모든 학생이 4년간 수업료를 내지 않는다. ② MHC에서는 학생들에게 컴퓨터 구입 비용과 교외활동 비용을 합하여 $7,500를 지급한다. ③ 수업료로 인한 빚 부담이 있으면 학생들이 자유롭게 공부할 수 없다고 Kirschner 학장은 말한다. ④ MHC와 달리 학업 우수자에게만 장학금을 주는 대학도 있다. ※ 밑줄 친 부분의 의미와 가장 가까운 것을 고르시오. [문 14. ～ 문 15.] 문 14. The police spent seven months working on the crime case but were never able to determine the identity of the malefactor. ① culprit ② dilettante ③ pariah ④ demagogue 영 어 가 책형 3 쪽 문 15. While at first glance it seems that his friends are just leeches, they prove to be the ones he can depend on through thick and thin. ① in no time ② from time to time ③ in pleasant times ④ in good times and bad times 문 16. 주어진 문장이 들어갈 위치로 가장 적절한 것은? Some remain intensely proud of their original accent and dialect words, phrases and gestures, while others accommodate rapidly to a new environment by changing their speech habits, so that they no longer "stand out in the crowd." Our perceptions and production of speech change with time. ( ① ) If we were to leave our native place for an extended period, our perception that the new accents around us were strange would only be temporary. ( ② ) Gradually, we will lose the sense that others have an accent and we will begin to fit in ―to accommodate our speech patterns to the new norm. ( ③ ) Not all people do this to the same degree. ( ④ ) Whether they do this consciously or not is open to debate and may differ from individual to individual, but like most processes that have to do with language, the change probably happens before we are aware of it and probably couldn't happen if we were. 문 17. 다음 글의 내용과 일치하지 않는 것은? Insomnia can be classified as transient, acute, or chronic. Transient insomnia lasts for less than a week. It can be caused by another disorder, by changes in the sleep environment, by the timing of sleep, severe depression, or by stress. Its consequences such as sleepiness and impaired psychomotor performance are similar to those of sleep deprivation. Acute insomnia is the inability to consistently sleep well for a period of less than a month. Acute insomnia is present when there is difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep or when the sleep that is obtained is not refreshing. These problems occur despite adequate opportunity and circumstances for sleep and they can impair daytime functioning. Acute insomnia is also known as short term insomnia or stress related insomnia. Chronic insomnia lasts for longer than a month. It can be caused by another disorder, or it can be a primary disorder. People with high levels of stress hormones or shifts in the levels of cytokines are more likely than others to have chronic insomnia. Its effects can vary according to its causes. They might include muscular weariness, hallucinations, and/or mental fatigue. Chronic insomnia can also cause double vision. ※ cytokines: groups of molecules released by certain cells of the immune system ① Insomnia can be classified according to its duration. ② Transient insomnia occurs solely due to an inadequate sleep environment. ③ Acute insomnia is generally known to be related to stress. ④ Chronic insomnia patients may suffer from hallucinations. 문 18. 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? Kisha Padbhan, founder of Everonn Education, in Mumbai, looks at his business as nation-building. India's student-age population of 230 million (kindergarten to college) is one of the largest in the world. The government spends $83 billion on instruction, but there are serious gaps. "There aren't enough teachers and enough teacher-training institutes," says Kisha. "What children in remote parts of India lack is access to good teachers and exposure to good-quality content." Everonn's solution? The company uses a satellite network, with two-way video and audio __________________________________________________. It reaches 1,800 colleges and 7,800 schools across 24 of India's 28 states. It offers everything from digitized school lessons to entrance exam prep for aspiring engineers and has training for job-seekers, too. ① to improve the quality of teacher training facilities ② to bridge the gap through virtual classrooms ③ to get students familiarized with digital technology ④ to locate qualified instructors across the nation 문 19. 주어진 문장 다음에 이어질 글의 순서로 가장 적절한 것은? A technique that enables an individual to gain some voluntary control over autonomic, or involuntary, body functions by observing electronic measurements of those functions is known as biofeedback. (A) When such a variable moves in the desired direction (for example, blood pressure down), it triggers visual or audible displays ― feedback on equipment such as television sets, gauges, or lights. (B) Electronic sensors are attached to various parts of the body to measure such variables as heart rate, blood pressure, and skin temperature. (C) Biofeedback training teaches one to produce a desired response by reproducing thought patterns or actions that triggered the displays. ① (A) － (B) － (C) ② (B) － (C) － (A) ③ (B) － (A) － (C) ④ (C) － (A) － (B) 문 20. 우리말을 영어로 잘못 옮긴 것은? ① 그 연사는 자기 생각을 청중에게 전달하는 데 능숙하지 않았다. → The speaker was not good at getting his ideas across to the audience. ② 서울의 교통 체증은 세계 어느 도시보다 심각하다. → The traffic jams in Seoul are more serious than those in any other city in the world. ③ 네가 말하고 있는 사람과 시선을 마주치는 것은 서양 국가에서 중요하다. → Making eye contact with the person you are speaking to is important in western countries. ④ 그는 사람들이 생각했던 만큼 인색하지 않았다는 것이 드러났다. → It turns out that he was not so stingier as he was thought to be.
스터디 영어_7급_A형.pdf 영어_7급_B형.pdf 2018 서울시 7급 영어 해설 손진숙.pdf 2018 서울시 7급 영어 해설 김지영.pdf 2018 서울시 7급 영어 해설 공수코.pdf Ⓐ - 3 ※ 빈칸에 들어갈 단어로 가장 적절한 것은? (1~2) 1. The judge determined to the contract between the two companies, nullifying all requirements and commitments. ① rescind ② reinforce ③ refurbish ④ reimburse 2. Social media addiction has been a much-flouted term lately; maybe it s because social media can have a negative impact on our mental well-being. But a growing body of research is seriously considering whether problematic and excessive social media usage could be and, in turn, designated as a mental health disorder. ① nebulous ② pathological ③ furtive ④ laconic 3. 어법상 가장 옳지 않은 문장은? ① Born in Genoa, Italy, Piccolo Paganini was one of the greatest composers of the nineteenth century. ② While he widely acclaimed as a violinist, Paganini had other musical talents which included tuning, arranging, and composing. ③ More often than not, he turned to the viola and the piano, and in his last years began to practice as an orchestra conductor. ④ But above all he left many beautiful scores for the violin concerto. 4. 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 가장 옳지 않은 것은? UN scientists call the ① emptying of the Aral Sea the greatest environmental disaster of the 20th century. But I only understood the scale of what ② had happened when I looked at a couple of satellite images that ③ appears in this book. They show a whole sea reduced to a toxic-sump by human action. It is an ④ unprecedented man-made change to the shape of the world. 5. 빈칸에 들어갈 가장 적절한 것은? A : Why were you teasing Mary about her new hairstyle? She looks really upset at what you said. B : I didn t mean to offend her. I was simply making a joke about too elaborate decoration for a girl of her young, tender age. A : Well, she thought you were serious. She had no idea that you were . B:I m really sorry. I guess I owe her an apology. ① making a tongue-in-cheek remark ② selling her down the river ③ jumping down her throat ④ giving it your best shot 6. 빈칸에 ㉠과 동일한 단어가 들어갈 문장으로 가장 적절한 것은? Many blame Britain s decline on too much ( ㉠ ) tape. ① What s the harm of a lie if it makes her feel better? ② Symptoms of the disease often appear out of the . ③ Overseas payments could keep the country deep in the for the next decade. ④ He never did do things like the other students. He was always the sheep in his class. 7. 밑줄 친 부분과 의미가 가장 먼 것은? The tax cut is widely disparaged by senators from both parties as a budget gimmick. ① belittled ② derided ③ sanctioned ④ slighted 8. 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 가장 옳지 않은 것은? A swing vote is a vote that ① is seen as potentially going to any of a number of candidates in an election, or, in a two-party system, may go to either of the two dominant political parties. Such votes ② are usually sought after in election campaigns, since they can play a big role in determining the outcome. A swing voter or floating voter is a voter who may not ③ be affiliated with a particular political party(Independent) or who will vote across party lines. In American politics, many centrists, liberal Republicans, and conservative Democrats are considered swing voters since their voting patterns cannot ④ predict with certainty. ※ 글의 흐름상 빈칸에 들어갈 가장 적절한 것은? (9~10) 9. Oxygen in pure form is a gas, but when it reacts with silicon they become together the strong silicate minerals that compose the majority of the earth s crust. When oxygen combines with hydrogen and carbon, the result can be anything from water to carbon monoxide to sugar. But each oxygen atom can never itself be broken down or taken apart into something simpler. This property of is what makes an element an element. ① composition ② reaction ③ indivisibility ④ purity 10. The task of winning an election in modern times is assigned to political dignitaries, advertising experts, strategy consultants, personal aides, and an array of volunteers forming a conglomerate of professions, strictly regulated by campaign rules. But ancient politicians were more skilled than modern ones at exploiting loopholes in election law. In Rome, the key loophole lay in the fuzzy distinction between electoral bribery and mere generosity. Roman elections were often won on the strength of free food, drinks, entertainment, and sometimes hard cash offered directly to voters and financed by private fortunes. Most of the Roman elite relied on the gentleman s agreement that the line between bribery and generosity would not be strictly . ① condoned ② controlled ③ connived ④ pardoned Ⓐ - 4 11. <보기>의 Morpher에 대한 설명으로 가장 적절한 것은? <보기> Jeff Woolf has been involved in a serious crash-one that might have killed him were it not for his helmet. So why, he wondered, do so many of his contemporaries refuse to wear one? It s mostly because they re hard to carry around; they re thick and bulky, and don t fit into bags or backpacks. And that was a problem that Woolf, an engineer, knew he could fix. The result is: Morpher, a bike helmet made from interweaved plastics that is just as strong as its traditional counterparts, but flexible enough to fold almost totally flat, making it easier to transport. Woolf recently shipped the first units to his Indiegogo backers, who helped raise almost $300,000. He s now in talks with other stores too. It s inevitable that as more people take to the road on a bicycle, more people will have accidents, Woolf says, adding that he hopes Morpher will save lives. ① 두껍고 부피가 크다. ② 기존의 헬멧보다 더 강한 강도를 가졌다. ③ 유연한 재질로 접어서 이송이 가능하다. ④ 개발비용으로 300,000달러가 사용되었다. ※ <보기>의 문장이 들어갈 곳으로 가장 적절한 것은? (12~13) 12. <보기> Both explanations have been used for evidence of conformity in psychological experiments. The bandwagon effect is a phenomenon whereby the rate of uptake of beliefs, ideas, fads and trends increases the more that they have already been adopted by others. ( ①) In other words, the bandwagon effect is characterized by the probability of individual adoption increasing with respect to the proportion who have already done so. ( ②) As more people come to believe in something, others also hop on the bandwagon regardless of the underlying evidence. ( ③) The tendency to follow the actions or beliefs of others can occur because individuals directly prefer to conform, or because individuals derive information from others. ( ④ ) For example, social pressure has been used to explain Asch s conformity experiments, and information has been used to explain Sherif s autokinetic experiment. 13. <보기> Ultimately, concept cars are merely another branch of fashion―one year it s huge wheels while the next it s rear doors. Mankind has always wanted to look into the future ―and, where possible, to create it, too. ( ① ) After all, isn t it so much more exciting to go somewhere that nobody has ever been? Or do something no one else has ever done? ( ② ) It s only by pushing the boundaries that advances can be made with new designs, new technologies, and new materials. ( ③ ) Whether it s clothes, household appliances, or cars, there are always advances to be made, and fashions constantly change, too. ( ④ ) However, there s one thing that does not change: the importance of the concept car. ※ 글의 흐름상 빈칸에 들어갈 가장 적절한 것은? (14~15) 14. Interpretations of Guernica vary widely and contradict one another. This extends, for example, to the mural s two dominant elements : the bull and the horse. Art historian Patricia Failing said, The bull and the horse are important characters in Spanish culture. Picasso himself certainly used these characters to play many different roles over time. This has made the task of interpreting the specific meaning of the bull and the horse very tough. Their relationship is a kind of ballet that was conceived in a variety of ways throughout Picasso s career. When pressed to explain the elements in Guernica, Picasso said, ...this bull is a bull and this horse is a horse... If you give a meaning to certain things in my paintings it may be very true, but it is not my idea to give this meaning. What ideas and conclusions you have got I obtained too, but instinctively, unconsciously. I make the painting for the painting. I paint the objects for . ① what Guernica means ② what they are ③ what life is ④ what my paintings are 15. An 89-year-old war veteran was beaten repeatedly after confronting burglars who used what police say was an obscene level of violence. Bob Schofield and his 87-year-old wife Mollie were asleep in bed at their home in Salterforth, Lancashire, when the burglars broke in early on Monday. The pair were later found shocked and injured after a neighbor noticed their curtains were not open. Lancashire Police said the attack was heartless, cowardly and despicable. Acting Detective Inspector of Lancashire Police said, It s hard to imagine a more heartless, cowardly and despicable occurrence, and detectives will in their efforts to find those responsible. He appealed for anyone with information to come forward. ① cut corners ② hang by a thread ③ keep it under wraps ④ leave no stone unturned 16. <보기> 글에 이어질 내용을 문맥상 가장 어울리게 순서대로 배열한 것은? <보기> French vocabulary influenced Middle English so markedly after the Norman Conquest in 1066 that it is easy to ignore the fact that French loan words can be found in Old English too. ㉠ Whatever the political consequences of these events, the linguistic consequences were a handful of French loan words, among them serve , bacon , and castle . ㉡ Indeed, it would be surprising if there had been no such influence, given the close contacts which had grown up in the 10th and 11th centuries. The monastic revival, in particular, had started in France, and many English monks must have studied there. ㉢ Above all, there was close contact between the two cultures following the exile to Normandy of Edward the Confessor, the son of Æthelred II and Emma, daughter of the Duke of Normandy. Edward lived there for 25 years, returning to England in 1041 with many French courtiers. When he succeeded to the throne, several of the French nobles were given high positions — a source of considerable grievance among their Anglo-Saxon counterparts. ① ㉠-㉡-㉢ ② ㉡-㉢-㉠ ③ ㉢-㉠-㉡ ④ ㉢-㉡-㉠ Ⓐ - 5 ※ 글의 흐름상 빈칸에 들어갈 가장 적절한 것은? (17~18) 17. In the 1950s a bilingual educational system was introduced in Singapore, ( ㉠ ) English used as a unifying and utilitarian medium alongside Chinese, Malay, or Tamil. However, English remained the language of government and the legal system, and retained its importance in education and the media. Its use has also been steadily increasing among the general population. In a 1975 survey, only 27 percent of people over age 40 claimed to understand English, ( ㉡ ) among 15-to-20-year-olds, the proportion was over 87 percent. There is also evidence of quite widespread use in family settings. ㉠ ㉡ ㉠ ㉡ ① and but ② so while ③ then and ④ with whereas 18. The need to take seriously the way university practices impact the environment is not but rather urgent. ① frivolous ② imperative ③ refulgent ④ immaculate ※ <보기>를 읽고 물음에 답하시오. (19~20) <보기> Political Correctness(PC) is a term used to describe language, ideas, policies, or behavior seen as seeking to minimize offense to gender, racial, cultural, disabled, aged or other identity groups. Some critics of political correctness argue that it is a form of coercion rooted in the assumption that in a political context, power refers to the dominion of some men over others, or the human control of human life; by this argument, ultimately, it means force or compulsion. This argument holds that political correctness in this context is subjective, and corresponds to the sponsored view of the government, minority, or special interest group that these conservative critics oppose. They claim that by silencing contradiction, their opponents entrench their views as orthodox, and eventually cause it to be accepted as true, as freedom of thought requires the ability to choose between more than one viewpoint. Another criticism is that enforcers rarely consult the minorities they claim to be protecting, and controversies are therefore based on assumptions that the minorities want this, when this is often not the case. Some people have accused the enforcers of supporting the stereotypes themselves. Some websites have branded political correctness completely intolerant of any person who does not act in a politically correct fashion, . Some critics nickname enforcers the PC brigade or the diversity dictators. 19. 글의 요지와 가장 부합하는 것은? ① Political Correctness should not be imposed as a social regulation. ② Political Correctness should be applied according to government s belief. ③ Political Correctness does more harm than good to national integrity. ④ Political Correctness must be protected regardless of its opponents. 20. 글의 흐름상 빈칸에 들어갈 가장 적절한 것은? ① considering it to be more divisive than harmonious ② regarding it as more beneficial than detrimental ③ taking it to be more serious than humorous ④ conceiving of it as more accidental than fundamental Ⓐ - 6
스터디 영어_9급_A형.pdf 영어_9급_B형.pdf 2018 서울시 9급 영어 해설 손진숙.pdf 2018 서울시 9급 영어 해설 이서윤.pdf 2018 서울시 9급 영어 해설 이동기.pdf 2018 서울시 9급 영어 해설 조만구.pdf 2018 서울시 9급 영어 해설 이현아.pdf 2018 서울시 9급 영어 해설 김지영.pdf 2018 서울시 9급 영어 해설 한덕현.pdf 2018 서울시 9급 영어 해설 공수코.pdf Ⓐ - 3 ※ 밑줄 친 부분과 의미가 가장 가까운 것은? (1~2) 1. Ethical considerations can be an integral element of biotechnology regulation. ① key ② incidental ③ interactive ④ popular 2. If the area of the brain associated with speech is destroyed, the brain may use plasticity to cause other areas of the brain not originally associated with this speech to learn the skill as a way to make up for lost cells. ① accuracy ② systemicity ③ obstruction ④ suppleness ※ 빈칸에 들어갈 단어로 가장 적절한 것은? (3~4) 3. Mephisto demands a signature and contract. No mere contract will do. As Faust remarks, the devil wants everything in writing. ① genuine ② essential ③ reciprocal ④ verbal 4. The company and the union reached a tentative agreement in this year s wage deal as the two sides took the company s _________ operating profits seriously amid unfriendly business environments. ① deteriorating ② enhancing ③ ameliorating ④ leveling ※ 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 가장 옳지 않은 것은? (5~7) 5. I ① convinced that making pumpkin cake ② from scratch would be ③ even easier than ④ making cake from a box. 6. When you find your tongue ① twisted as you seek to explain to your ② six-year-old daughter why she can t go to the amusement park ③ that has been advertised on television, then you will understand why we find it difficult ④ wait. 7. Lewis Alfred Ellison, a small-business owner and ① a construction foreman, died in 1916 after an operation to cure internal wounds ② suffering after shards from a 100-lb ice block ③ penetrated his abdomen when it was dropped while ④ being loaded into a hopper. ※ 빈칸에 들어갈 것으로 가장 적절한 것은? (8~9) 8. A：You don t know about used cars, Ned. Whew! 70,000 miles. B：Oh, that s a lot of miles! We have to take a close look at the engine, the doors, the tires, everything ... A：It s too expensive, Ned. ________________________ B：You have to watch these used car salesmen. ① Let s buy it. ② I ll dust it down. ③ What model do you want? ④ I don t want to get ripped off. 9. The term combines two concepts― bionic which means to give a living thing an artificial capability like a bionic arm, and nano which _____________ particles smaller than 100 nanometers that can be used to imbue the living thing with its new capability. ① breaks in ② refers to ③ originates from ④ lays over 10. 어법상 가장 옳은 것은? ① If the item should not be delivered tomorrow, they would complain about it. ② He was more skillful than any other baseball players in his class. ③ Hardly has the violinist finished his performance before the audience stood up and applauded. ④ Bakers have been made come out, asking for promoting wheat consumption. 11. <보기> 문장이 들어갈 곳으로 가장 적절한 것은? <보기> If you are unhappy yourself, you will probably be prepared to admit that you are not exceptional in this. ( ① ) Animals are happy so long as they have health and enough to eat. Human beings, one feels, ought to be, but in the modern world they are not, at least in a great majority of cases. ( ② ) If you are happy, ask yourself how many of your friends are so. ( ③ ) And when you have reviewed your friends, teach yourself the art of reading faces; make yourself receptive to the moods of those whom you meet in the course of an ordinary day. ( ④ ) 12. 글의 흐름상 가장 적절하지 않은 문장은? Tighter regulations on cigarette products have spilled over to alcohol, soda and other consumer products, which has restricted consumer choices and made goods more expensive. ① Countries have taken more restrictive measures, including taxation, pictorial health warnings and prohibitions on advertising and promotion, against cigarette products over the past four decades. ② Regulatory measures have failed to improve public health, growing cigarette smuggling. ③ Applying restrictions first to tobacco and then to other consumer products have created a domino effect, or what is called a slippery slope, for other industries. ④ At the extreme end of the slippery slope is plain packaging, where all trademarks, logos and brand-specific colors are removed, resulting in unintended consequences and a severe infringement of intellectual property rights. Ⓐ - 4 ※ 글의 흐름상 빈칸에 들어갈 가장 적절한 것은? (13~14) 13. Language changes when speakers of a language come into contact with speakers of another language or languages. This can be because of migration, perhaps, because they move to more fertile lands, or because they are displaced on account of war or poverty or disease. It can also be because they are invaded. Depending on the circumstances, the home language may succumb completely to the language of the invaders, in which case we talk about replacement. _________, the home language might persist side-by-side with the language of the invaders, and depending on political circumstances, it might become the dominant language. ① Typically ② Consistently ③ Similarly ④ Alternatively 14. The notion that a product tested without branding is somehow being more objectively appraised is entirely ___________. In the real world, we no more appraise things with our eyes closed and holding our nose than we do by ignoring the brand that is stamped on the product we purchase, the look and feel of the box it comes in, or the price being asked. ① correct ② reliable ③ misguided ④ unbiased 15. <보기> 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은? <보기> Many visitors to the United States think that Americans take their exercise and free time activities too seriously. Americans often schedule their recreation as if they were scheduling business appointments. They go jogging every day at the same time, play tennis two or three times a week, or swim every Thursday. Foreigners often think that this kind of recreation sounds more like work than relaxation. For many Americans, however, their recreational activities are relaxing and enjoyable, or at least worthwhile, because they contribute to health and physical fitness. ① Health and fitness ② Popular recreational activities in the United States ③ The American approach to recreation ④ The definition of recreation 16. <보기> 글의 요지로 가장 적절한 것은? <보기> Feelings of pain or pleasure or some quality in between are the bedrock of our minds. We often fail to notice this simple reality because the mental images of the objects and events that surround us, along with the images of the words and sentences that describe them, use up so much of our overburdened attention. But there they are, feelings of myriad emotions and related states, the continuous musical line of our minds, the unstoppable humming of the most universal of melodies that only dies down when we go to sleep, a humming that turns into all-out singing when we are occupied by joy, or a mournful requiem when sorrow takes over. ① Feelings are closely associated with music. ② Feelings are composed of pain and pleasure. ③ Feelings are ubiquitous in our minds. ④ Feelings are related to the mental images of objects and events. 17. <보기> 글의 분위기로 가장 적절한 것은? <보기> I go to the local schoolyard, hoping to join in a game. But no one is there. After several minutes of standing around, dejected under the netless basketball hoops and wondering where everybody is, the names of those I expected to find awaiting me start to fill my mind. I have not played in a place like this for years. What was that? What was I thinking of, coming here? When I was a child, a boy, I went to the schoolyard to play. That was a long time ago. No children here will ever know me. Around me the concrete is empty except for pebbles, bottles, and a beer can that I kick, clawing a scary noise out of the pavement. ① calm and peaceful ② festive and merry ③ desolate and lonely ④ horrible and scary 18. 글의 흐름상 빈칸에 들어갈 단어를 순서대로 고른 것은? Often described as the rags to riches tale, the story of steel magnate Andrew Carnegie s rise begins in 1835 in a small one-room home in Dunfermline, Scotland. Born into a family of laborers, Carnegie received little schooling before his family emigrated to America in 1848. Arriving in Pennsylvania, he soon got a job in a textile mill, where he earned only $1.20 per week. ① quintessential -destitute ② exceptive- devout ③ interesting-meticulous ④ deleterious-impoverished 19. <보기> 글의 내용과 일치하는 것은? <보기> In the American Southwest, previously the Mexican North, Anglo-America ran into Hispanic America. The meeting involved variables of language, religion, race, economy, and politics. The border between Hispanic America and Anglo-America has shifted over time, but one fact has not changed: it is one thing to draw an arbitrary geographical line between two spheres of sovereignty; it is another to persuade people to respect it. Victorious in the Mexican-American War in 1848, the United States took half of Mexico. The resulting division did not ratify any plan of nature. The borderlands were an ecological whole; northeastern Mexican desert blended into southeastern American desert with no prefiguring of nationalism. The one line that nature did provide — the Rio Grande — was a river that ran through but did not really divide continuous terrain. ① The borderlands between America and Mexico signify a long history of one sovereignty. ② While nature did not draw lines, human society certainly did. ③ The Mexican-American War made it possible for people to respect the border. ④ The Rio Grande has been thought of as an arbitrary geographical line. 20. <보기> 글을 문맥에 가장 어울리게 순서대로 배열한 것은? <보기> ㉠ The trigger for the aggressive driver is usually traffic congestion coupled with a schedule that is almost impossible to meet. ㉡ Unfortunately, these actions put the rest of us at risk. For example, an aggressive driver who resorts to using a roadway shoulder to pass may startle other drivers and cause them to take an evasive action that results in more risk or even a crash. ㉢ As a result, the aggressive driver generally commits multiple violations in an attempt to make up time. ㉣ Aggressive driving is a traffic offense or combination of offenses such as following too closely, speeding, unsafe lane changes, failing to signal intent to change lanes, and other forms of negligent or inconsiderate driving. ① ㉠-㉢-㉡-㉣ ② ㉠-㉣-㉢-㉡ ③ ㉣-㉠-㉢-㉡ ④ ㉣-㉡-㉢-㉠
스터디 영어-1책형.pdf 영어-2책형.pdf 2018 법원직 9급 영어 해설 정수현.pdf 2018 법원직 9급 영어 해설 손진숙.pdf 【영어 25문】 ①책형 【문 1】다음 글의 주제로 가장 적절한 것은? Short-term stress can boost your productivity and immunity. But when stress lingers, you may find yourself struggling. People show some signs when they suffer from more stress than is healthy. First, you can’t concentrate. In times of stress, your body goes into fight or flight mode, pouring its efforts into keeping safe from danger. That's why it may be hard to concentrate on a single task, and you're more likely to get distracted. "The brain's response becomes all about survival", says Heidi Hanna, author of Stressaholic: 5 Steps to Transform Your Relationship with Stress. "The fear response takes up all the energy of the brain for how to protect yourself." Second, you tend to get pessimistic. Because you're primed for survival, your brain has more circuits to pay attention to negatives than to positives. "When you're feeling overwhelmed by the chaos of life, take time to appreciate everything that's going well. You have to be intentional about practicing positivity", Hanna says. ① Advantages of short-term stress ② Why people keep distracted ③ Dangers of pessimism ④ Signs of excessive stress 【문 2】다음 글의 빈칸 (A), (B)에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? Sometimes, the meaning of analogies may not be obvious. For instance, what comes to mind when you hear the phrase "white elephant" or "black sheep"? The expression "white elephant" comes from Thailand. Long ago, in Thailand, white elephants were very rare. Whenever one was found, it was given to the king. The king would then give it as a royal "gift" to someone he did not like since the beautiful animal cost a fortune to take care of. Nobody could refuse such a present, but it could financially ruin its owner. Moreover, it was a serious crime to mistreat a present from the king. Even riding it was not allowed, so a white elephant was almost useless. The expression, introduced in England in the 18th century, turned out to be useful for describing (A) but (B) public buildings. Today, it is used to refer to anything that might be (A) and (B) . (A) (B) ① valuable … unprotected ② costly … worthless ③ extravagant … appropriate ④ priceless … eco-friendly 【문 3】다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중 문맥상 낱말의 쓰임이 적절하지 않은 것은? When asked, nearly everyone says the proper response to a compliment is "Thank you". But researchers found that when actually given a compliment, only a third of people accept it so ①simply. The difficulty lies in the fact that every compliment ("What a nice sweater!") has two levels: a gift component (accept or reject) and a content component (agree or disagree). The recipient is confronted with a ②dilemma — how to respond simultaneously to both: "I must agree with the speaker and thank him for the gift of a compliment while avoiding self-praise." Interestingly, women and men are both ③less likely to accept a compliment coming from a man than from a woman. When a man says, "Nice scarf," a woman is more likely to respond ④affirmatively: "Thanks. My sister knitted it for me." But when one woman tells another, "That's a beautiful sweater," the recipient is likely to disagree or deflect. "It was on sale, and they didn’t even have the colour I wanted." 【문 4】다음 글의 빈칸 (A), (B)에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? The chairperson should seek to have a progressive discussion that leads towards a consensus view. As the discussion develops, the chairperson should be searching to find the direction in which the weight of members’ views is pointing. If, (A) , there are five members and the chair senses that two want to follow course A and a third follow course B, the focus should quickly be turned towards the remaining two members. The chair turns to member 4. If he or she wants course A, the chairperson simply has the job of getting first the other neutral (member 5) and then the dissenting member 3 to assent to the fact that course A is the majority view. If, (B) , member 4 wants course B, then member 5’s view is the critical one, which the chairperson must now bring in. And so, very quickly, you can sense where the balance of opinion is pointing, and lead the meeting towards unanimous assent. *consensus 의견 일치 **unanimous 만장일치의 (A) (B) ① whereas likewise ② for example therefore ③ whereas for instance ④ for example on the other hand 1교시 ①책형 전체 20-16 【영어 25문】 ①책형 【문 5】다음 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은? As early as 525 BCE, a Greek named Theagenes, who lived in southern Italy, identified myths as scientific analogies or allegories -- an attempt to explain natural occurrences that people could not understand. To him, for instance, the mythical stories of gods fighting among themselves were allegories representing the forces of nature that oppose each other, such as fire and water. This is clearly the source of a great many explanatory or "causal" myths, beginning with the accounts found in every society or civilization that explain the creation of the universe, the world, and humanity. These "scientific" myths attempted to explain seasons, the rising and setting of the sun, the course of the stars. Myths like these were, in some ways, the forerunners of science. Old mythical explanations for the workings of nature began to be replaced by a rational attempt to understand the world, especially in the remarkable era of Greek science and philosophy that began about 500 BCE. ① Myths: Basis of Scientific Inquiry ② Dispelling the Myths about Science ③ How Are Creation Myths Universal? ④ How Much Myths Affect Our World Views 【문 6】다음 글의 내용과 일치하는 것은? Every year in early October, Helsinki's harbor changes into a lively, colorful set for the Baltic Herring Festival, first held in 1743. Fishermen from all over Finland bring their latest catch to Helsinki to take part in one of Finland's oldest festivals. Sellers in bright orange tents line the harbor and sell herring in every imaginable form: fried, pickled, smoked, in bottles, in cans, in soup, on pizza, and in sandwiches. The choices are endless. On the first day of the festival, competitions are held to select the most delicious seasoned herring and the best herring surprise. Herring surprise is a traditional dish made with herring, cheese, and onions. The winner of each competition is awarded a trophy. ① The festival has been held in every second year since 1743. ② Sellers set up orange tents along the harbor and sell herring. ③ The competition of the festival is limited to Helsinki residents. ④ A trophy is only given to the winner of the best herring surprise. 【문 7】다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중 문맥상 낱말의 쓰임이 적절하지 않은 것은? As a youngster I shared a bedroom with my older sister. Although the age difference was slight, in intellect and maturity she viewed me from across the great divide. Her serious academic and cultural pursuits contrasted sharply with my activities of closely monitoring the radio shows. Because of these ①dissimilar interests and the limited resource of one bedroom between us, we frequently had conflict over what constituted disturbing and inconsiderate behavior. For months, there were attempts to ②compromise by "splitting the difference" in our divergent viewpoints or practicing "share and share alike." Even with written schedules and agreements plus parental mediation, the controversy persisted. Ultimately the matter was ③ aggravated when we both came to recognize that considerable time and energy were being wasted as we maneuvered and positioned ourselves for the next mathematical compromise. With recognition of a ④common interest in solving the problem for our mutual benefit, we were able to think beyond physical resources of space, hours, and materials. The satisfying solution that met both of our needs was the purchase of earphones for the radio. 【문 8】다음 글의 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? One of the most popular of computer games in the world is called Age of Empires. For several months my own ten-year-old son was all but addicted to it. Its organizing premise is that the history of the world is the history of imperial conflict. Rival political entities vie with one another to control finite resources: people, fertile land, forests, gold mines and waterways. In their endless struggles the competing empires must strike a balance between the need for economic development and the exigencies of warfare. The player who is too aggressive soon runs out of resources if he has not taken the trouble to cultivate his existing territory, to expand its population and to accumulate gold. The player who focuses too much on getting rich may find himself __________________ if he meanwhile neglects his defenses. *exigencies 긴급 사태 ① immune to illness ② tolerant to change ③ vulnerable to invasion ④ addicted to entertainment 1교시 ①책형 전체 20-17 【영어 25문】 ①책형 【문 9】다음 글에서 전체 흐름과 관계 없는 문장은? Can an old cell phone help save the rainforests? As a matter of fact, it can. Illegal logging in the rainforests has been a problems for years, but not much has been done about it because catching illegal loggers is difficult. ①To help solve this problem, an American engineer, Topher White, invented a device called RFCx with discarded cell phones. ②When the device, which is attached to a tree, picks up the sound of chainsaws, it sends an alert message to the rangers' cell phones. ③This provides the rangers with the information they need to locate the loggers and stop the illegal logging. ④Destruction of the rainforest is caused by logging, farming, mining, and other human activities and among these, logging is the main reason for the nature's loss. The device has been tested in Indonesia and has proven to work well. As a result, it is now being used in the rainforests in Africa and South America. 【문10】다음 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은? In any symphony, the composer and the conductor have a variety of responsibilities. They must make sure that the brass horns work in synch with the woodwinds, that the percussion instruments don’t drown out the violas. But perfecting those relationships -- important though it is -- is not the ultimate goal of their efforts. What conductors and composers desire is the ability to marshal these relationships into a whole whose magnificence exceeds the sum of its parts. So it is with the high-concept aptitude of Symphony. The boundary crosser, the inventor, and the metaphor maker all understand the importance of relationships. But the Conceptual Age also demands the ability to grasp the relationships between relationships. This meta-ability goes by many names -- systems thinking, gestalt thinking, holistic thinking. *marshal 모으다, 결집시키다 ① The Power of Music ② Seeing the Big Picture ③ The Essence of Creativity ④ Collaboration Makes a Difference 【문11】다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 옳지 않은 것은? In criminal cases, the burden of proof is often on the prosecutor to persuade the trier (whether judge or jury) ① that the accused is guilty beyond a reasonable doubt of every element of the crime charged. If the prosecutor fails to prove this, a verdict of not guilty is ②rendered. This standard of proof contrasts with civil cases, ③where the claimant generally needs to show a defendant is liable on the balance of probabilities (more than 50% probable). In the USA, this is ④referring to as the preponderance of the evidence. 【문12】다음 밑줄 친 This system이 의미하는 바로 가장 적절한 것은? In order to meet the demands of each course, Escoffier modernized meal preparation by dividing his kitchens into five different sections. The first section made cold dishes and organized the supplies for the whole kitchen. The second section took care of soups, vegetables, and desserts. The third dealt with dishes that were roasted, grilled, or fried. The fourth section focused only on sauces, and the last was for making pastries. This allowed restaurant kitchens to make their dishes much more quickly than in the past. If a customer ordered eggs Florentine, for example, one section would cook the eggs, another would make the sauce, and yet another would make the pastry. Then, the head chef would assemble the dish before it was served to the customer. This system was so efficient that it is still used in many restaurants today. ① The competition of the different sections in the kitchen ② The extended room for preparing the necessary ingredients ③ The distribution of the separate dishes to the customer by the head chef ④ The kitchen being divided into different sections to prepare a meal 【문13】다음 글의 내용을 한 문장으로 요약하고자 한다. 빈칸 (A), (B)에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? McAdams makes an important point about identity: It is a story you tell about yourself to make sense out of what has happened in the past and the kind of person you are now. From this perspective, it is not essential that the story be true. I see myself as culturally adventurous (that is, high on openness). I happen to believe this is true -- that is, compared with others, I would be relatively open to trying new things on a menu, taking up new activities, visiting new places, and so on. But, from McAdams’s perspective, when we’re talking about identity, whether our beliefs about ourselves are true or not is pretty much irrelevant. ê According to McAdams, our identity is a(n) (A) that we create, which in itself may or may not be (B) . (A) (B) ① adventure exciting ② image visible ③ door available ④ narrative factual 1교시 ①책형 전체 20-18 【영어 25문】 ①책형 【문14】다음 밑줄 친 단어(어구)가 가리키는 대상이 나머지 셋과 다른 것은? Watson had been watching ①his companion intently ever since he had sat down to the breakfast table. Holmes happened to look up and catch his eye. "Well, Watson, what are you thinking about?" he asked. "About you." "②Me?" "Yes, Holmes. I was thinking how superficial are these tricks of yours, and how wonderful it is that the public should continue to show interest in them." "I quite agree," said Holmes. "In fact, I have a recollection that I have ③myself made a similar remark." "Your methods," said Watson severely, "are really easily acquired." "No doubt", Holmes answered with a smile. "Perhaps you will ④yourself give an example of this method of reasoning." 【문15】다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 옳지 않은 것은? In the 1860s, the populations of Manhattan and Brooklyn were rapidly increasing, and ①so was the number of the commuters between them. Thousands of people took boats and ferries across the East River every day, but these forms of transport were unstable and frequently stopped by bad weather. Many New Yorkers wanted to have a bridge directly ②connected Manhattan and Brooklyn because it would make their commute quicker and safer. Unfortunately, because of the East River's great width and rough tides, ③it would be difficult to build anything on it. It was also a very busy river at that time, with hundreds of ships constantly ④sailing on it. 【문16】다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 옳지 않은 것은? In recent years, peer-peer (P2P) lending has ①become the poster child of the alternative finance industry. In a 2015 report Morgan Stanley predicted that such marketplace lending ②would command $150 billion to $490 billion globally by 2020. P2P lending is the practice of lending money to individuals or businesses through online services that match lenders-investors directly with borrowers, ③ enabled both parties to go around traditional providers such as banks. Lenders typically achieve better rates of return, while borrowers — individuals and SMEs (small and medium-sized enterprises) — get access to flexible and competitively priced loans. For investors, the benefits are attractive. Being ④matched with a borrower can take anywhere from a few days to a few hours. And where a bank might typically earn under 2% on personal lending, P2P returns can be more than three times that. 【문17】다음 글에 드러난 " I "의 심경으로 가장 적절한 것은? So when I stood at the plate in that Old Timers game, staring at a pitcher whose hair was gray, and when he threw what used to be his fastball but what now was just a pitch that floated in toward my chest, and when I swung and made contact and heard the familiar thwock, and I dropped my bat and began to run, convinced that I had done something fabulous, forgetting my old gauges, forgetting that my arms and legs lacked the power they once had, forgetting that you age, the walls get farther away, and when I looked up and saw what I had first thought to be a solid hit, maybe a home run, now coming down just beyond the infield toward the waiting glove of the second baseman, no more than a pop-up, a wet firecracker, a dud, and a voice in my head yelled, "Drop it! Drop it!" as that second baseman squeezed his glove around my final offering to this maddening game. ① jealous ② delighted ③ passionate ④ disappointed 【문18】다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중 문맥상 낱말의 쓰임이 적절하지 않은 것은? In our daily, conscious activity we generally experience a ①separation between the mind and the body. We think about our bodies and our physical actions. Animals do not experience this division. When we start to learn any skill that has a physical component, this separation becomes even ②less apparent. We have to think about the various actions involved, the steps we have to follow. We are aware of our slowness and of how our bodies respond in an awkward way. At certain points, as we ③improve, we have glimpses of how this process could function differently, of how it might feel to practice the skill fluidly, with the mind not getting in the way of the body. With such glimpses, we know what to aim for. If we take our practice far enough the skill becomes ④automatic, and we have the sensation that the mind and the body are operating as one. 【문19】다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 옳지 않은 것은? In 2000, scientists at Harvard University suggested a neurological way of ①explaining Mona Lisa’s elusive smile. When a viewer looks at her eyes, the mouth is in peripheral vision, ②which sees in black and white. This accentuates the shadows at the corners of her mouth, making the smile ③seems broader. But the smile diminishes when you look straight at it. It is the variability of her smile, the fact that it changes when you look away from it, ④that makes her smile so alive, so mysterious. 1교시 ①책형 전체 20-19 【영어 25문】 ①책형 【문20】글의 흐름으로 보아, 주어진 문장이 들어가기에 가장 적절한 곳은? So around about the time we are two, our brains will already have distinct and individual patterns. When we are babies our brains develop in relationship with our earliest caregivers. Whatever feelings and thought processes they give to us are mirrored, reacted to and laid down in our growing brains. ( ① ) When things go well, our parents and caregivers also mirror and validate our moods and mental states, acknowledging and responding to what we are feeling. ( ② ) It is then that our left brains mature sufficiently to be able to understand language. ( ③ ) This dual development enables us to integrate our two brains, to some extent. ( ④ ) We become able to begin to use the left brain to put into language the feelings of the right. 【문21】글의 흐름으로 보아, 주어진 문장이 들어가기에 가장 적절한 곳은? Nowadays, it is much easier to find out where you are and which way to go because you have one of the world's greatest inventions at your fingertips. For thousands of years, humans had difficulty trying to figure out where they were. ( ① ) So, they devoted a great deal of time and effort to resolving this problem. ( ② ) They drew complicated maps, constructed great landmarks to keep themselves on the right path, and even learned to navigate by looking up at the stars. ( ③ ) As long as you have a Global Positioning System(GPS) receiver, you never have to worry about taking a wrong turn. ( ④ ) Your GPS receiver can tell you your exact location and give you directions to wherever you need to go, no matter where you are on the planet! 【문22】다음 글의 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? A great ad is a wonderful thing; it’s why you love advertising. But what you’re looking at is only half of what’s there, and the part you can’t see has more to do with that ad’s success than the part you can. Before those surface features (the terrific headline or visual or storyline or characters or voiceover or whatever) can work their wonders, the ad has to have something to say, something that matters. Either it addresses real consumer motives and real consumer problems, or it speaks to no one. To make great ads, then, you have to start where they start: with ______________________. ① the effective tool ② the invisible part ③ the corporate needs ④ the surface features 【문23】글의 흐름으로 보아, 주어진 문장이 들어가기에 가장 적절한 곳은? Wham-O, the visionary toy company known for its Hula-Hoops bought the rights a year later and renamed the flying disc Frisbee. Walter Fredrick Morrison and his girlfriend, Lucile Nay, discovered that flying discs were marketable when a stranger asked to buy the metal cake pan they were flipping through the air on a beach in California. ( ① ) By 1938, the couple were selling the 5-cent pans for 25 cents a piece. ( ② ) Later, Morrison tried his hand at developing a flying disc far better than that of a flying cake pan. ( ③ ) Together with Franscioni, he created the Pluto Platter. ( ④ ) By the mid-1960s it got so popular that you could see a Frisbee stuck on almost every roof of houses. 【문24】다음 글의 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? Paradoxically, the initial discovery of an interest often goes unnoticed by the discoverer. In other words, when you just start to get interested in something, you may not even realize that’s what’s happening. The emotion of boredom is always self-conscious -- you know it when you feel it -- but when your attention is attracted to a new activity or experience, you may have very little reflective appreciation of what’s happening to you. This means that, at the start of a new endeavor, asking yourself nervously every few days whether you’ve found your passion is ___________. ① relevant ② necessary ③ premature ④ uncommon 【문25】다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 옳지 않은 것은? After lots of trial and error, Richard finally created a system of flashing LED lights, ①powered by an old car battery that was charged by a solar panel. Richard set the lights up along the fence. At night, the lights could be seen from outside the stable and took turns flashing, ② which appeared as if people were moving around with torches. Never again ③lions crossed Richard's fence. Richard called his system Lion Lights. This simple and practical device did no harm to lions, so human beings, cattle, and lions were finally able to make peace with ④ one another. 1교시 ①책형 전체 20-20