스터디 영어.pdf 2018 국회직 8급 영어 해설 성기건.pdf 2018 국회직 8급 영어 해설 김지영.pdf 2018년도 8급 공개경쟁채용시험 영 어 책형 가 - 1 - 영 어 1. Choose the word that best fits in the blank. A country’s leader must possess __________, the ability to fixate on a simple conviction and grip it, viscerally and unflinchingly, through complexity and confusion. ① flexibility ② tenacity ③ adaptability ④ versatility ⑤ credibility 2. Choose the one that is closest in meaning to the underlined word. Rawls burst into prominence in 1958 with the publication of his game-changing paper, “Justice as Fairness.” Though it was not his first important publication, it revived the social contract theory that had been languishing in the wake of Hume’s critique and its denigration by utilitarians and pragmatists, though it was a Kantian version of it that Rawls advocated. This led to a greatly developed book version, A Theory of Justice, published in 1971, arguably the most important book of American philosophy published in the second half of the last century. ① laudation ② impugnment ③ homage ④ exuberance ⑤ sobriety 3. Choose the word that best fits in the blank. ZMapp is created by injecting plants with a genetically modified virus. This causes the plant cells to produce _________ for the Ebola virus, which scientists then extract and purify. ZMapp has been given to several individuals; however, it is relatively untested, and its safety and efficacy are not known. ① microbes ② vermin ③ toxicants ④ antibodies ⑤ detriments 4. Which of the following is NOT grammatically correct? Something similar can be said ① of other cherished goods and practices. Consider the rights and obligations of citizenship. If you are called ② to jury duty, you may not hire ③ substitute to take your place. ④ Nor do we allow citizens to sell their votes, even though ⑤ others might be eager to buy them. 5. Which of the following best fits in the blank? Most cases of emotional maladjustment are due to the fact that people will not accept themselves. They keep daydreaming about ________________________ if they had another’s chance. And so, disregarding their own possibilities, they never make anything worthwhile out of themselves. Well, anybody can find sufficient cause to dislike their own lot. But the most stimulating successes in history have come from persons who, facing some kind of limitations and handicaps, took them as part of life’s game and played splendidly in spite of them. ① the things they’ve done ② all the things they do ③ what had been done ④ what they would do ⑤ which would have done 2018년도 8급 공개경쟁채용시험 영 어 책형 가 - 2 - 6. Which of the following best fits in the blank? How many people hold power in a society and how they exercise it are eternal themes of political debate. At one extreme a single person rules. Such a system is usually called a monarchy (Greek for ‘rule by one’) when the position can be inherited within a family. It is likely to be given such names as tyranny (from examples in Greek history) or dictatorship (from Rome) when power is seized by or granted to an individual member of society. The other extreme is democracy (Greek for ‘power of the people’), in which theoretically every adult can influence group decisions. Such an egalitarian approach is familiar to anthropologists, studying the customs of small tribal groups, but it has been a rarity in more developed societies. Between the two extremes is oligarchy (Greek for ‘rule by a few’). In a sense all early clashes between oligarchy and democracy are an argument over ________________________, with democrats pressing for a higher figure than oligarchs can accept. Even in Athens, where sophisticated democracy begins, only a small proportion of the community can vote. ① where to start the most sophisticated society ② how to build a more developed society ③ when and where to stop the monarchy ④ who will seize the power in Athens ⑤ how many to include in the few 7. What is the passage mainly about? Originality is what distinguishes art from craft. It is the yardstick of artistic greatness or importance. Unfortunately, it is also very hard to define what originality is. The usual synonyms such as uniqueness, novelty, and freshness do not help us much, and the dictionaries tell us only that an original work must not be a copy. Thus, if we want to rate works of art on an “originality scale” our problem does not lie in deciding whether or not a given work is original but in establishing just exactly how original it is. To do that is not impossible. However, the difficulties besetting our task is so great that we cannot hope for more than tentative and complete answers, which does not mean, of course, that we should not try. Quite contrarily, for whatever the outcome of our labors in any particular case, we shall certainly learn a great deal about works of art in the process. ① Though incomplete, it is significant to measure the degree of originality in art. ② Originality can be applied to measure artistic value in a relative way. ③ A work of art is original as long as it is not a complete copy. ④ The task of establishing originality scale is not worth pursuing for practical reasons. ⑤ The inaccuracy of originality scale is greater than the benefit of using it anyway. 8. Which of the following best fits in the blank? Flu 2018 panic is in full swing, and with very good reason. Already termed “moderately severe” by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), indications are that this flu season will only get worse, and the flu has claimed the lives of at least 30 children (and many adults) so far. Meanwhile, a new study from the University of Maryland suggests that the flu virus may not require a sneeze or cough to become airborne; it may spread simply through breathing. You already know to get the flu shot (and it’s still worth getting), wash your hands copiously, and ____________________ if you’re sick so your flu is not contagious to others. Now, concerned folks are taking prevention a step further, donning surgical masks―both to avoid getting the flu and to prevent the spread of the flu they already have. ① fly off the handle ② beat around the bush ③ keep a low profile ④ hear it on the grapevine ⑤ cost an arm and a leg 2018년도 8급 공개경쟁채용시험 영 어 책형 가 - 3 - 9. Which of the following is the most appropriate title of the passage? In disrupting ecosystems, light pollution poses a serious threat in particular to nocturnal wildlife, having negative impacts on plant and animal physiology. It can confuse the migratory patterns of animals, alter competitive interactions of animals, change predator-prey relations, and cause physiological harm. The rhythm of life is orchestrated by the natural diurnal patterns of light and dark; so disruption to these patterns impacts the ecological dynamics. With respect to adverse health effects, many species, especially humans, are dependent on natural body cycles called circadian rhythms and the production of melatonin, which are regulated by light and dark (e.g., day and night). If humans are exposed to light while sleeping, melatonin production can be suppressed. This can lead to sleep disorders and other health problems such as increased headaches, worker fatigue, medically defined stress, some forms of obesity due to lack of sleep and increased anxiety. And ties are being found to a couple of types of cancer. There are also effects of glare on aging eyes. Health effects are not only due to over-illumination or excessive exposure of light over time, but also improper spectral composition of light (e.g., certain colors of light). With respect to energy wastage, lighting is responsible for at least one-fourth of all electricity consumption worldwide. Over illumination can constitute energy wastage, especially upward directed lighting at night. Energy wastage is also a waste in cost and carbon footprint. ① How to Reduce Light Pollution for Better Ecosystem ② Light Pollution Rising Rapidly on a Global Scale ③ Various Diurnal Patterns of Light and Dark ④ Importance of Light to Human Health ⑤ Inimical Effects of Light Pollution 10. Which of the following is the most logical sequence of the four parts to complete the passage? Long before anyone suspected the existence of genes, farmers recognized that the traits of parents were passed down to the offspring, and thus they could improve the yield of pumpkins or the size of pigs by selectively breeding the best specimens with each other. [A] Both approaches assume that nature and nurture are implicated in shaping our behavior, thoughts, and emotions. This trend is bound to be magnified tremendously in the next half century as a result of advances in genetics. [B] Currently two of the liveliest branches of the human sciences are behavioral genetics, which tries to ascertain the degree of inheritability of such behavioral traits as schizophrenia, propensity to divorce, political beliefs, and even happiness, and evolutionary psychology, which searches out the mechanisms by which these traits are selected and transmitted from one generation to the next. [C] Most of these practices were hit-or-miss, without any foundation in an understanding of how different traits are transmitted from one generation to the next. But this situation is about to change drastically in the coming decades. [D] Although few important traits are likely to depend on the action of a single or even a few genes, some genetic engineers are confident that the era of “designer babies” is at hand. ① [A]-[B]-[D]-[C] ② [B]-[A]-[D]-[C] ③ [B]-[C]-[A]-[D] ④ [C]-[B]-[A]-[D] ⑤ [D]-[A]-[B]-[C] 11. Choose the one that is grammatically correct. ① Students apply as much commitment to the extracurricular activities as they do to their general subjects. ② She was born in the Addis Ababa province of northern Africa, an area known as its spectacular vistas. ③ It is never too early to start caring for the land you live and grow up. ④ He had few winter clothing when he arrived at the camp. ⑤ He reads storybooks to children who don’t access to TV. 2018년도 8급 공개경쟁채용시험 영 어 책형 가 - 4 - (A) (B) ① tentative simultaneously ② sluggish exclusively ③ annual optionally ④ estimated temporarily ⑤ skyrocketing increasingly 12. Which of the following best fits in the blank? Contacts between American Indian groups and Europeans resulted in borrowed vocabulary, some groups borrowing very little from Europeans and others more; European languages also borrowed terms from Native American languages. The type and degree of linguistic adaptation to European culture has varied greatly among American Indian groups, depending on sociocultural factors. For example, among the Karuk of northwestern California, a tribe that suffered harsh treatment at the hands of whites, there are only a few loanwords from English, such as ápus ‘apple(s),’ and a few calques (loan translations), such as the ‘pear’ being called vírusur ‘bear’ because in Karuk the p and b sounds, as in English pear and bear, ____________________________________. A large number of words for new items of acculturation were produced based on native words—e.g., a hotel being called amnaam ‘eating place.’ Native American languages have borrowed words from Dutch, English, French, Russian, Spanish (called hispanisms), and Swedish. American Indian languages have contributed numerous words to European languages, especially names for plants, animals, and native culture items. From Algonquian languages English has the words caribou, chipmunk, hickory, moccasin, moose, opossum, persimmon, powwow, raccoon, skunk, squash, tomahawk, totem, wickiup, and others. ① are not distinguished ② do not exist in Karuk ③ do not occur both in ‘pear’ and ‘bear’ ④ are produced by the lips only ⑤ are placed in word-initial positions 13. Choose the word that best fits in the blank. It is incomprehensible that the tax codes should be such a(n) __________ instead of a straightforward bracket based on gross earning, notwithstanding deduction. ① increment ② qualm ③ labyrinth ④ boon ⑤ simplicity 14. Choose the word that best fits in the blank. Sometimes the negative criticism of a loved one becomes the more __________ as they are the most hurtful to hear. ① disparaging ② relenting ③ exquisite ④ scrupulous ⑤ disinterested 15. Which of the following best fits in the blanks (A) and (B)? Retailers have long been using online channels to make up for (A)_________ sales at their brick-and-mortar stores, but recently, they’ve taken the shift to another level, introducing products (B)_________ for online. The trend-conscious fashion and cosmetics sectors are at the forefront of this new strategy. Beanpole Ladies recently introduced Lime Beanpole, a series of products sold only on its website. 16. Choose the word that best fits in the blank. Imagine that you are holding a rubber band. Now begin stretching your rubber band by pulling it to your right. This particular rubber band can stretch twelve inches. When the rubber band is stretched twelve inches, there is nowhere to go __________ back. And when it returns, it has a lot of power and spring. ① but ② to ③ as ④ for ⑤ against 2018년도 8급 공개경쟁채용시험 영 어 책형 가 - 5 - (A) (B) ① virtuous intimate ② affectionate durable ③ beneficial pleasurable ④ accidental intentional ⑤ utilitarian devotional 17. Where does the given sentence best fit in the passage? A look at U.S. history reveals a succession of dominant ideals. (A) We often characterize periods of history by a specific “look,” or ideal of beauty. (B) Often these relate to broader cultural happenings, such as today’s emphasis on fitness and toned bodies. (C) In sharp contrast to today’s emphasis on health and vigor, in the early 1800s, it was fashionable to appear delicate to the point of looking ill. (D) The poet John Keats described the ideal woman of that time as “… a milk white lamb that bleats for man’s protection.” (E) Other past looks include the voluptuous, lusty woman that Lillian Russell made popular; the athletic Gibson Girl of the 1890s; and the small, boyish flapper of the 1920s exemplified by the silent movie actress Clara Bow. ① (A) ② (B) ③ (C) ④ (D) ⑤ (E) 18. What is the passage mainly about? The distinctive long curls that Jewish men wear as sideburns, or “sidelocks,” are called payots, a Hebrew word that translates into English as sides or edges. The Holiness Code in Leviticus 19-27 forbids the shaving of the corners of the head. Different sects of the Jewish religion put their own flare to payots. The Yemenites call them simanim, which means signs, because they differentiate them from Yemenite Muslims. They wear long, thin and twisted locks, often reaching to the upper arm. The Skver (Hasidic dynasty) twist theirs into tight coils and wear them in front of the ear. The Gur raise their payots from the temples and tuck them under a yarmulke. The Lithuanian Jews often leave a few short strands uncut and tuck them behind their ears, a style most commonly found among yeshiva students. ① Jewish sideburns have endured thousands of years. ② For many Jewish men, sideburns represent the epitome of masculinity. ③ The Jewish religion places great emphasis on honoring the Holiness Code. ④ Different Jewish sects reflect varying responses to changing times. ⑤ Different sects of Judaism have different sideburn styles. 19. Which of the following best fits in the blanks (A) and (B)? Aristotle outlined three kinds of common friendships. The first is a friendship of utility. In this kind of relationship, the two parties are not in it for the affection of one another, but more so because each party receives a benefit in exchange. Similarly, the second kind of friendship is one based on pleasure. This one is more common in people that are younger. It’s the kind of relationship frequently seen among college friends or people who participate on the same sports team. The final form of friendship that Aristotle outlined is the most preferable out of the three. Rather than utility or pleasure, this kind of relationship is based on a mutual appreciation of the virtues that the other party holds dear. Beyond the depth and intimacy, the beauty of such relationships is that they automatically include the rewards of the other two kinds of friendship. They’re (A)__________ and (B)__________. 20. Which of the following is different from the others? A dispute between (A)an American priest and a group of Kenyan nuns over two major hospitals for the poor was resolved when the nuns stormed one of the hospitals late last week. “They stormed the hospital in the morning. The sisters came with a contingent of police officers and other civilians. We are now handing over. It’s all peaceful,” Reverend Bob Silvio, (B)a chaplain in the hospital the nuns retook Friday, told Religion News Service. The Assumption Sisters of Nairobi had been in court for over six years fighting Reverend William Charles Fryda, (C)a missionary who helped found the church, for control over the two buildings. Fryda argued that the hospitals were his because (D)he founded them with money he raised, but the nuns countered that the idea to build the hospital was theirs. The case garnered widespread media attention in Kenya due to the spectacle of (E)an American reverend fighting with local nuns. ① (A) ② (B) ③ (C) ④ (D) ⑤ (E) 2018년도 8급 공개경쟁채용시험 영 어 책형 가 - 6 - (A) (B) (C) ① reserves neglect endorsement ② vests incur ratification ③ dissipates denounce convention ④ commits discharge revocation ⑤ bestows defy condolence 21. Which of the following best fits in the blanks (A), (B) and (C)? The current 1987 Constitution declares South Korea a democratic republic and establishes a presidential system. The President, who is elected by nationwide direct ballot, is the head of state and serves a single five-year term. The President appoints public officials, including the Prime Minister and heads of executive agencies. The appointment of the Prime Minister must be approved by the National Assembly. Other members of the State Council are appointed by the President upon recommendation of the Prime Minister. The Constitution (A)____________ legislative power in the National Assembly. The President may attend and address the National Assembly or express his or her views by written message. The National Assembly also deliberates and decides upon the national budget bill. When the Executive plans to issue national bonds or to conclude contracts that may (B)____________ financial obligations on the state outside of the budget, it must have the prior concurrence of the National Assembly. Further, the National Assembly gives its consent to the conclusion and (C)____________ of treaties, declarations of war, the dispatch of armed forces to foreign states, and the stationing of alien forces in the territory of South Korea. The National Assembly may also pass a recommendation for the removal of the Prime Minister or a State Council member from office. Such a recommendation for removal may be introduced by one-third or more of the total members of the National Assembly, and must be passed with the concurrent vote of a majority of the total members of the National Assembly. 22. Which of the following is closest in meaning to the underlined expression? These days, big data, artificial intelligence and the tech platforms that put them to work have huge influence and power. It goes without saying that when computers are making decisions, a lot can go wrong. Our lawmakers desperately need this explained to them in an unbiased way so they can appropriately regulate, and tech companies need to be held accountable for their influence over all elements of our lives. But academics have dozed off at the wheel, leaving the responsibility for this education to well-paid lobbyists and employees who’ve abandoned the academy. ① have been impudent ② have been watchful ③ have been superfluous ④ have been incapable ⑤ have been unmindful 2018년도 8급 공개경쟁채용시험 영 어 책형 가 - 7 - 23. Which of the following is NOT true, according to the passage? Britain’s cotton industry grew at pace throughout the Industrial Revolution. Cotton was introduced to the country in the 16th century and by the 1700s it had changed the way people dressed. To keep up with increasing demand, cotton mills sprung up across Britain, especially in the north of England. Thanks to the water coming down from the Pennines, the North of England developed a thriving cotton industries. The fast flowing rivers coming down from the Pennines provided the power supply for the factories, although this would later be supplied by coal power. It also provided fresh, clean water with which to wash the material. Liverpool also boasted a thriving cotton industry thanks to the strong transport links through its ports. In 1774 a heavy tax on cotton thread and cloth made in Britain was repealed, further boosting the cotton industry. Furthermore, numerous inventions and technological development transformed the cotton industry, in turn helping to establish the UK as the cotton ‘workshop of the world.’ One such invention was the ‘Flying Shuttle,’ which was created by John Kay in 1733 and enabled cloth to be weaved faster than before. Another was the ‘Spinning Jenny,’ which was created by James Hargreaves in 1765. ‘Water Frame,’ patented by Richard Arkwright in 1769, embraced waterpower, but it also produced a higher quality thread than Hargreaves’ Spinning Jenny. Thanks to Crompton’s ‘Mule’ in 1779, and Boulton and Watt’s steam engine a few years later, the industry was changed dramatically. ① During the 18th century, cotton changed the way British people dressed. ② Strong transport links at ports made Liverpool suitable for cotton mills. ③ Levying heavy tax on cotton thread and cloth in 1774 jeopardized the cotton industry. ④ Higher quality threads were spun by ‘Water Frame’ than by ‘Spinning Jenny.’ ⑤ England’s cotton industry dramatically improved due to Boulton and Watt’s steam engine. 24. Which of the following best fits in the blank? An evolutionary perspective leads one to view the mind as a crowded zoo of evolved, domain-specific programs. Each is functionally specialized for solving a different adaptive problem that arose during hominid evolutionary history, such as face recognition, foraging, mate choice, heart rate regulation, sleep management, or predator vigilance, and each is activated by a different set of cues from the environment. But the existence of all these microprograms itself creates an adaptive problem: programs that are individually designed to solve specific adaptive problems could, if simultaneously activated, ________________, interfering with or nullifying each other’s functional products. For example, sleep and flight from a predator require mutually inconsistent actions, computations, and physiological states. It is difficult to sleep when your heart and mind are racing with fear, and this is no accident: disastrous consequences would ensue if proprioceptive cues were activating sleep programs at the same time that the sight of a stalking lion was activating ones designed for predator evasion. To avoid such consequences, the mind must be equipped with superordinate programs that override some programs when others are activated (e.g., a program that deactivates sleep programs when predator evasion subroutines are activated). ① enhance each program’s functional product ② evolve to solve all the adaptive problems at once ③ ameliorate the functions of all microprograms ④ come out with mutually harmonious results ⑤ deliver outputs that conflict with one another 25. Which of the following is true, according to the passage? Humans are notoriously bad at resisting temptation. Our tendency to value the pleasures of the present more than the satisfactions of the future comes at a considerable cost. Walter Mischel suggested with his famous marshmallow experiments with children that those who can persevere toward their long-term goals in the face of temptation to do otherwise are best positioned for success. This view of self-control, however, is wrong. Recent studies show that not self-control but pride, gratitude and compassion reduce the human mind’s tendency to discount the value of the future, and help people succeed in life. So, cultivate these emotions. Reflect on what you’re grateful to have been given. Allow your mind to step into the shoes of those in need and feel for them. Take pride in the small achievements on the path to your goals. ① Few people succumb to temptation. ② Pride hampers successful social interaction. ③ Marshmallow experiment findings are upheld time and again. ④ Appreciating the value of the future is linked to success. ⑤ Walter Mischel correctly characterized successful children.
스터디 영어.pdf 2017 국회직 8급 영어 해설 성기건.pdf 2017년도 8급 공개경쟁채용시험 영 어 책형 가 - 1 - 영 어 1. Which of the following is closest in meaning to the underlined word? Finally, Berger reiterates the character of power difference by noting that female nudity in art conventionally includes men who are clothed or a man, the spectator-owner of the image who stands, clothed, outside the frame. ① retaliates ② reciprocates ③ repeals ④ recapitulates ⑤ repudiates 2. Choose the word that best fits in the blank. The gauchos, skilled cattlemen of the grassy Argentine plains, are widely known to have played a significant role in Argentina’s national life. But, although the romantic figure of the traditional gaucho is famous, many people don’t realize that in the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries, a new breed of gaucho arose in the Argentine plains, consisting of Jewish settlers from Eastern Europe. Eager to elude they suffered in their original homes, they went to Argentina in search of a new version of the Promised Land. ① persecution ② proliferation ③ perspiration ④ perpetuation ⑤ proximation 3. Choose the one that is closest in meaning to the underlined word. His distinguished customers never lost a taste for his fluid lines and flimsy, diaphanous materials. ① fragile ② unstained ③ suffocating ④ dark sombre ⑤ almost transparent 4. Which of the following is grammatically correct? A prototype is an early sample, model, or release of a product built to test a concept or process or as a thing to be replicated or learned from. It is a term used in a variety of contexts, including semantics, design, electronics, and software programming. A prototype is designed to test and try a new design to enhance precision by system analysts and users. ① acted ② to act ③ have acted ④ having acted ⑤ to have acted 5. Which of the following is not grammatically correct? (A)Just as a picture or a furniture (B)takes on much more interest if you know its history, (C)so does a man (D)become more real once the ancestral elements (E)that shaped him are known. ① (A) ② (B) ③ (C) ④ (D) ⑤ (E) 6. Which of the following is the most appropriate title of the passage? When you’re trying to drive buzz about your product, you have to use a new word whenever you can, in conversation and in writing, to get people truly to start using it and to make it stick in the collective memory. This is not an overnight effort, but the effects can be powerful, and they can last a lifetime. For example, take the example of Marilyn Loden, author of Implementing Diversity, who wrote on women and diversity. She coined the phrase the “glass ceiling” to describe the barrier women had to face in the workplace, especially those who were gunning for top positions. Because it was such a vivid image of the current corporate culture, it became part of our collective conscience. But it couldn’t end there. Loden knew that without support, the phrase would fall into oblivion, and it was too important a sentiment for that. To give it life and momentum, Loden used the term everywhere she could. It peppered her interviews and other public appearances. The media picked up on it and began to use it in the context of every woman in every business story, on the air or in the papers. Loden’s work paid off, and “glass ceiling” became a two-word term everyone knows to describe a complex social issue. ① How to Break Down the “Glass Ceiling” ② From Oblivion to Life at Last ③ Definition of Well-Coined Terms ④ The Power of Stirring Up a New Term ⑤ Appearance of the Word Describing Workplace Culture 2017년도 8급 공개경쟁채용시험 영 어 책형 가 - 2 - 7. Which of the following best completes the blanks (A) and (B)? Two major schools in the study of neurolinguistics are traditionally described: the localizationists and the holists. In the nineteenth century, localizationists like Broca observed that of the two cerebral hemispheres, one appeared to be responsible for language, the left in most instances. Also, localizationists understood that of all the left hemisphere, the central parts of the outer surface seemed more crucially linked to language, (A) damage to other parts of the left hemisphere seemed to have very few consequences for language abilities. Then, as different patterns of aphasia were observed, areas within the left-hemisphere cortical language area were parceled out by localizationists, with one area near the front of the head deemed responsible for producing language and another, further back, for comprehension, (B) . (A) (B) ① since for example ② since in conclusion ③ whereas in summary ④ though however ⑤ if in conclusion 8. Which of the following is the most appropriate title of the passage? The reason ‘certified’ has begun to enter the lexicon is that trust and confidence in people and promises has evaded. It’s not just used-car salesman that we don’t believe anymore. We want and need ironclad agreements that what we buy won’t fail us months or even days after our purchase. A warranty only addresses the future of the product. Certification is an official (usually written) guarantee that what we see is in fact what you get, and that it upholds a higher level of quality and reliability. Certification also implies a specific process of review was followed by a trained professional. Any Tom or Harry can offer a guarantee. Certification suggests something more thorough and serious. The most common use of ‘certified’ or ‘certification’ is in the used-car industry, or, as some brands like to call themselves, “certified pre-owned vehicles.” If you still don’t think word choice matters, ask yourself which would you rather own, a used car or a certified pre-owned vehicle? The language of certification is also being used in grocery stores to emphasize the quality of meat, milk, and other perishable items. Within the next half decade, we expect dozens of products and industries to apply the ‘certified’ label. ① How the English Lexicon Has Expanded ② Certification Not Warranty is What Matters ③ A Word Bringing About Eminent Practical Effect ④ Fly in the Ointment of ‘Certified’ ⑤ Better to Buy a Certified Pre-Owned Vehicle 9. Which of the following best completes the blank? If we accept the notion that muscle activity enhances memory, it then makes sense that certain physical postures may call up particular emotions. Simply put, assume a particular body posture or facial expression, and you are apt to trigger a mood. Research supports this. One study found that the act of smiling not only changed the position of facial muscles but also directly affected heart rate and breathing. Another researcher who studied facial muscle changes concluded that mood and muscles were part of a complex feedback loop that might perpetuate depression. And a participant involved in yet another study of facial positions said, “When my jaw was clenched and my brows down, I tried not to be angry but the mood . I’m not in an angry mood, but I found my thoughts wandering to things that made me angry.” ① turned out to be groundless ② somehow relaxed the muscles ③ just fitted the position ④ made the muscles ache ⑤ was lightened 10. Where does the given sentence best fit in the passage? However, in modern times, it more generally refers to social systems in which power is primarily held by adult men. Patriarchy literally means “the rule of the father” and comes from the Greek πατριάρχης (patriarkhēs), “father of a race” or “chief of a race, patriarch.” (A) Historically, the term patriarchy was used to refer to autocratic rule by the male head of a family. (B) One example definition of patriarchy by Sylvia Walby is “a system of interrelated social structures which allow men to exploit women.” (C) According to April A. Gordon, Walby’s definition allows for the variability and changes in women’s roles and in the order of their priority under different patriarchal systems. (D) It also recognizes that it is the institutionalized subordination and exploitation of women by men that is the crux of patriarchy; this can take many forms. (E) It is even theoretically possible that patriarchy could express itself through a deemphasis on motherhood in favor of women as wage earners or some other role. ① (A) ② (B) ③ (C) ④ (D) ⑤ (E) 2017년도 8급 공개경쟁채용시험 영 어 책형 가 - 3 - 11. Which of the following is the most logical sequence of the four parts to complete the passage? In addition to their other major expenses, some North American nuclear families bear the cost of a four-year college or university degree for the family’s child or children. [A] It has long been recognized that getting an education is effective for bettering oneself and one’s chances in the world. [B] This is not in the interest of employers in the long run. But in the short run, it is beneficial for corporations’ departments of human resources, the current name for personnel departments. [C] The cost has become as necessary as the cost of a car. Without it, access to a remunerative job is difficult or even impossible. [D] But a degree and an education is not necessarily synonymous. Credentialing, not educating, has become the primary business of North American universities. ① A - D - C - B ② B - C - A - D ③ C - A - B - D ④ C - A - D - B ⑤ D - A - B - C 12. Choose the word that best fits in the blank. Laptop and palmtop computers allow one to work virtually anywhere, making travel time more productive. But there’s more to travelling with a laptop than just packing it into a bag and carrying it onto the airplane. It is important to plan ahead to avoid concerns about the battery, a place to print, or even like a non-bootable hard disk. If you understand your needs and know what can happen on the road, you’ll be ready to productively travel with your computers. ① inflictions ② breeds ③ flares ④ expediencies ⑤ contingencies 13. Which of the following best completes the blank? One way to show people how their actions don’t, or won’t, meet their goals is to put them into the situation mentally. Most people are not visual enough to actually “see” it. If they are able to be open or patient enough to allow a picture to be painted for them, it is a powerful persuasive tool in general, and for relationships in specific. Melissa Feemster’s mother insisted on a videographer at Melissa’s wedding. Her parents were paying for the wedding. Melissa did not want a videographer. So she drew her mom a word picture of what videography would be like indoors: the bright, hot strobe lights, the cameras in people’s faces, the often poor quality compared to a top still photographer’s. And didn’t the notion of “capturing every moment,” as her mother put it, depend less on the type of camera than the eye of the photographer? And, unless there are five or six cameras, . Her mother agreed to hire a top still photographer instead. “The pictures were great,” said Melissa. ① the guests wouldn’t like to be pleased with the photos ② every moment wouldn’t be captured anyway ③ it is hard to hire a videographer and a still photographer ④ there is not much difference in the cost of hiring cameramen ⑤ the wedding would be a cost-saving occasion 14. Which of the following best completes the blank? Until recent decades, the American educational system stressed the common elements of American culture, history, and society. Students learned the story of how European settlers overcame great odds, prospered, and forged a unified nation out of diverse ethnic and racial elements. School curricula typically neglected the contributions of non-whites and non-Europeans to America’s historical, literary, artistic, and scientific development. Moreover, students learned little about the aspects of American history, many of which involved the use of force to create a strict racial hierarchy that persists to this day, albeit in modified form. ① hopeful ② steadfast ③ untrustworthy ④ less savory ⑤ more fragrant 2017년도 8급 공개경쟁채용시험 영 어 책형 가 - 4 - 15. Choose the one that is closest in meaning to the underlined word. Hitler changed from a confident, outgoing, and conscientious student to a morose, detached boy who constantly fought with his father and teachers. ① nomadic ② cordial ③ sullen ④ naughty ⑤ mirthful 16. Which of the following best completes the blank? “Erik, when are you going to repair the roof? You’ve been talking about it for a month now.” “Andrea, I wish you wouldn’t keep nagging me. I have every intention of getting to it this weekend.” “Sure. . How long are you going to keep putting it off?” “Well, something always comes up. I should be able to start it on Saturday morning.” “Let’s see what happens. I won’t say another word about it if you really mean what you say. I just get annoyed when your good intentions don’t lead to good actions.” “Have faith! I’ll do it this weekend for sure.” ① Speak of the devil ② A fool and his money are soon parted ③ The apple doesn’t fall far from the tree ④ A chain is only as strong as its weakest link ⑤ The road to hell is paved with good intentions 17. Choose the one that is grammatically correct. ① The building is 123th story high. ② A drowned man will catch at a straw. ③ Understanding a country’s culture is bewildered and complex. ④ Two uniformed officers nearby turned their heads. ⑤ An expensive book was belonging to this club was lost. 18. Which of the following is not grammatically correct? (A)A large and growing number of people are finding that virtual communities affect their identities in profound ways. Specifically, (B)because virtual communities allow interaction using concealed identities, people are free to assume new identities and are encouraged (C)to discover parts of themselves they were formerly unaware. In virtual communities, shy people can become bold, (D)normally assertive people can become voyeurs, old people can become young, (E)straight people can become gay, and women can become men. ① (A) ② (B) ③ (C) ④ (D) ⑤ (E) 19. Which of the following is the best primary purpose of the passage? Sociobiology is a field of scientific study that is based on the hypothesis that social behavior has resulted from evolution and attempts to examine and explain social behavior within that context. It is a branch of biology that deals with social behavior, and also draws from ethology, anthropology, evolution, zoology, archaeology, population genetics, and other disciplines. Sociobiologists, the most well known of whom is Edward O. Wilson, contend that there is a biological basis for the social behavior of animals, and they test their hypotheses through observation of animals in situations. Species studied have varied as widely as to encompass both termites and rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta; one of the best-known species of Old World monkeys). Sociobiologists further argue that students of human behavior cannot adequately account for the panoply of human nature through only such traditional variables as culture, ethnicity, and environment but must also include evolutionary processes. However, many scientists, notably Stephen Jay Gould and Richard Lewontin, have criticized this approach to the study of humans on a number of grounds: for example, that it is based on Eurocentric notions and that it is plagued by methodological problems. These detractors label it a pseudo-science because sociobiological theories are not falsifiable and thus, in this respect, are similar to alchemy or astrology. ① To rebut a sociobiological approach to the study of human behavior ② To endorse a sociobiological approach to the study of human behavior ③ To extol an influential scientific approach to the study of animal and human behavior ④ To verify a sociobiological approach to the study of termite colonies and rhesus macaques ⑤ To expound an influential approach to the study of animal and human behavior and discuss some objections to this approach 2017년도 8급 공개경쟁채용시험 영 어 책형 가 - 5 - 20. Which of the following best completes the blanks (A) and (B)? The television show One versus One Hundred features a permanent gallery of one hundred ordinary people who serve as what is called the “mob.” Each week they match wits with a special invited guest. At stake is a million dollars. The guest has to be smart enough to answer more questions correctly than his or her one hundred adversaries—and (A) , few have ever seemed as superbly qualified as Christoper Langan. “Tonight the mob takes on their fiercest competition yet,” the voice-over began. “Meet Chris Langan, whom many call the smartest man in America.” The camera did a slow pan of a stocky, muscular man in his fifties. “The average person has an IQ of one hundred,” the voice-over continued. “Einstein one fifty. Chris has an IQ of one ninety-five. He’s currently wrapping his big brain around a theory of the universe. But will his king-size braincase be enough to (B) the mob for one million dollars? Find out right now on One versus One Hundred.” Out strode Langan onto the stage amid wild applause. (A) (B) ① in a close manner break up ② by that standard take down ③ over and above that give in to ④ in spite of that comply with ⑤ in a hesitant manner take aback 21. Which of the following best completes the blanks (A) and (B)? Since (A) creation, the Community of Democracies has aspired to actively engage in the promotion of democratic values and practices, whether through supporting countries in (B) first steps in the democratic world or helping experienced democracies with challenges and dilemmas. The Community realizes this mission by providing and supporting series of initiatives and mechanisms alongside its participating states and its partners. (A) (B) ① its our ② their their ③ its its ④ their its ⑤ its their 22. Which of the following is true, according to the passage? Visitors to the parched Sonoran Desert of southern Arizona and northern Mexico marvel at the many-armed giants that give the landscape its unique appearance. These are the giant saguaro cacti. In the dry, rugged desert a saguaro cactus can live for more than 200 years, grow to a height of 60 feet, and have as many as 50 arms. Amazingly, saguaro cacti persist despite the harsh, unforgiving desert climate. Those that have grown to old age have survived drought, freezes, flash floods, and brush fires, as well as the pack rats that eat their seedlings. Like all desert plants, saguaros hoard water. These leafless plants absorb the water through their long roots and store it for use during the desert’s long dry spells. Naturally, the mighty saguaro is a vital part of desert life. In fact, this giant may be home to many animals, including woodpeckers, owls, doves, bats, and insects. In addition, after a saguaro reaches the age of fifty or so, hardy flowers appear at the top of the plant once a year. These flowers entice birds, bats, and bees, who come for the nectar and for the tasty flowers with their black seeds. Although the regal saguaros are plentiful in the Southwest, they are, unfortunately, in danger. These giant cacti have great value in landscape gardening, and poachers can earn thousands of dollars by uprooting them and selling them to nurseries. ① Saguaro cacti endure all kinds of weather conditions to grow up to 50 feet tall. ② Thanks to many leaves, saguaros can hold water enough to stand dry seasons. ③ Giant saguaros are home to birds and insects who come for the water of the cacti. ④ People can see flowers at the top of a saguaro annually after it is about 50 years old. ⑤ It is hard to find majestic saguaros in the Southwest, which tempt poachers to steal them. 2017년도 8급 공개경쟁채용시험 영 어 책형 가 - 6 - 23. Which of the following is true, according to the passage? Sequoya was a Cherokee Indian who invented an alphabet that enabled his people to read and write their own language. Sequoya was born in Tennessee in 1770, the son of an Indian mother and a white father. Sequoya was first a hunter, but after a hunting accident he became a trader. Sequoya had no education, but he knew that reading and writing were important. He began to work on an alphabet for the Cherokee language. In 1823, after 12 years of work, his alphabet was ready. It consisted of symbols for 85 sounds that make up the Cherokee language. Within a few months thousands of Cherokees learned to read and write using the new alphabet. Soon a Cherokee newspaper called The Phoenix was being published. Its columns carried news in both English and Cherokee. Sequoya became a teacher and moved to Oklahoma where he continued to teach the alphabet. Huge sequoia trees, known for their great size, grow in California and are named in his memory and honor. ① Born in Tennessee, Sequoya later moved to California. ② It took a dozen years for Sequoya to make the Cherokee alphabet. ③ The Cherokee alphabet consisted of 85 sounds that comprise the Cherokee language. ④ It took more than a year for Cherokees to learn the new alphabet. ⑤ Known for their longevity, sequoia trees are named after Sequoya. 24. Which of the following best completes the blank? The term Renaissance, literally means “rebirth” and is the period in European civilization immediately following the Middle Ages, conventionally held to have been characterized by a surge of interest in classical learning and values. To the scholars and thinkers of the day, however, it was primarily a time of the revival of classical learning and wisdom after a long period of cultural decline and stagnation. The artist of the Renaissance was a(n) man. From his studio one could order a painting for the church altar, a carved wedding chest, a silver ewer, or a crucifix. Many of the well-known painters of that golden period were goldsmiths, armorers, workers in glass, enamel or iron. ① irascible ② obtuse ③ fatal ④ quandary ⑤ versatile 25. Which of the following best completes the blanks (A) and (B)? Pessimism is a state of mind in which one anticipates undesirable outcomes or believes that the evil or hardships in life outweigh the good or luxuries. Value judgments may vary dramatically between individuals, even when judgments of fact are (A) . The most common example of this phenomenon is the “Is the glass half empty or half full?” situation. The degree in which situations like these are evaluated as something good or something bad can be described in terms of one’s optimism or pessimism respectively. Throughout history, the pessimistic (B) has had effects on all major areas of thinking. A pessimist on an airplane is sure the plane is missing some essential part that won’t be noticed until it plummets from the sky. (A) (B) ① self-evident ignorance ② divergent attitude ③ different feature ④ undisputed disposition ⑤ diverse quality
스터디 영어_7급_A형.pdf 영어_7급_B형.pdf 2017 서울시 7급 영어 해설 김세현.pdf 2017 서울시 7급 영어 해설 성기건.pdf 2017 서울시 7급 영어 해설 성정혜.pdf Ⓐ - 3 1. 밑줄 친 부분의 의미와 가장 가까운 것은? Two doctors are under investigation for selling drugs over the internet and could face a disciplinary hearing. ① penal ② ad-hoc ③ scholarly ④ pretrial 2. 빈칸에 들어갈 가장 적절한 것은? Culture is defined as material, and even nonmaterial, objects that are passed from one generation to the next. Cultures often vary across space and time. While cultures may be diverse, they also share some similarities. Academic research has identified several cultural , that is, cultural attributes that may be found wherever people occupy a territory. ① universals ② discriminations ③ renaissances ④ prejudices 3. 다음 중 어법상 가장 옳지 않은 것은? ① What personality studies have shown is that openness to change declines with age. ② A collaborative space program could build greater understanding, promote world peace, and improving scientific knowledge. ③ More people may start buying reusable tote bags if they become cheaper. ④ Today, more people are using smart phones and tablet computers for business. 4. 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 가장 옳지 않은 것은? Plastics ① are artificial, or human-made materials ② that consist of polymers ― long molecules ③ made of smaller molecules joined in chains. Not all polymers are artificial ― wood and cotton are types of a natural polymer called cellulose, but they are not considered plastics because they cannot ④ melt and mold. 5. 빈칸에 들어갈 가장 적절한 것은? A: I m trying to buy a bike but I can t choose between the two brands. B : Why don t you look at the reviews from the buyers? A : . B : Then I think you can go for either brand. ① Bike riding is the best way to stay in shape. ② The reviews seem to be one-sided. ③ The brands are neck and neck in the opinion polls. ④ The companies are almost down and out. 6. 빈칸에 들어갈 가장 적절한 것은? Space travel, despite its thrilling rep, is hard on the human body, and its zero gravity that causes most of the problems. In space vision can be damaged as fluids normally restrained by gravity migrate to the head, compressing the optic nerve and distorting the shape of the eyeball. The controlled environment of the space station can also cause the immune system to slack off. Bones that dont carry weight decalcify over time so much that newly arriving cosmonauts have been discouraged from hugging those who have been aloft a long time, they break a rib. Caps on the ends of chromosomes called telomeres shorten throughout life, contributing to aging. In space, the telomere fuse burns faster. ① unless ② lest ③ although ④ while ※ 밑줄 친 부분의 의미와 가장 가까운 것은? (7~8) 7. After three years of desultory wandering, the old man came to Andalusia, the region in southern Spain. ① purposeful ② miserable ③ ascetic ④ disconnected 8. The idea of ethnocentrism is not particularly transparent, and it can all too easily carry with it the pejorative suggestion of chauvinism rather than a merely limitedly parochial perspective. ① feasible ② derogatory ③ pellucid ④ mediocre 9. A와 B의 대화 중 가장 어색한 것은? ① A : Do you know what it s called? B : Oh, it s on the tip of my tongue. ② A : Did you catch the train? B : Yes, by the skin of my teeth. ③ A : Can I use your phone? B : Back to square one. ④ A : How shall we decide? B : Let s toss for it. ※ 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 가장 옳지 않은 것은? (10~11) 10. A survey ① conducted for the journal American Demographics by the research from Market Facts found some surprising results. In modern America, ② where superstitions are seen as nothing more than the beliefs of a weak mind, 44 percent of the people surveyed still admitted they were superstitious. The other 56 percent claimed to be only optimistically superstitious, ③ meaning they were more willing to believe superstitions relating to good luck over ones related to bad luck. For example, 12 percent of those who said they were not really superstitious confessed to ④ knock on wood for good luck. And 9 percent confessed they would pick up a penny on the street for good luck. A further 9 percent of non-believers also said they would pick a four-leaf clover for luck if they found one. And some still believed in kissing under the mistletoe for luck. 11. Even before the supposed Angles, Saxons, and Jutes arrived in England bringing their Germanic dialects that gave rise to English, they ① had borrowed some Latin vocabulary. However, as far as we know, this amounted to only a few dozen words, and thus Old English vocabulary was overwhelmingly Germanic. Old English contained very few loanwords, ② contrasting with the situation in Middle English and Modern English, ③ which loans proliferate. One estimate is that 3 percent of Old English vocabulary consisted of loanwords, whereas 70 percent of today s English consists of loanwords. This difference is of great importance in explaining how the English language ④ has changed over time. 12. 글의 흐름으로 보아 빈칸에 들어갈 가장 적절한 것은? Scientists have recently discovered that ants can remember how many steps they have taken. By carefully shortening or lengthening the legs of ants, the team observed that short-legged ants apparently became lost and could not easily find their way home to the nest. Similarly, ants with longer legs typically travelled 50% further than they needed to and were also temporarily unable to find the nest. It seems ants can definitely . ① retrace their steps ② take their steps ③ count their steps ④ watch their steps Ⓐ - 4 13. 글의 요지로 가장 적절한 것은? Ideas becoming industries are at the heart of disrupting the status quo. Just like an old tree must fall for the sapling to find the sun, incumbent companies must step back so others can rise. However, large companies will not simply cede so others can succeed, and those profiting from the status quo will not merely stand aside to allow the future to emerge. Interestingly, the government is often the woodcutter clearing that forest, or the gardener protecting the saplings. Sure, we want a market free of government intervention, but we might be creating conditions that inhibit our growth. ① Innovative ideas are crucial for industrial success. ② Securing corporate profits is a pre-condition for economic growth. ③ Government and companies have different interests for the future. ④ Sometimes government intervention in the market is necessary. 14. 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은? You would think people would get more anxious as they age. But if you look at the research, older people have less anxiety and sadness and more overall satisfaction. Otto Rank, the Viennese psychologist and student of Sigmund Freud, once said the secret of not fearing death lay in the voluntary affirmation of the obligatory, or willing what is given. How? Studies show there can be a powerful perspective shift later in life when we come to understand that what we have always thought of as ownership is really just a long-term lease. A lot of our fear of death is about losing the things we have built up, but elderly people let go of their attachment to these things, and in the process they let go of some of their fear. ① Spending life dreading death ② Senior citizens attachment to material ownership ③ Why old people are less scared of dying ④ Death as life s great punch line 15. 글의 내용과 일치하는 것은? Our pets brains are remarkably similar to our own. Cat brains have folds similar to human brains, allowing them to pack in 300 million neurons, which transmit messages to and from the brain. The human brain boasts about 100 billion neurons, while canines boast a mere 160 million ― nearly half their feline counterparts. This is important because complexity of thought is believed to be associated with number of neurons, not simply brain size. More neurons may also help explain the differences in short-term memory between cats and dogs. ① Cats and dogs have a similar number of brain neurons. ② A dog s brain size is bigger than a cat s. ③ A dog s brain structure is not analogous to human s. ④ Cats have a higher complexity of thought than dogs. 16. 빈칸에 들어갈 가장 적절한 것은? Given the arbitrary nature of languages, it should come as no surprise that there is enormous linguistic diversity among human populations. Even though linguists do not agree on precisely how many discrete languages exist, a reasonable estimate would be six thousand. The criterion used to establish such estimate is mutual . That is, linguists assume that if people can understand one another, they speak the same language; if they are unable to understand one another, they speak different languages. The application of this criterion is not as straightforward as it might appear, however, because there are always differing degrees of intelligibility. Nevertheless, despite our inability to establish the precise number of discrete languages found in the world today, the amount of linguistic diversity is vast. ① similarity ② unintelligibility ③ inconsistentness ④ correspondence 17. 빈칸에 들어갈 가장 적절한 것은? Although many of us can t increase the working hours in the day, we can measurably increase our energy. Science supplies a useful way to understand the forces at play here. Physicists understand energy as the capacity to do work. Like time, energy is finite; but unlike time, it is . The importance of restoration is rooted in our physiology. Human beings aren t designed to expend energy continuously. Rather, were meant to pulse between spending and recovering energy. ① renewable ② frail ③ exhaustible ④ inexorable 18. 빈칸 ㉠, ㉡에 들어갈 가장 적절한 것은? Greek concepts of number and cosmos were the foundations to which their successors looked, even when they turned toward new directions. The ancient Greek word mousikē denoted all the activities of the Muses, vocal and instrumental art as well as the arts of poetry and dance, which the followers of Pythagoras then connected with their teaching that all is ( ㉠ ), thereby also implying that all is ( ㉡ ). This fundamental connection between music and mathematics had fateful consequences. ㉠㉡ ㉠㉡ ① number music ② society culture ③ ancient modern ④ harmony chaos 19. 다음 글에 이어질 내용을 순서에 맞게 배열한 것으로 가장 적절한 것은? As waves move away from their point of origin, they sort themselves into sets of similarly sized waves. The arrival of alternating sets of small and large waves can be observed on most coastlines. This pattern tends to repeat itself through time, allowing surfers to wait and take advantage of the sets of larger waves that they know will eventually arrive. Occasionally, however, a wave will appear that is much larger than the rest. Known as a rogue wave, such a huge wave is created by a number of factors. ㉠ Coastal zones are not the only dangerous areas. Rogue waves can also appear out of nowhere in open ocean ―in the middle of hundreds of kilometers of calm water. Such waves may be large enough to break in open water and threaten ships. In stormy seas, where almost all waves are large, rogue waves may reach 30m(100ft) in height. ㉡ When rogue waves strike the shore, lives may be lost. Such waves may appear out of nowhere, crashing down over a pier or cliff and sweeping unsuspecting people to their deaths. Sadly, each summer a number of beach visitors are swept into the ocean by rogue waves. ㉢ Most rogue waves appear to form by constructive interference. In this process multiple, similar-sized waves intersect to create a much larger wave. If they intersect just right, with their crests and troughs both matching, the new wave may be as high as the sum of the intersecting waves. Undersea irregularities, as well as currents, also influence formation of a rogue wave. Such waves can be extremely dangerous to the unsuspecting beachgoer. ① ㉠-㉢-㉡ ② ㉡-㉠-㉢ ③ ㉡-㉢-㉠ ④ ㉢-㉡-㉠ 20. 글의 흐름으로 보아 주어진 문장이 들어가기에 가장 적절한 곳은? Vaccines have also significantly reduced the occurrence of a number of other diseases. The positive effects of vaccinations are simply undeniable. Immunizations have eliminated altogether diseases that killed or severely disabled thousands every year. ( ① ) For example, vaccines have completely eliminated polio. ( ② ) They also wiped out smallpox, which 10 million people used to contract every year as late as the 1960s. ( ③ ) Measles used to infect about 4 million children per year, but in 1997, there were only 138 cases of measles in the United States. ( ④ ) Consequently, the vast majority of healthcare professionals believe that the benefits of immunization far outweigh their few risks.
스터디 영어_9급_A형.pdf 영어_9급_B형.pdf 2017 서울시 9급 영어 해설 김범재.pdf 2017 서울시 9급 영어 해설 김성익.pdf 2017 서울시 9급 영어 해설 김세현.pdf 2017 서울시 9급 영어 해설 김영국.pdf 2017 서울시 9급 영어 해설 김한상.pdf 2017 서울시 9급 영어 해설 성기건.pdf 2017 서울시 9급 영어 해설 성정혜.pdf 2017 서울시 9급 영어 해설 영스파.pdf 2017 서울시 9급 영어 해설 오동훈.pdf 2017 서울시 9급 영어 해설 이동기.pdf 2017 서울시 9급 영어 해설 이영규.pdf 2017 서울시 9급 영어 해설 이충권.pdf 2017 서울시 9급 영어 해설 정수현.pdf 2017 서울시 9급 영어 해설 정진영.pdf 2017 서울시 9급 영어 해설 조태정.pdf 2017 서울시 9급 영어 해설 한덕현.pdf Ⓐ - 3 ※ 밑줄 친 부분과 의미가 가장 가까운 것은? (1~2) 1. Leadership and strength are inextricably bound together. We look to strong people as leaders because they can protect us from threats to our group. ① inseparably ② inanimately ③ ineffectively ④ inconsiderately 2. Prudence indeed will dictate that governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes. ① transparent ② momentary ③ memorable ④ significant ※ 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 가장 옳지 않은 것은? (3~4) 3. The idea that justice ① in allocating access to a university has something to do with ② the goods that ③ universities properly pursue ④ explain why selling admission is unjust. 4. Strange as ① it may seem, ② the Sahara was once an expanse of grassland ③ supported the kind of animal life ④ associated with the African plains. 5. 대화의 흐름으로 보아 빈칸에 들어갈 가장 적절한 것은? A : Do you think we can get a loan? B : Well, it depends. Do you own any other property? Any stocks or bonds? A : No. B : I see. Then you don t have any . Perhaps you could get a guarantor ― someone to sign for the loan for you. ① investigation ② animals ③ collateral ④ inspiration 6. 다음 글의 주제로 가장 적절한 것은? In 1782, J. Hector St. John De Crèvecoeur, a French immigrant who had settled in New York before returning to Europe during the Revolutionary War, published a series of essays about life in the British colonies in North America, Letters from an American Farmer. The book was an immediate success in England, France, and the United States. In one of its most famous passages, Crèvecoeur describes the process by which people from different backgrounds and countries were transformed by their experiences in the colonies and asks, What then is the American? In America, Crèvecoeur suggests, individuals of all nations are melted into a new race of men, whose labors and posterity will one day cause great changes in the world. Crèvecoeur was among the first to develop the popular idea of America as that would come to be called melting pot. ① Crèvecoeur s book became an immediate success in England. ② Crèvecoeur developed the idea of melting pot in his book. ③ Crèvecoeur described and discussed American individualism. ④ Crèvecoeur explained where Americans came from in his book. ※ 빈칸에 들어갈 가장 적절한 단어는? (7~8) 7. Again and again we light on words used once in a good, but now in an unfavorable sense. Until the late Eighteenth century this word was used to mean serviceable, friendly, very courteous and obliging. But a(n) person nowadays means a busy uninvited meddler in matters which do not belong to him/her. ① servile ② officious ③ gregarious ④ obsequious 8. A faint odor of ammonia or vinegar makes one-week-old infants grimace and their heads. ① harness ② avert ③ muffle ④ evoke 9. 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 가장 옳지 않은 것은? The first coffeehouse in western Europe ① opened not in ② a center of trade or commerce but in the university city of Oxford, ③ in which a Lebanese man ④ naming Jacob set up shop in 1650. 10. 다음 문장 중 어법상 가장 옳지 않은 것은? ① John promised Mary that he would clean his room. ② John told Mary that he would leave early. ③ John believed Mary that she would be happy. ④ John reminded Mary that she should get there early. 11. 대화의 흐름으로 보아 빈칸에 들어갈 가장 적절한 것은? A : Why don t you let me treat you to lunch today, Mr. Kim? B: . ① No, I m not. That would be a good time for me ② Good. I ll put it on my calendar so I don t forget ③ OK. I ll check with you on Monday ④ Wish I could but I have another commitment today 12. 글의 흐름으로 보아 빈칸에 들어갈 단어를 순서대로 고른 것은? For centuries, people gazing at the sky after sunset could see thousands of vibrant, sparkling stars. But these days, you ll be lucky if you can view the Big Dipper. The culprit: electric beams pouring from homes and street lamps, whose brightness obscures the night sky. In the U.S., so-called light pollution has gotten so bad that by one estimate, 8 out of 10 children born today will never encounter a sky enough for them to see the Milky Way. There is hope, however, in the form of astrotourism, a small but growing industry centered on stargazing in the worlds darkest places. These remote sites, many of them in national parks, offer views for little more than the cost of a campsite. And the people who run them often work to reduce light pollution in surrounding communities. astrotourism may not be as luxurious as some vacations, travelers don t seem to mind. ① dark - Although ② bright - Because ③ dark - Since ④ bright - In that Ⓐ - 4 13. 다음 글을 문맥에 맞게 순서대로 배열한 것은? ㉠ Millions of people suffering from watery and stinging eyes, pounding headaches, sinus issues, and itchy throats, sought refuge from the debilitating air by scouring stores for air filters and face masks. ㉡ The outrage among Chinese residents and the global media scrutiny impelled the government to address the country s air pollution problem. ㉢ Schools and businesses were closed, and the Beijing city government warned people to stay inside their homes, keep their air purifiers running, reduce indoor activities, and remain as inactive as possible. ㉣ In 2013, a state of emergency in Beijing resulting from the dangerously high levels of pollution led to chaos in the transportation system, forcing airlines to cancel flights due to low visibility. ① ㉡-㉠-㉣-㉢ ② ㉡-㉢-㉣-㉠ ③ ㉣-㉡-㉢-㉠ ④ ㉣-㉢-㉠-㉡ ※ 글의 흐름으로 보아 빈칸에 들어갈 가장 적절한 것은? (14~16) 14. Both novels and romances are works of imaginative fiction with multiple characters, but that s where the similarities end. Novels are realistic; romances aren t. In the 19th century, a romance was a prose narrative that told a fictional story dealt with its subjects and characters in a symbolic, imaginative, and nonrealistic way. , a romance deals with plots and people that are exotic, remote in time or place from the reader, and obviously imaginary. ① Typically ② On the other hand ③ Nonetheless ④ In some cases 15. Definitions are especially to children. There s an oft-cited 1987 study in which fifth graders were given dictionary definitions and asked to write their own sentences using the words defined. The results were discouraging. One child given the word erode wrote Our family erodes a lot, because the definition given was eat out, eat away. ① beneficial ② disrespectful ③ unhelpful ④ forgettable 16. Modern banking has its origins in ancient England. In those days people wanting to safeguard their gold had two choices ― hide it under the mattress or turn it over to someone else for safekeeping. The logical people to turn to for storage were the local goldsmiths, since they had the strongest vaults. The goldsmiths accepted the gold for storage, giving the owner a receipt stating that the gold could be redeemed at a later date. When a payment was due, the owner went to the goldsmith, redeemed part of the gold and gave it to the payee. After all that, the payee was very likely to turn around and give the gold back to the goldsmith for safekeeping. Gradually, instead of taking the time and effort to physically exchange the gold, business people . ① began to exchange the goldsmith s receipts as payment ② saw the potential for profit in this arrangement ③ warned the depositors against redeeming their gold ④ lent the gold to somebody else for a fee 17. 빈칸에 공통으로 들어갈 가장 적절한 것은? In some cultures, such as in Korea and Egypt, politeness norms require that when someone is offered something to eat or drink, it must be refused the first time around. However, such a refusal is often viewed as a rejection of someone s hospitality and thoughtlessness in other cultures, particularly when no is made for the refusal. Americans and Canadians, for instance, expect refusals to be accompanied by a reasonable . ① role ② excuse ③ choice ④ situation 18. 다음 주어진 문장이 들어갈 가장 적절한 곳은? Instead, these employees spoke first of the sincerity of the relationships at work, that their work culture felt like an extension of home, and that their colleagues were supportive. ( ① ) There is a clear link between job satisfaction and productivity. However, job satisfaction also depends on the service culture of an organization. ( ② ) This culture comprises the things that make a business distinctive and make the people who work there proud to do so. ( ③ ) When employees of the Top 10 Best Companies to Work For were asked by Fortune magazine why they loved working for these companies, it was notable that they didn t mention pay, reward schemes, or advancing to a more senior position. ( ④ ) 19. 다음 글의 내용과 일치하는 것은? Why Orkney of all places? How did this scatter of islands off the northern tip of Scotland come to be such a technological, cultural, and spiritual powerhouse? For starters, you have to stop thinking of Orkney as remote. For most of history, Orkney was an important maritime hub, a place that was on the way to everywhere. It was also blessed with some of the richest farming soils in Britain and a surprisingly mild climate, thanks to the effects of the Gulf Stream. ① Orkney people had to overcome a lot of social and natural disadvantages. ② The region was one of the centers of rebellion that ultimately led to the annihilation of the civilization there. ③ Orkney did not make the best of its resources because it was too far from the mainland. ④ Orkney owed its prosperity largely to its geographical advantage and natural resources. 20. 다음 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은? Initially, papyrus and parchment were kept as scrolls that could be unrolled either vertically or horizontally, depending on the direction of the script. The horizontal form was more common, and because scrolls could be quite long, a scribe would typically refrain from writing a single line across the entire length, but instead would mark off columns of a reasonable width. That way the reader could unroll one side and roll up the other while reading. Nevertheless, the constant need to re-roll the scroll was a major disadvantage to this format, and it was impossible to jump to various places in the scroll the way we skip to a particular page of a book. Moreover, the reader struggled to make notes while reading since both hands (or weights) were required to keep the scroll open. ① The inconvenience of scrolls ② The evolution of the book ③ The development of writing and reading ④ The ways to overcome disadvantages in scrolls
스터디 영어-B.pdf 영어-D.pdf 2017 지방직 9급 영어 해설 강수정.pdf 2017 지방직 9급 영어 해설 곽인수.pdf 2017 지방직 9급 영어 해설 김송희.pdf 2017 지방직 9급 영어 해설 김재운.pdf 2017 지방직 9급 영어 해설 김한상.hwp 2017 지방직 9급 영어 해설 김형구.pdf 2017 지방직 9급 영어 해설 문민.pdf 2017 지방직 9급 영어 해설 박철우.pdf 2017 지방직 9급 영어 해설 성기건.pdf 2017 지방직 9급 영어 해설 손진숙.pdf 2017 지방직 9급 영어 해설 영스파.pdf 2017 지방직 9급 영어 해설 오동훈.hwp 2017 지방직 9급 영어 해설 이동기.pdf 2017 지방직 9급 영어 해설 이영규.pdf 2017 지방직 9급 영어 해설 이충권.pdf 2017 지방직 9급 영어 해설 잇올.pdf 2017 지방직 9급 영어 해설 장서영.pdf 2017 지방직 9급 영어 해설 장종재.pdf 2017 지방직 9급 영어 해설 정수현.pdf 2017 지방직 9급 영어 해설 조태정.pdf 2017 지방직 9급 영어 해설 최호철.pdf 2017 지방직 9급 영어 해설 한덕현.pdf 2017 지방직 9급 영어 해설 헤더진.pdf 영 어 B 책형 1 쪽 영 어 ※ 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. [문 1～문 2] 문 1. A : I just received a letter from one of my old high school buddies. B : That's nice! A : Well, actually it's been a long time since I heard from him. B : To be honest, I've been out of touch with most of my old friends. A : I know. It's really hard to maintain contact when people move around so much. B : You're right. _______________________________________. But you're lucky to be back in touch with your buddy again. ① The days are getting longer ② People just drift apart ③ That's the funniest thing I've ever heard of ④ I start fuming whenever I hear his name 문 2. A : What are you getting Ted for his birthday? I'm getting him a couple of baseball caps. B : I've been _____________________ trying to think of just the right gift. I don't have an inkling of what he needs. A : Why don't you get him an album? He has a lot of photos. B : That sounds perfect! Why didn't I think of that? Thanks for the suggestion! ① contacted by him ② sleeping all day ③ racking my brain ④ collecting photo albums ※ 밑줄 친 부분의 의미와 가장 가까운 것을 고르시오. [문 3 ～ 문 5] 문 3. Some of the newest laws authorize people to appoint a surrogate who can make medical decisions for them when necessary. ① proxy ② sentry ③ predecessor ④ plunderer 문 4. A : He thinks he can achieve anything. B : Yes, he needs to keep his feet on the ground. ① live in a world of his own ② relax and enjoy himself ③ be brave and confident ④ remain sensible and realistic about life 문 5. She is on the fence about going to see the Mona Lisa at the Louvre Museum. ① anguished ② enthusiastic ③ apprehensive ④ undecided 문 6. 어법상 옳지 않은 것은? ① You might think that just eating a lot of vegetables will keep you perfectly healthy. ② Academic knowledge isn't always that leads you to make right decisions. ③ The fear of getting hurt didn't prevent him from engaging in reckless behaviors. ④ Julie's doctor told her to stop eating so many processed foods. 문 7. 어법상 옳은 것은? ① The oceans contain many forms of life that has not yet been discovered. ② The rings of Saturn are so distant to be seen from Earth without a telescope. ③ The Aswan High Dam has been protected Egypt from the famines of its neighboring countries. ④ Included in this series is “The Enchanted Horse,” among other famous children's stories. 문 8. 다음 글의 내용과 일치하는 것은? Soils of farmlands used for growing crops are being carried away by water and wind erosion at rates between 10 and 40 times the rates of soil formation, and between 500 and 10,000 times soil erosion rates on forested land. Because those soil erosion rates are so much higher than soil formation rates, that means a net loss of soil. For instance, about half of the top soil of Iowa, the state whose agriculture productivity is among the highest in the U.S., has been eroded in the last 150 years. On my most recent visit to Iowa, my hosts showed me a churchyard offering a dramatically visible example of those soil losses. A church was built there in the middle of farmland during the 19th century and has been maintained continuously as a church ever since, while the land around it was being farmed. As a result of soil being eroded much more rapidly from fields than from the churchyard, the yard now stands like a little island raised 10 feet above the surrounding sea of farmland. ① A churchyard in Iowa is higher than the surrounding farmland. ② Iowa's agricultural productivity has accelerated its soil formation. ③ The rate of soil formation in farmlands is faster than that of soil erosion. ④ Iowa has maintained its top soil in the last 150 years. 영 어 B 책형 2 쪽 문 9. 다음 글의 흐름상 가장 어색한 문장은? Whether you've been traveling, focusing on your family, or going through a busy season at work, 14 days out of the gym takes its toll―not just on your muscles, but your performance, brain, and sleep, too. ① Most experts agree that after two weeks, you're in trouble if you don't get back in the gym. “At the two week point without exercising, there are a multitude of physiological markers that naturally reveal a reduction of fitness level,” says Scott Weiss, a New York-based exercise physiologist and trainer who works with elite athletes. ② After all, despite all of its abilities, the human body (even the fit human body) is a very sensitive system and physiological changes (muscle strength or a greater aerobic base) that come about through training will simply disappear if your training load dwindles, he notes. Since the demand of training isn't present, your body simply slinks back toward baseline. ③More protein is required to build more muscles at a rapid pace in your body. ④ Of course, how much and how quickly you'll decondition depends on a slew of factors like how fit you are, your age, and how long sweating has been a habit. “Two to eight months of not exercising at all will reduce your fitness level to as if you never exercised before,” Weiss notes. 문 10. 다음 글의 내용과 일치하지 않는 것은? Before the fifteenth century, all four characteristics of the witch (night flying, secret meetings, harmful magic, and the devil's pact) were ascribed individually or in limited combination by the church to its adversaries, including Templars, heretics, learned magicians, and other dissident groups. Folk beliefs about the supernatural emerged in peasant confessions during witch trials. The most striking difference between popular and learned notions of witchcraft lay in the folk belief that the witch had innate supernatural powers not derived from the devil. For learned men, this bordered on heresy. Supernatural powers were never human in origin, nor could witches derive their craft from the tradition of learned magic, which required a scholarly training at the university, a masculine preserve at the time. A witch's power necessarily came from the pact she made with the devil. ① The folk and learned men had different views on the source of the witch's supernatural powers. ② According to the folk belief, supernatural powers belonged to the essential nature of the witch. ③ Four characteristics of the witch were attributed by the church to its dissident groups. ④ Learned men believed that the witch's power came from a scholarly training at the university. 문 11. 주어진 문장이 들어갈 위치로 가장 적절한 것은? Fortunately, however, the heavy supper she had eaten caused her to become tired and ready to fall asleep. Various duties awaited me on my arrival. I had to sit with the girls during their hour of study. ( ① ) Then it was my turn to read prayers; to see them to bed. Afterwards I ate with the other teachers. ( ② ) Even when we finally retired for the night, the inevitable Miss Gryce was still my companion. We had only a short end of candle in our candlestick, and I dreaded lest she should talk till it was all burnt out. ( ③ ) She was already snoring before I had finished undressing. There still remained an inch of candle. ( ④ ) I now took out my letter; the seal was an initial F. I broke it; the contents were brief. 문 12. 다음 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은? Fear and its companion pain are two of the most useful things that men and animals possess, if they are properly used. If fire did not hurt when it burnt, children would play with it until their hands were burnt away. Similarly, if pain existed but fear did not, a child would burn himself again and again, because fear would not warn him to keep away from the fire that had burnt him before. A really fearless soldier―and some do exist―is not a good soldier, because he is soon killed; and a dead soldier is of no use to his army. Fear and pain are therefore two guards without which human beings and animals might soon die out. ① Obscurity of Fear and Pain in Soldiers ② Indispensability of Fear and Pain ③ Disapproval of Fear and Pain ④ Children's Association with Fear and Pain ※ 우리말을 영어로 잘못 옮긴 것을 고르시오. [문 13 ～ 문 14] 문 13. ① 나는 매달 두세 번 그에게 전화하기로 규칙을 세웠다. → I made it a rule to call him two or three times a month. ② 그는 나의 팔을 붙잡고 도움을 요청했다. → He grabbed me by the arm and asked for help. ③ 폭우로 인해 그 강은 120 cm 상승했다. → Owing to the heavy rain, the river has risen by 120 cm. ④ 나는 눈 오는 날 밖에 나가는 것보다 집에 있는 것을 더 좋아한다. → I prefer to staying home than to going out on a snowy day. 문 14. ① 그를 당황하게 한 것은 그녀의 거절이 아니라 그녀의 무례함 이었다. → It was not her refusal but her rudeness that perplexed him. ② 부모는 아이들 앞에서 그들의 말과 행동에 대해 아무리 신중 해도 지나치지 않다. → Parents cannot be too careful about their words and actions before their children. ③ 환자들과 부상자들을 돌보기 위해 더 많은 의사가 필요했다. → More doctors were required to tend sick and wounded. ④ 설상가상으로, 또 다른 태풍이 곧 올 것이라는 보도가 있다. → To make matters worse, there is a report that another typhoon will arrive soon. 영 어 B 책형 3 쪽 ※ 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. [문 15～문 16] 문 15. Our main dish did not have much flavor, but I made it more ______________ by adding condiments. ① palatable ② dissolvable ③ potable ④ susceptible 문 16. London taxi drivers have to undertake years of intense training known as “the knowledge” to gain their operating license, including learning the layout of over twenty-five thousand of the city's streets. A researcher and her team investigated the taxi drivers and the ordinary people. The two groups were asked to watch videos of routes unfamiliar to them through a town in Ireland. They were then asked to take a test about the video that included sketching out routes, identifying landmarks, and estimating distances between places. Both groups did well on much of the test, but the taxi drivers did significantly better on identifying new routes. This result suggests that the taxi drivers' mastery can be _____________ to new and unknown areas. Their years of training and learning through deliberate practice prepare them to take on similar challenges even in places they do not know well or at all. ① confined ② devoted ③ generalized ④ contributed 문 17. 주어진 글 다음에 이어질 글의 순서로 가장 적절한 것은? I remember the day Lewis discovered the falls. They left their camp at sunrise and a few hours later they came upon a beautiful plain and on the plain were more buffalo than they had ever seen before in one place. (A) A nice thing happened that afternoon, they went fishing below the falls and caught half a dozen trout, good ones, too, from sixteen to twenty-three inches long. (B) After a while the sound was tremendous and they were at the great falls of the Missouri River. It was about noon when they got there. (C) They kept on going until they heard the faraway sound of a waterfall and saw a distant column of spray rising and disappearing. They followed the sound as it got louder and louder. ① (A) － (B) － (C) ② (B) － (C) － (A) ③ (C) － (A) － (B) ④ (C) － (B) － (A) 문 18. 다음 글의 요지로 가장 적절한 것은? Novelty-induced time expansion is a well-characterized phenomenon which can be investigated under laboratory conditions. Simply asking people to estimate the length of time they are exposed to a train of stimuli shows that novel stimuli simply seem to last longer than repetitive or unremarkable ones. In fact, just being the first stimulus in a moderately repetitive series appears to be sufficient to induce subjective time expansion. Of course, it is easy to think of reasons why our brain has evolved to work like this—presumably novel and exotic stimuli require more thought and consideration than familiar ones, so it makes sense for the brain to allocate them more subjective time. ① Response to stimuli is an important by-product of brain training. ② The intensity of stimuli increases with their repetition. ③ Our physical response to stimuli influences our thoughts. ④ New stimuli give rise to subjective time expansion. ※ 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. [문 19～문 20] 문 19. One of the tricks our mind plays is to highlight evidence which confirms what we already believe. If we hear gossip about a rival, we tend to think “I knew he was a nasty piece of work”; if we hear the same about our best friend, we're more likely to say “that's just a rumour.” Once you learn about this mental habit―called confirmation bias―you start seeing it everywhere. This matters when we want to make better decisions. Confirmation bias is OK as long as we're right, but all too often we're wrong, and we only pay attention to the deciding evidence when it's too late. How ________________________________________________ depends on our awareness of why, psychologically, confirmation bias happens. There are two possible reasons. One is that we have a blind spot in our imagination and the other is we fail to ask questions about new information. ① we make our rivals believe us ② our blind spot helps us make better decisions ③ we can protect our decisions from confirmation bias ④ we develop exactly the same bias 문 20. For many big names in consumer product brands, exporting and producing overseas with local labor and for local tastes have been the right thing to do. In doing so, the companies found a way to improve their cost structure, to grow in the rapidly expanding consumer markets in emerging countries. But, Sweets Co. remains stuck in the domestic market. Even though its products are loaded with preservatives, which means they can endure long travel to distant markets, Sweets Co. ___________________________________, let alone produce overseas. The unwillingness or inability to update its business strategy and products for a changing world is clearly damaging to the company. ① is intent on importing ② does very little exporting ③ has decided to streamline operations ④ is expanding into emerging markets
영어-2.pdf 영어-5.pdf 2016 국가직 7급 영어 해설 김범재.pdf 2016 국가직 7급 영어 해설 김신주.pdf 2016 국가직 7급 영어 해설 문덕.pdf 2016 국가직 7급 영어 해설 성기건.pdf 2016 국가직 7급 영어 해설 성정혜.pdf 2016 국가직 7급 영어 해설 이충권.pdf 2016 국가직 7급 영어 해설 줄리아.pdf 영 어 2 책형 1 쪽 영 어 문 1. 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 가장 적절한 것은? Most people acknowledge that being ethical means being fair and reasonable and not being ________. ① greedy ② altruistic ③ weary ④ skeptical ※ 밑줄 친 부분과 의미가 가장 가까운 것을 고르시오. [문 2 ～ 문 3] 문 2. Reforms enacted in some states have already taken effect, whereas in other states, reforms legislation is shelved. ① pending ② hasty ③ precise ④ divisible 문 3. There is no need to make the final decision today. Why don't you go home and sleep on it? ① take a day off to sleep late ② take time to think about it ③ take it for granted ④ take a good rest ※ 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. [문 4 ～ 문 5] 문 4. A : Why didn't you answer my calls? I really wanted to talk to you. B : I am sorry, but I think we need some time apart. A : What do you mean? Do you want to break up with me? B : No, ______________________. I still love you very much, but I just want to be by myself for a while. ① don't reject me ② don't get me wrong ③ don't lean on me ④ don't leave me behind 문 5. A : You have just seen all the cars you were interested in. Is there a particular model you like? B : Well, I do like the red one I saw at first, especially the exterior with its radiant color. A : So, would you like to test-drive that one? B : Maybe... but I'm just a little concerned about the leg room. A : __________________________________________ B : Well, I don't think it is spacious enough for my family. A : If you feel that way, we could try out a different one. B : Why not? I am open to your suggestions. ① What seems to be the problem with the exterior? ② Do you want to try out a different color? ③ Perhaps you want to test-drive the red one? ④ Do you think it is too small for you? ※ 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 옳지 않은 것을 고르시오. [문 6 ～ 문 7] 문 6. The corals are the foundation of an ecosystem ①increasingly damaging by fishing nets, but scientists know ②very little about the ③ slow-growing life-forms because they are somewhat difficult ④ to reach. 문 7. Much of the debate over police drones in the United States ① has been over privacy. However, a new concern has come to light: the threat of hackers. Last year, security researcher Nils Rodday claimed he could take over a drone that ② cost between $ 30,000 and $ 35,000 ③ used just a laptop and forty dollars' ④ worth of special equipment. ※ 어법상 옳지 않은 것을 고르시오. [문 8 ～ 문 9] 문 8. ① I met a student yesterday in the cafeteria who said she knew you. ② Even though Tim is your friend, he isn't to be trusted with other people's money. ③ We suggest you to take a copy of the final invoice along with your travel documents. ④ Surprisingly, she didn't have any objections to make to the proposal. 문 9. ① Hardly had the new recruits started training when they were sent into battle. ② Disagreements over the treaty arose among the indigenous peoples of Africa. ③ If I had enough money, I would have bought a fancy yacht. ④ Do you want me to come with you, or do you want to go alone? 문 10. 우리말을 영어로 가장 잘 옮긴 것은? ① 어떤 교수의 스타일에 적응하는 데는 항상 시간이 좀 걸린다. → Time always takes little to tune in on a professor's style. ② 나는 마지막 순간까지 기다렸다가 밤을 새우는 데 익숙해있다. → I'm used to waiting until the last minute and staying up all night. ③ 그 수학 문제는 너무 어려워서 그 학생이 답을 할 수 없었다. → The math question was too tough for the student to answer it. ④ 나는 너무 많은 시간의 힘든 일로 정말 지쳤다. → Too many hours of hard work really tired of me. 문 11. 우리말을 영어로 잘못 옮긴 것은? ① 많은 사람들이 아파서 회의가 취소되었다. → With many people ill, the meeting was cancelled. ② 이것은 우리가 예상했던 것만큼 그렇게 간단한 문제는 아니다. → It is not so straightforward a problem as we expected. ③ 학생들이 몇 개의 가방을 가지고 탑승할 건가요? → How many bags are the students carrying on board with them? ④ 아무런 해명도 없었다. 사과는 말할 것도 없고. → No explanation was offered, still more an apology. 영 어 2 책형 2 쪽 문 12. 글의 내용과 일치하지 않는 것은? Can you imagine anyone choosing to live without money in our consumer society? Well, that's exactly what Franz Schmidt has been doing since he quit his job as a psychotherapist and gave away all his possessions. This 75-year-old father of three and grandfather of four has chosen to live a simple life without the pressure to buy and own. Schmidt has thought about possession and value since he was a young boy. Schmidt and his family had to leave all their possessions during World War Ⅱ to flee from the Russian forces in Memel. They could not take anything with them, and this made a great impression on him. Schmidt knew what it was like to be penniless and he learned from experience that possessions are not what give a person value. Schmidt moved to Heidelberg, a major city in Germany, with his wife and three children in the nineties, and was so shocked by the homelessness of the poor in the neighborhood that he decided to open a swap shop called Share. Members of this group swap things and skills without money. What amazed Schmidt was not only how people's needs could be met, but also how much the participants benefited from the social aspect of their contact. This experience deeply moved not only Schmidt, but other people as well. ① He used to work in the mental health care field. ② He and his family left Memel very poor during World War Ⅱ. ③ He moved to Heidelberg in Germany with his family. ④ He opened a swap shop where people could buy items at low prices. 문 13. 글의 내용과 일치하는 것은? A new study reports that the cleaner air has been accompanied by a significant decrease in childhood lung problems. The study used data on ozone, nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter for each year. Parents also provided regular updates about symptoms like coughing and phlegm production in their children. Among children with asthma, air-pollution reduction was consistently associated with reductions in respiratory symptoms. For example, in children with asthma, reductions in fine particulate matter were associated with a 32-percent reduction in symptoms, while lower levels of ozone were linked to a 21-percent reduction. The associations were weaker, but still significant, in children without asthma. “Clearly, the reduction in air pollution levels have translated into improvements in respiratory health,” said Kiros Berhane, a professor of preventive medicine at the University of Southern California. “Especially for parents of children with asthma, this is very good news, but we see significant improvement in children without asthma as well.” ① A high level of fine particulate matter contributed to the reduction in respiratory symptoms. ② Children with asthma were more influenced by the clean air than children without asthma. ③ The study showed that regular updates on asthma patients decreased lung problems. ④ Data about children with respiratory disease were excluded in the study. 문 14. 다음 내용에 이어질 글의 순서로 가장 적절한 것은? On November 2, 1988, thousands of computers connected to the Internet began to slow down. Many eventually ground to a temporary halt. No data were destroyed, but a lot of computing time was lost as computer system administrators fought to regain control of their machines. [A] There it hid itself and passed around misleading information that made it harder to detect and counteract. Within a few days The New York Times identified the hacker as Robert Morris, Jr., a twenty-three-year old graduate student at Cornell University. [B] The cause turned out to be a mischievous computer program called a “worm” that was spreading from one computer to another on the network, replicating as it went. The worm used an unnoticed “back door” in the system's software to directly access the memory of the computers it was attacking. [C] He later testified that he had designed and then unleashed the worm to see how many computers it would reach but that a mistake in his programming had caused the worm to replicate far faster than he had expected. ① [A] － [B] － [C] ② [A] － [C] － [B] ③ [B] － [A] － [C] ④ [B] － [C] － [A] 문 15. 다음 글에서 전체 흐름에 부합하지 않는 문장은? Eating seasonally and locally is a great way to maintain a healthy diet, observes a veteran food consultant and Korea's first accredited vegetable sommelier. “To me, superfoods are local foods grown in season. They taste better, are cheaper and rich in nutrition,” E. K. Kim, president of the Korea Vegetable Sommelier Association, said. ㉠If consumers buy produce which is not in season, it is likely to have been grown in artificial conditions, or picked prematurely and transported long distances. ㉡ All these factors not only affect the taste, but also the nutritional content. “Imagine how an apple tree grows. It starts to bud first, bears fruits and then its root remains in the end. It is a good example of seasonal food. Spring is the time for leafy vegetables, summer for fruit vegetables and winter for root crops,” the food expert said. ㉢ She emphasized the health benefits of local foods in comparison with exotic superfoods introduced by foreign food experts. “For example, Korean spring greens help to cure spring fever as they are rich in vitamin B-1 and C,” she said. ㉣ Since sommeliers help consumers understand the intricacies of selection, preparation and nutritional value of vegetables, the government needs to promote their role to the public. “People tend to think that superfoods should be exotic and imported from overseas. In fact, there are various kinds of local foods which are packed with an equivalent or even higher level of nutrients,” she added. ① ㉠ ② ㉡ ③ ㉢ ④ ㉣ 영 어 2 책형 3 쪽 문 16. 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은? If you're faced with a complicated problem, it is very tempting to chop it up into a lot of simple problems, and then knock them off one by one. It is sometimes claimed that if you have solved all the simple problems you've solved the whole thing. That's reductionism in a nutshell. And as a methodology it works extremely well. In my discipline, which is physics, it's had some amazing successes. Look at the world about us, just see how complicated it is, the richness and diversity of nature. How are we ever to come to understand it? Well, a good way to start is by breaking it up into small bite-sized pieces. One example is atomism. The belief that the entire universe is made up of atoms, or some sort of fundamental particles, and that everything that happens in nature is just the rearrangement of these particles, has proved extraordinarily fruitful. Once you focus down to the level of individual atoms you can work out all the laws and principles that govern them. You can figure out in detail what they are doing. It's then tempting to believe that if you understand individual atoms and the way they interact, you understand everything. ① Application of Reductionism to Problem Solving ② Cooperative Relationships between Reductionism and Atomism ③ Importance of Taking a Comprehensive Approach to Problems ④ Superiority of Physics over Other Science Disciplines ※ 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. [문 17 ～ 문 20] 문 17. When the Inuit first explored the Arctic in their kayaks, they faced freezing temperatures, angry polar bears and the risk of being crushed between shifting ice flows. ______________, kayaking in Asia is a much more pleasant affair. The highly mobile craft－now made of fiberglass and plastic rather than the traditional sealskin－is a handy vehicle for exploring Asia's tiny islands and hidden beaches, and a growing number of adventure travel companies are offering trips that don't require exceptional courage. ① By comparison ② In addition ③ In particular ④ At first glance 문 18. In recent decades women's participation in waged labour has risen in virtually every country in the world as capitalist industrialization has pushed more women to join the workforce. There are still, however, considerable _____________________ in the proportion of women who are in the labour force, as comparative statistics collected by the International Labour Organization reveal. Although the bases of comparison are not always entirely compatible and the years of collection vary somewhat, in the early to mid 1990s, women's labour market participation in Western countries varied from a high of 78 % for women of working age in Denmark to only 43 % in Spain. Participation rates in the ‘rest’ of the world are even more varied. Extremely low rates are still common in parts of Africa. ① geographical variations ② waged employment ③ empirical case studies ④ shared risks and hardship at work 문 19. Hay fever is a seasonal allergy to pollens; the term “hay fever,” however, is a (A) than adequate description since such an attack of this allergy does not incur fever and since such an attack can be brought on by sources other than hay-producing grasses. Hay fever is generally caused by air-borne pollens, particularly ragweed pollen. The amount of pollen in the air is largely dependent on region, weather, and season. In the eastern section of the United States, for example, there are generally three periods when pollen from various sources can cause intense hay fever suffering: in the springtime months of March and April when pollen from trees is (B) , in the summer months of June and July when grass pollen fills the air, and at the end of August when ragweed pollen is at its most concentrated levels. (A) (B) ① more exceptional ② less scarce ③ more rampant ④ less prevalent 문 20. About a decade ago, a neuroscientist Lesley J. Rogers discovered that if she exposed embryos to light or to dark before they are hatched, she could control whether the two halves of the duckling brains developed their specializations for visual processing—that is, whether the ducklings hatched with weakly or strongly lateralized brains. Rogers then compared normal, strongly lateralized ducklings with weakly lateralized chicks on two tasks. One task was to sort food grains from small pebbles (usually a job for the left hemisphere); the other task was to respond to a model of a predator (a cutout in the shape of a hawk) that was passed over the ducklings (usually a task for the right hemisphere). The weakly lateralized ducklings had no trouble learning to tell grains from pebbles when no model hawk was present. But when the hawk “flew” overhead, they frequently failed to detect it and they were much slower than normal ducklings in learning to peck at grains instead of pebbles. In short, without the lateral specializations of their brain, the weakly lateralized ducklings ______________________________. ① showed that their brain was about half of the normal size ② could not attend to two tasks simultaneously ③ had their right brain more activated to complete the jobs ④ were observed to have restored their sense of sight
영어-2.pdf 영어-4.pdf 2016 국가직 9급 영어 해설 김영국.pdf 2016 국가직 9급 영어 해설 김정연.pdf 2016 국가직 9급 영어 해설 성기건.pdf 2016 국가직 9급 영어 해설 성정혜.pdf 2016 국가직 9급 영어 해설 손재석.pdf 2016 국가직 9급 영어 해설 김민수.pdf 2016 국가직 9급 영어 해설 김신주.pdf 2016 국가직 9급 영어 해설 김태은.pdf 2016 국가직 9급 영어 해설 박지나.pdf 2016 국가직 9급 영어 해설 서병석.pdf 2016 국가직 9급 영어 해설 손진숙.pdf 2016 국가직 9급 영어 해설 오동훈.pdf 2016 국가직 9급 영어 해설 이동기.pdf 2016 국가직 9급 영어 해설 이리라.pdf 2016 국가직 9급 영어 해설 이영규.pdf 2016 국가직 9급 영어 해설 이충권.pdf 2016 국가직 9급 영어 해설 장서영.pdf 2016 국가직 9급 영어 해설 장종재.pdf 2016 국가직 9급 영어 해설 한덕현.pdf 2016 국가직 9급 영어 해설 헤더진.pdf 영 어 2 책형 1 쪽 영 어 문 1. 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은? The campaign to eliminate pollution will prove ________ unless it has the understanding and full cooperation of the public. ① enticing ② enhanced ③ fertile ④ futile 문 2. 밑줄 친 부분과 의미가 가장 가까운 것은? Up to now, newspaper articles have only scratched the surface of this tremendously complex issue. ① superficially dealt with ② hit the nail on the head of ③ seized hold of ④ positively followed up on ※ 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. [문 3～문 4] 문 3. A : I'd like to get a refund for this tablecloth I bought here yesterday. B : Is there a problem with the tablecloth? A : It doesn't fit our table and I would like to return it. Here is my receipt. B : I'm sorry, but this tablecloth was a final sale item, and it cannot be refunded. A : ______________________________________ B : It's written at the bottom of the receipt. ① Nobody mentioned that to me. ② Where is the price tag? ③ What's the problem with it? ④ I got a good deal on it. 문 4. A : Hello? Hi, Stephanie. I'm on my way to the office. Do you need anything? B : Hi, Luke. Can you please pick up extra paper for the printer? A : What did you say? Did you say to pick up ink for the printer? Sorry, ________________________________ B : Can you hear me now? I said I need more paper for the printer. A : Can you repeat that, please? B : Never mind. I'll text you. A : Okay. Thanks, Stephanie. See you soon. ① My phone has really bad reception here. ② I couldn't pick up more paper. ③ I think I've dialed the wrong number. ④ I'll buy each item separately this time. 문 5. 우리말을 영어로 잘못 옮긴 것은? ① 나의 이모는 파티에서 그녀를 만난 것을 기억하지 못했다. → My aunt didn't remember meeting her at the party. ② 나의 첫 책을 쓰는 데 40년이 걸렸다. → It took me 40 years to write my first book. ③ 학교에서 집으로 걸어오고 있을 때 강풍에 내 우산이 뒤집혔다. → A strong wind blew my umbrella inside out as I was walking home from school. ④ 끝까지 생존하는 생물은 가장 강한 생물도, 가장 지적인 생물도 아니고, 변화에 가장 잘 반응하는 생물이다. → It is not the strongest of the species, nor the most intelligent, or the one most responsive to change that survives to the end. 문 6. 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은? After analyzing a mass of data on job interview results, a research team discovered a surprising reality. Did the likelihood of being hired depend on qualifications? Or was it work experience? In fact, it was neither. It was just one important factor: did the candidate appear to be a pleasant person. Those candidates who had managed to ingratiate themselves were very likely to be offered a position; they had charmed their way to success. Some had made a special effort to smile and maintain eye contact. Others had praised the organization. This positivity had convinced the interviewers that such pleasant and socially skilled applicants would fit well into the workplace, and so should be offered a job. ① To Get a Job, Be a Pleasant Person ② More Qualifications Bring Better Chances ③ It Is Ability That Counts, Not Personality ④ Show Yourself As You Are at an Interview 문 7. 글의 내용과 일치하지 않는 것은? Most writers lead double lives. They earn good money at legitimate professions, and carve out time for their writing as best they can: early in the morning, late at night, weekends, vacations. William Carlos Williams and Louis-Ferdinand Céline were doctors. Wallace Stevens worked for an insurance company. T.S. Elliot was a banker, then a publisher. Don DeLilo, Peter Carey, Salman Rushdie, and Elmore Leonard all worked for long stretches in advertising. Other writers teach. That is probably the most common solution today, and with every major university and college offering so-called creative writing courses, novelists and poets are continually scratching and scrambling to land themselves a spot. Who can blame them? The salaries might not be big, but the work is steady and the hours are good. ① Some writers struggle for teaching positions to teach creative writing courses. ② As a doctor, William Carlos Williams tried to find the time to write. ③ Teaching is a common way for writers to make a living today. ④ Salman Rushdie worked briefly in advertising with great triumph. 영 어 2 책형 2 쪽 문 8. 글의 흐름상 가장 어색한 문장은? One of the largest celebrations of the passage of young girls into womanhood occurs in Latin American and Hispanic cultures. This event is called La Quinceañera, or the fifteenth year. ① It acknowledges that a young woman is now of marriageable age. The day usually begins with a Mass of Thanksgiving. ② By comparing the rites of passage of one culture with those of another, we can assess differences in class status. The young woman wears a full-length white or pastel-colored dress and is attended by fourteen friends and relatives who serve as maids of honor and male escorts. ③Her parents and godparents surround her at the foot of the altar. When the Mass ends, other young relatives give small gifts to those who attended, while the Quinceañera herself places a bouquet of flowers on the altar of the Virgin. ④Following the Mass is an elaborate party, with dancing, cake, and toasts. Finally, to end the evening, the young woman dances a waltz with her favorite escort. 문 9. 주어진 문장이 들어갈 위치로 가장 적절한 곳은? He dismally fails the first two, but redeems himself in the concluding whale episode, where he does indeed demonstrate courage, honesty, and unselfishness. Disney's work draws heavily from fairy tales, myths, and folklore, which are profuse in archetypal elements. ( ① ) Pinocchio is a good example of how these elements can be emphasized rather than submerged beneath a surface realism. ( ② ) Early in the film, the boy/puppet Pinocchio is told that in order to be a "real boy," he must show that he is "brave, truthful, and unselfish." ( ③ ) The three principal episodes of the movie represent ritualistic trials, testing the youth's moral fortitude. ( ④ ) As such, like most of Disney's works, the values in Pinocchio are traditional and conservative, an affirmation of the sanctity of the family unit, the importance of a Higher Power in guiding our destinies, and the need to play by society's rules. 문 10. 글의 내용과 일치하지 않는 것은? Stanislavski was fortunate in many ways. He was the son of a wealthy man who could give him the advantages of a broad education, the opportunity to see the greatest exponents of theatre art at home and abroad. He acquired a great reputation because he had set high goals and never faltered along the hard road leading to them. His personal integrity and inexhaustible capacity for work contributed to making him a professional artist of the first rank. Stanislavski was also richly endowed by nature with a handsome exterior, fine voice and genuine talent. As an actor, director and teacher, he was destined to influence and inspire the many who worked with him and under him or who had the privilege of seeing him on the stage. ① Stanislavski was born with attractive features. ② Stanislavski remained uninfluential on his colleagues throughout his life. ③ Stanislavski's father was affluent enough to support his education. ④ Stanislavski became a top-ranked artist by the aid of his upright character and untiring competence. ※ 밑줄 친 부분과 의미가 가장 가까운 것을 고르시오. [문 11 ～ 문 12] 문 11. It was personal. Why did you have to stick your nose in? ① hurry ② interfere ③ sniff ④ resign 문 12. Newton made unprecedented contributions to mathematics, optics, and mechanical physics. ① mediocre ② suggestive ③ unsurpassed ④ provocative 문 13. 어법상 옳은 것은? ① Jessica is a much careless person who makes little effort to improve her knowledge. ② But he will come or not is not certain. ③ The police demanded that she not leave the country for the time being. ④ The more a hotel is expensiver, the better its service is. 문 14. 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은? Character is a respect for human beings and the right to interpret experience differently. Character admits self-interest as a natural trait, but pins its faith on man's hesitant but heartening instinct to cooperate. Character is allergic to tyranny, irritable with ignorance and always open to improvement. Character is, above all, a tremendous humility before the facts ― an automatic alliance with truth even when that truth is bitter medicine. ① Character's Resistance to Truth ② How to Cooperate with Characters ③ The Ignorance of Character ④ What Character Means 문 15. 글의 주제로 가장 적절한 것은? Children who under-achieve at school may just have poor working memory rather than low intelligence. Researchers from a university surveyed more than 3,000 primary school children of all ages and found that 10 % of them suffer from poor working memory, which seriously impedes their learning. Nationally, this equates to almost 500,000 children in primary education being affected. The researchers also found that teachers rarely identify poor working memory and often describe children with this problem as inattentive or less intelligent. ① children's identification with teachers at school ② low intelligence of primary school children ③ influence of poor working memory on primary school children ④ teachers' efforts to solve children's working-memory problem 영 어 2 책형 3 쪽 문 16. 글의 내용과 일치하는 것은? A new study by Harvard researchers may provide a compelling reason to remove canned soup and juice from your dining table. People who ate one serving of canned food daily over the course of five days, the study found, had significantly elevated levels ― more than a tenfold increase ―of bisphenol-A, or BPA, a substance that lines most food and drink cans. Public health officials in the United States have come under increasing pressure to regulate it. Some of the research on BPA shows that it is linked to a higher risk of cancer, heart disease, and obesity. Some researchers, though, counter that its reputation as a health threat to people is exaggerated. The new study published in The Journal of the American Medical Association is the first to measure the amounts of BPA that are ingested when people eat food that comes directly out of a can. ① 하버드의 새로운 연구가 통조림 음식의 안전성을 입증하였다. ② 비스페놀 A와 암, 심장병, 비만의 연관성이 과장되었다는 데에 모든 학자들이 동의한다. ③ 통조림 음식으로부터 사람의 몸에 유입된 비스페놀 A의 양이 아직 측정되지 않았다. ④ 미국의 보건 관리들은 비스페놀 A를 규제하라는 압력을 점점 더 받고 있다. 문 17. 주어진 글 다음에 이어질 글의 순서로 가장 적절한 것은? All animals have the same kind of brain activation during sleep as humans. Whether or not they dream is another question, which can be answered only by posing another one: Do animals have consciousness? (A) These are three of the key aspects of consciousness, and they could be experienced whether or not an animal had verbal language as we do. When the animal's brain is activated during sleep, why not assume that the animal has some sort of perceptual, emotional, and memory experience? (B) Many scientists today feel that animals probably do have a limited form of consciousness, quite different from ours in that it lacks language and the capacity for propositional or symbolic thought. (C) Animals certainly can't report dreams even if they do have them. But which pet owner would doubt that his or her favourite animal friend has perception, memory, and emotion? ① (A) － (B) － (C) ② (A) － (C) － (B) ③ (B) － (C) － (A) ④ (C) － (B) － (A) 문 18. 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 옳은 것은? ①As the old saying go, you are what you eat. The foods you eat ②obvious affect your body's performance. They may also influence how your brain handles tasks. If your brain handles them well, you think more clearly, and you are more emotionally stable. The right food can ③ help you being concentrated, keep you motivated, sharpen your memory, speed your reaction time, reduce stress, and perhaps ④even prevent your brain from aging. ※ 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. [문 19～문 20] 문 19. There's a knock at your door. Standing in front of you is a young man who needs help. He's injured and is bleeding. You take him in and help him, make him feel comfortable and safe and phone for an ambulance. This is clearly the right thing to do. But if you help him just because you feel sorry for him, according to Immanuel Kant, ______________________. Your sympathy is irrelevant to the morality of your action. That's part of your character, but nothing to do with right and wrong. Morality for Kant wasn't just about what you do, but about why you do it. Those who do the right thing don't do it simply because of how they feel: the decision has to be based on reason, reason that tells you what your duty is, regardless of how you happen to feel. ① that wouldn't be a moral action at all ② your action is founded on reason ③ then you're exhibiting ethical behavior ④ you're encouraging him to be an honest person 문 20. A group of tribes and genera of hopping reptiles, small creatures of the dinosaur type, seem to have been pushed by competition and the pursuit of their enemies towards the alternatives of extinction or adaptation to colder conditions in the higher hills or by the sea. Among these distressed tribes there was developed a new type of scale ― scales that were elongated into quill-like forms and that presently branched into the crude beginnings of feathers. These quill-like scales lay over one another and formed a heat-retaining covering more efficient than any reptilian covering that had hitherto existed. So they permitted an invasion of colder regions that were otherwise uninhabited. Perhaps simultaneously with these changes there arose in these creatures a greater solicitude for their eggs. Most reptiles are apparently quite careless about their eggs, which are left for sun and season to hatch. But some of the varieties upon this new branch of the tree of life were acquiring a habit of guarding their eggs and ________________________________. With these adaptations to cold, other internal modifications were going on that made these creatures, the primitive birds, warm-blooded and independent of basking. ① hatching them unsuccessfully ② leaving them under the sun on their own ③ keeping them warm with the warmth of their bodies ④ flying them to scaled reptiles
영어.pdf 2016 국회직 8급 영어 해설 성기건.pdf 2016년도 8급 공개경쟁채용시험 영 어 책형 가 - 1 - 영 어 1. Choose the word that best fits in the blank. Currently, honeybees are disappearing and no one knows why. What scientists realize, however, is that the _______ of the disappearances will be widespread. It won’t just be harder to raise flowers, but it will also be more difficult to produce a food supply rich in fruits and vegetables. ① confluence ② achievements ③ ramifications ④ management ⑤ termination 2. Choose the one that is closest in meaning to the underlined word. Since most provinces had Roman military posts, it seemed natural to make the military commander the governor. This was not an ideal solution. Backed by an army, an unscrupulous governor could easily take advantage of his power and enrich himself. ① felicitous ② ungrudging ③ benevolent ④ valiant ⑤ unprincipled 3. Which of the following is not grammatically correct? Confirmation that a severed head is a good match with an unidentified torso, and that a bent leg found on the Chatsworth Estate in Derbyshire actually (A)belonging to a different body, sounds like the plot of a thriller, but this is the work of restorers (B)preparing a star exhibit for a British Museum show on Sicily. One of the leading attractions of Sicily: Culture and Conquest, the first major British exhibition (C)to examine the early history of the island, will be the reunited marble head and limbless body of a Greek warrior. It is now thought that the impressive statue of a stumbling soldier, a rare piece dating from 470 BC, was designed to inspire and entertain people, much as a Hollywood epic might do today. Part of a 3D narrative tableau, it once told the story of a recent conflict, like (D)frozen footage from an action blockbuster. “The ancient Greeks were subtle in their storytelling,” said British Museum curator Peter Higgs. “While the Egyptians and Babylonians tended to depict themselves (E)trampling their enemy underfoot, the Greeks showed themselves fighting. It was very much propaganda, like a cartoon or an epic film. They also had guides at these key sites, who would take people around and explain the relevance of the statues.” ① A ② B ③ C ④ D ⑤ E 4. Which of the following best completes the blank? Though the historical task is always limited by our distance from the past, historians must never cease in their pursuit of truth. History is not an exact science. Historians will never reach anything close to a modern certainty about everything that happened in a bygone era, but, as Joyce Appleby, Lynn Hunt, and Margaret Jacob have argued in Telling the Truth about History, . A significant amount of historical knowledge can be ascertained through the diligent investigation of the sources available to us. When the historian’s vocation to pursue truth is combined with the reality that we can never produce a complete account of the past, we get what Hoffer calls “the historian’s paradox.” History may be “impossible,” but “something happened out there, long ago, and we have the ability, if we have the faith, to learn what that something is.” ① this should not stop them from trying ② internal accounts should be considered ③ scientific approaches should be banned ④ that will be helpful in the pursuit of truth ⑤ the emphasis should not be on historical facts 5. Which of the following is the most logical sequence of the three parts to complete the passage? As movie theaters have grown into multiplexes and megaplexes, crowd control has become a major concern. [A] They deliberately build lobbies and corridors that cannot hold as many people as the auditoriums, thus making holdout lines necessary. In turn, ticket holders may be enticed to shop or eat while stuck outside in the holdout line. [B] The most well-known measure is the ubiquitous holdout line which prevents ticket holders for the next showing of that weekend’s most popular movie from entering the building until their particular auditorium has been cleared out and cleaned. Since the 1980s, some theater chains have developed a policy of co-locating their theaters in shopping centers. [C] An overcrowded megaplex can be rather disagreeable, and in an emergency can be extremely perilous. Therefore, all major theater chains have implemented crowd control measures. ① A - B – C ② A - C – B ③ B - C - A ④ C - A – B ⑤ C - B – A 2016년도 8급 공개경쟁채용시험 영 어 책형 가 - 2 - 6. Which of the following best completes the blank? Many people associate facts with science, but accumulating facts is not what science is primarily about. A telephone book is an impressive catalog of factual information, but it has little to do with science. It is true that facts, in the form of verifiable observations and repeatable experimental results, are the prerequisites of science. What really advances science, however, is some new theory that ties together a number of observations that previously seemed unrelated. The cornerstones of science are the explanations that apply to the greatest variety of phenomena. People like Newton, Darwin, and Einstein stand out in the history of science not because they discovered a great many facts, but because their theories had _____________________________. ① many supporters ② such broad explanatory power ③ little to do with our lives ④ brought about changes in our lives ⑤ many different versions 7. Which of the following is true, according to the passage? When you picture a “grammar nazi,” what does that person look like? Are they old or young? Male or female? Professorial or blue-collar? A new study suggests they could be any of those things. In an experiment involving 80 Americans from a range of backgrounds, linguists Julie Boland and Robin Queen found no significant links between a judgmental attitude towards “typos” and “grammos” and gender, age or level of education. Typos are mistakes that can be attributed to a slip of the finger, like “teh” or “abuot”. Grammos are errors involving knowledge of the rules of language —for example “there” for “their,” or “you’re” instead of “your”. So you can’t tell if someone hunts down misprints and writes letters to editors just by looking at them. If you know something about the way they experience the world, though, you might be able to take an educated guess. Introverts, it turns out, are more likely to get annoyed at both typos and grammos. Not only that; they’ll probably not want to share their lives with you if you’re particularly error-prone. ① Typos and grammos reveal the level of education of a writer. ② The links between grammar nazis and age are newly found by a recent study. ③ Grammos are errors which are transparent in the writings of educated people. ④ It is possible to identify grammar nazis by understanding the way they experience the world. ⑤ Introverts tend to mingle with other people because they are usually afraid of being error-prone. 8. Which of the following best completes the blanks (A) and (B)? In the mid-1850s, Barcelona was on the brink of collapse. An industrial city with a busy port, it had grown increasingly dense throughout the industrial revolution, mostly spearheaded by the huge development of the textile sector. The city was living at a faster pace than the rest of Spain, and was ready to become a European capital. Yet its population of 187,000 still lived in a (A) area, confined by its medieval walls. With a density of 856 inhabitants per hectare(Paris had fewer than 400 at the time), the rising mortality rates were higher than those in Paris and London; life expectancy had dropped to 36 years for the rich and just 23 years for the working classes. The walls were becoming a health risk, almost literally (B) the people of Barcelona. (A) (B) ① comfortable protecting ② sparse attacking ③ safe contaminating ④ forgotten exterminating ⑤ cramped suffocating 9. Which of the following is true, according to the passage? “Without music life would be a mistake,” Nietzsche proclaimed in 1889. But although a great many beloved writers have extolled the power of music with varying degrees of Nietzsche’s bombast, no one has captured its singular enchantment more beautifully than Aldous Huxley (July 26, 1894–November 22, 1963). In his mid-thirties— just before the publication of Brave New World catapulted him into literary celebrity and a quarter century before his insightful writings about art and artists and his transcendent experience with hallucinogenic drugs—Huxley came to contemplate the mysterious transcendence at the heart of this most spiritually resonant of the arts. His meditations were eventually published as the 1931 treasure Music at Night and Other Essays. ① Nietzsche and Huxley had a chance to discuss music with each other. ② Huxley said that life would be a mistake without music. ③ Nietzsche published Brave New World in his mid-thirties. ④ Huxley’s writings about art and artists were written much later than Music at Night and Other Essays. ⑤ Huxley’s experience with hallucinogenic drugs made him extol the power of music. 2016년도 8급 공개경쟁채용시험 영 어 책형 가 - 3 - 10. Which of the following can be most closely associated with "Big Agra"? Thinking specifically about the production of food, “Big Agra” is often used to describe the major corporations that grow and market food. These megacorporations own giant cultivated tracts that use procedures intended to maximize the crop yield, harvest that crop(whether plants or animals) at the lowest price possible, and distribute the crop to markets in the United States and other countries. Maximizing crop yield involves the use of chemicals and pesticides—and cheap labor. “Big Agra” obviously has a stake in the battle over how the media frame stories that compare its foods with organic foods; the organic-food industry also has a stake in the battle. Accordingly, both sides attempt to influence how stories about their products are framed in the media because that can make a difference in their respective profits. Whether it is fast food or fresh spinach, they want to have an impact on what you buy and where you buy it. ① eco-friendliness ② high productivity ③ slow economy ④ healthy food ⑤ more job openings 11. Which of the following best completes the blank? The famous beer company Anheuser-Busch had launched Eagle Snacks in 1979. In 1995, after losing $25 million on sales of $400 million, it put Eagle Snacks on the block. No one made a serious bid for the business. The beer maker ultimately sold the Eagle Snacks brand name to P&G for a small sum. The adjacency trap, which the airlines and Anheuser-Busch fell into, is all too common. The problem typically starts when a company expands into some seemingly congruent business, then discovers that in that new market. Because it didn’t prepare for this, it gets distracted catching up ― either adding new capabilities it didn’t plan for(which also adds to incoherence) or simply trying to marshal its resources more effectively. Meanwhile, there are inevitably entrenched competitors, like Southwest Airlines or Frito-Lay, with the necessary capabilities already at a formidable level of effectiveness and scale. The company that sought adjacencies becomes a second-place competitor, pouring an increasing amount of money into a capability that only supports a narrow piece of its business. By that time, it’s too late to exit with any profitability ― the only question is whether to take substantial losses now or even more substantial losses later. ① its existing crew are not willing to work ② its existing capabilities system is not so different from those required ③ its existing resources are too scarce to maintain itself ④ its existing capabilities system is not adequate for success ⑤ its existing resources can be threatening to other competitors 12. Which of the following is the most logical sequence of the four parts to complete the passage? A study reported in the medical journal Lancet, based upon the work of researchers at Brigham Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, offers a telling information about the relationship between IGF-1 level and breast cancer. [A] In pre-menopausal women, on the other hand, the highest IGF-1 group had seven times more risk of breast cancer. “There is substantial indirect evidence of a relation between IGF-1 and risk of breast cancer,” the authors concluded. [B] It takes about three glasses(one and a half pints) of nonfat milk a day to achieve the same result in adult women. [C] Other research has shown that the consumption of both whole and nonfat milk raises IGF-1 levels in adults; in adolescent females, as little as a pint of milk a day can boost IGF-1 levels by 10 percent. [D] The authors estimated that the post-menopausal women in the study with the highest levels of IGF-1 in their blood had three times the risk of breast cancer than the women with the lowest IGF-1 levels. * IGF: Insulin-like Growth Factor ① A - C - D - B ② A - D - C - B ③ C - B - A - D ④ D - A - C - B ⑤ D - C - B - A 13. Choose the word that best fits in the blank. John’s conduct in church included making disgusting noises during the sermon and leering at women in the congregation whenever the Bible passages were even mildly suggestive. ① delicate ② delectable ③ laudable ④ insolent ⑤ tractable 14. Which of the following is not grammatically correct? ① The sales team saw the project through to its conclusion. ② The value of the dollar is certain to go up in January. ③ She determined ignoring his faults. ④ I owe this example to Georgia Green. ⑤ On the midterm exam, he made fewer mistakes than the other students. 2016년도 8급 공개경쟁채용시험 영 어 책형 가 - 4 - 15. Which of the following best completes the blanks (A) and (B)? If you’re sharing a living space with someone suffering from mild depression, you’re at risk of becoming progressively more depressed the longer you live with them — you pick up their negative vibes. Likewise, bank tellers and retail staff really can (A)___________ the mood of customers by smiling at them and asking them how they are. When customers respond in kind, which they usually do, that rubs off on the staff. It leads to a virtuous circle of reciprocated jollity and, more to the point if you’re a bank or shop manager, increased sales. Some retailers have taken this to heart: one high-end fast-food chain requires its staff to effuse ebullience. Recent studies have shown that such feelings can (B)__________ not just from one person to another, but across entire social worlds of friends and work colleagues. (A) (B) ① lift vary ② lift transmit ③ change vary ④ absorb leap ⑤ absorb transmit 16. Which of the following best completes the blank? Hotelling’s law was originally devised using the example of ice cream sellers on a beach. He showed that if there was only one seller who owned and operated two ice cream vendors on a beach, these would be placed at the optimum locations in order to cover the entire beach. On the other hand, if two different ice cream sellers owned and operated the outlets, they would be located next to each other in the middle of the beach. This is because each seller would seek to not only ‘share’ the beach but also potentially take customers away from its rival. This could only be done if it was located at the centre. Although the price of ice cream would be lower, the added distance the beachgoers would have to walk would be . Given the nature of the product this may be a critical aspect. More crucially, it may also lead to overcrowding in the middle. ① the cost of having that competition ② the advantage of the location ③ the result of having that ice cream ④ the law of selling ice cream ⑤ the way of competing with each other 17. Where does the given sentence best fit in the passage? In others, the control or guideline is minimal. Simply put, to improvise is to compose at the same time as performing ― to make it up as you go along. (A) It is a fundamental characteristic of jazz and is important in every jazz style. (B) Improvisation does not convey total freedom; it is not totally playing whatever one feels like playing. (C) In all jazz styles, there is structure on which to base the creative improvisation. (D) In some jazz styles, the structure is quite clear and controlling. (E) A structure might be an eight-bar phrase of thirty-two-bar chorus; it might be a specific chord progression that underlines a popular tune or a twelve-bar blues tune; or it might be the meter that the improviser adheres to. ① A ② B ③ C ④ D ⑤ E 18. Which of the following best completes the blanks (A) and (B)? The idealist theory of art, given its most persuasive formulation by R. G. Collingwood, distinguishes art from craft. Works of art serve no particular purpose. They are created through the artist’s involvement with a particular medium, such as oil paint or words. (A) , craft objects are created for a particular purpose, and the craftsperson begins with a plan rather than designing the object in the process of making it. This is not to say that works of art cannot contain elements of craft: clearly many great works of art do contain such craft elements. Collingwood explicitly states that the two categories art and craft are not mutually exclusive. (B) , no work of art is solely a means to an end. (A) (B) ① In addition Rather ② In addition In other words ③ Likewise In other words ④ In contrast Nevertheless ⑤ In contrast Rather 2016년도 8급 공개경쟁채용시험 영 어 책형 가 - 5 - 19. Which of the following best completes the blanks (A) and (B)? During the 1960s and 1970s the robbery rate in the United States increased sixfold, and the murder rate doubled; the rate of handgun ownership nearly doubled in that period (A)_______________. Handguns and criminal violence grew together (B)_______________, and national opinion leaders did not fail to remark on the coincidence. (A) (B) ① at all apiece ② as well apace ③ after all suddenly ④ in addition once ⑤ in short out 20. Which of the following best completes the blanks (A) and (B)? The earliest men, as you know, were (A) . They had to kill—or be killed—for there were carnivores all around them. At first, they had their own hands and teeth to kill with; then they invented primitive weapons. At a very early stage, they invented another kind of weapon—a sort of ‘secret weapon’. How the idea came into their heads, we do not know for certain: it may have arisen from the use of protective coloring, of camouflage, by the animals which they stalked and which stalked them. At any rate, they got the idea that if you imitated anything, you gained power over it. This idea was the beginning of the magic, and also the beginning of the (B) —music, poetry, painting, and drama. (A) (B) ① warriors ceremonies ② dancers exhibitions ③ agnostics genres ④ savages crafts ⑤ hunters arts 21. Which of the following best completes the blanks (A) and (B)? American literature begins with the orally transmitted myths, legends, tales, and lyrics(always songs) of Indian cultures. There was no written literature among the more than 500 different Indian languages and tribal cultures that existed in North America before the first Europeans arrived. (A) , Native American oral literature is quite diverse from tribe to tribe. And tribes maintained their own religions—worshipping gods, animals, plants, or sacred persons. Systems of government ranged from democracies to councils of elders to theocracies. These tribal variations enter into the oral literature as well. (B) , it is possible to make a few generalizations. Indian stories, for example, glow with reverence for nature as a spiritual as well as physical mother. Nature is alive and endowed with spiritual forces; main characters may be animals or plants, often totems associated with a tribe, group, or individual. The closest to the Indian sense of holiness in later American literature is Ralph Waldo Emerson’s transcendental "Over-Soul," which pervades all of life. (A) (B) ① However Thus ② Nonetheless That is ③ As a result Still ④ Consequently Therefore ⑤ Indeed Instead 2016년도 8급 공개경쟁채용시험 영 어 책형 가 - 6 - 22. Which of the following is the most appropriate title of the passage? In one early study featuring Donald as the stimulus, students participated in what they thought were two unrelated experiments. In the first, they were shown a number of trait words projected on a screen as part of a perception experiment. Half of the participants were shown the words adventurous, self-confident, independent, and persistent embedded in a set of ten traits. The other half were shown the words reckless, conceited, aloof, and stubborn. After completing the “perception” experiment, the participants moved on to the second study on “reading comprehension,” in which they read the short paragraph about Donald and rated him on a number of trait scales. The paragraph is intentionally ambiguous about whether Donald is an adventurous, appealing sort or a reckless, unappealing person. The investigators were interested in whether the words that participants encountered in the first experiment would lead them to apply different schemas and thus affect their evaluations of Donald. As the investigators expected, participants who had previously been exposed to the words adventurous, self-confident, independent, and persistent formed more favorable impressions of Donald than did those who had been exposed to the less flattering words. Thus participants’ schemas about traits like adventurousness and recklessness influenced the kind of inferences they made about Donald. The broader point is that information stored in the brain can influence how people construe new information. This is most likely to occur when the stimulus, like many of Donald’s actions, is ambiguous. In such cases, we must rely more heavily on top-down processes to compensate for the inadequacies of the information obtained from the bottom up. ① Schema: A Vehicle for Processing New Data ② Ambiguity Is All That Counts ③ Bottom-up Processes vs. Top-down Processes ④ Schema as the Core Component of True Knowledge ⑤ Perception Experiment: Why It Is Necessary 23. Where does the given sentence best fit in the passage? They are also given sets of possible answers, and they make their selection by pressing buttons on their console. Computers now play an essential role in many diagnostic investigations. (A) Moreover, the range of medical conditions is now so vast, and the doctor’s time so limited, that several clinical centers have begun to introduce computer-assisted diagnostic systems. (B) In an extension of this procedure, it is even possible in some centers for patients to begin the diagnostic process by themselves. (C) They are presented with a series of questions about their medical history and symptoms on a computer screen. (D) There is no time constraint, and they may change their answers at any time, or simply leave questions blank. (E) The answers are then stored in the computer, to be printed out when the doctor is ready to analyze them. ① A ② B ③ C ④ D ⑤ E 24. Which of the following best completes the blank? Groups are not entirely closed to new ideas and there are opportunities for minority influence. If the ideas of the majority are not strongly held and do not carry much personal or emotional weight, the group will be less closed to new ideas and minority opinions. Moreover, if the minority group is consistent in their positions, this has more impact than if they are not consistent. Further, majority influence seems to be most powerful in the immediate aftermath of the discussion and in public settings. As there is social cost to deviance, people tend to conform publicly. However, over time, perhaps when the source of the new ideas has slipped from memory, the new ideas are likely to show more influence. This may explain why totalitarian governments go to so much trouble to stifle dissent. They realize that _________________________________. ① minority groups are likely to create new ideas and opinions ② most of contemporary opinions are lack of rational judgment ③ majority opinions can often be subjected to strong pressures ④ unpopular opinions can make more impact after a lapse of time ⑤ majority influence can lead people to think in more limited ways 25. Which of the following best completes the blank? Researchers conducted a number of studies of people’s estimates of completion times. In one study, students were asked to predict as accurately as possible when they would turn in their theses. They were also asked to estimate what the completion date would be “if everything went as poorly as it possibly could.” Fewer than a third of the students finished by the time they had estimated. More remarkably, fewer than half finished by the time they had estimated under the assumption. Follow-up experiments laid the blame for people’s optimistic forecasts on the tendency . In one study, participants were asked to verbalize their thoughts as they were trying to estimate how long a task would take. Nearly all of their thoughts were about various plans and scenarios whereby the project would be finished. Only a precious few dealt with the participants’ track record on previous tasks. Thus the inside perspective(What steps are required to complete this project?) crowds out the potentially informative outside perspective(How often do I get such things done on time?). People have personal histories that would be helpful in accurately estimating completion times. They just don’t use them. When Buehler and his colleagues asked people how often they completed tasks by the time they initially expected, the average response was only a third of the time. ① to express their thoughts without considering their consequences ② to approach the task from an exclusively inside perspective ③ to depend upon outside information too much ④ to regard the completion of the task as the only condition of success ⑤ to estimate how long a task will take only by their experiences
영어_7급_A형.pdf 영어_7급_B형.pdf 2016 서울시 7급 영어 해설 김민수.pdf 2016 서울시 7급 영어 해설 성기건.pdf 2016 서울시 7급 영어 해설 성정혜.pdf 2016 서울시 7급 영어 해설 이충권.pdf Ⓐ - 3 ※ 밑줄 친 부분과 뜻이 가장 유사한 단어를 고르면? (1~3) 1. The name England is derived from the Angles, one of the Germanic tribes which established monarchies in lowland Britain in the 5th century, after the final withdrawal of the Romans in 409. ① collapse ② invasion ③ surrender ④ retreat 2. Some of these books were, on the face of it, frivolous and facetious; but many, on the other hand, were serious and prophetic, moral and hortatory. ① execratory ② exhortative ③ exemplary ④ exasperating 3. The distinguished businesswoman finds herself unable to jettison her lower-middle-class prejudices. ① discard ② digress ③ denounce ④ deny ※ 다음 중 어법상 가장 옳지 않은 것을 고르면? (4~5) 4. ① Nutritionists recommended that everyone eat from three to five servings of vegetables a day. ② Their human rights record remained among the worst, with other abuses taking place in the country. ③ It has been widely known that he is more receptive to new ideas than any other men. ④ He proposed creating a space where musicians would be able to practice for free. 5. ① No amateur can participate in the contest except that he is recommended by a previous prize winner. ② There go the last piece of cake and the last spoonful of ice cream. ③ Such was the country s solutions that they drew international attention to the issue. ④ I wish I had studied biology when I was a college student. 6. 다음 빈칸에 들어갈 가장 적절한 것을 고르면? In the evening he came and played the violin a long time, as usual. He was , by nature, and perhaps he loved his violin because while playing he did not have to speak. ① talkative ② affectionate ③ intolerant ④ taciturn 7. 다음 빈칸에 들어갈 가장 적절한 문장을 고르면? The streets outside are swarming with pickpockets. . ① You couldn t care less about it ② You ll soon get the feel of it ③ You can t be too careful ④ I hope you have no hard feelings about it 8. 다음 빈칸에 들어갈 가장 적절한 것을 순서대로 고르면? provide essential labor in richer countries with low birthrates, while flee to adjacent or distant foreign countries to escape harsh political or environmental conditions in their own. ① Unpaid laborers - expatriates ② Migrant workers - refugees ③ Domestic workers - immigrants ④ Foreign laborers - innovators 9. 어법상 빈칸에 들어갈 가장 적절한 것을 고르면? The population of Easter Island is now around 5,000, nearly double it was twenty years ago. ① as ② what ③ than ④ that ※ 다음 빈칸에 들어갈 가장 적절한 것을 고르면? (10~11) 10. Regulations related with the life or safety or those aiming at technological and industrial development, such as energy efficiency rating of buildings, should be maintained. However, irrational regulations free competition and creativity of businesses should be overhauled. ① hampering ② embroidering ③ embracing ④ manifesting 11. We seem to take it for that we have a society that can still manage to identify and tackle new problems, despite the current inability to allow for new ideas and concepts. ① perplexed ② displayed ③ relieved ④ granted Ⓐ - 4 12. 다음 빈칸에 들어갈 가장 적절한 것을 고르면? Why is it that some people reach a ripe old age and others do not? Several factors influencing are set at birth, but surprisingly, many others are elements that can be changed. ① diseases ② longevity ③ personality ④ maturity ※ 빈칸에 들어갈 표현으로 가장 적절한 것을 고르면? (13~14) 13. Too many parents force their children into . They are concerned about the child who loves to do things alone, who prefers a solitary walk with a camera to a game of ball. They want their sons to be team players and their daughters good mixers. In such foolish fears lie the beginnings of the blighting of individuality, the thwarting of personality, the stealing of the wealth of ones capital for living joyously and well in a confused world. ① group activities ② self-confidence ③ personal encouragement ④ collective wisdom 14. For all the terrors of isolation or attacking wolves, the frontier family soon learned that its worst enemy was . In Kansas, each season carried its own perils. Spring might favor the farmer with sunny skies and balmy temperatures; yet often melting snows and spring rainstorms caused torrential floods that menaced home and field alike. Tornadoes, with their deafening roar and deadly funnels, often ripped across the land, obliterating everything in their path. Summer, in turn, was apt to unleash droughts and hot winds that withered the crops and crippled the fall harvest. Plagues of grasshoppers devoured entire cultivated fields and miles of prairie foliage. Finally, the bitter winter season brought numbing temperatures and crushing blizzards. ① tornadoes ② grasshoppers ③ nature itself ④ within the family 15. 다음 빈칸에 들어갈 가장 적절한 문장을 고르면? Many businesses hire new workers through internships through which the companies offer full-time positions to a certain portion. In this way, companies can identify potential employees who are also trained and experienced through the probation period. Every year, tens of thousands of young Koreans enter into exploitive work arrangements, working overtime and mostly doing menial works for little or no pay, because they consider it as a rite of passage to be admitted into the white-collar world. These desperate job seekers can barely complain or speak up against their poor working conditions, . ① but heavy strains and worries are what torment these young people most ② so internship can work as a system to find potential future hires for employees ③ for disobedience could jeopardize possible job opportunities ④ and what follows is a rightful reward due to fierce competitions among them 16. 다음 빈칸에 들어갈 표현으로 가장 적절한 것을 고르면? Human beings have achieved preeminence among animals, not because of specialization, but because of adaptability. Some animals early developed specialized equipment such as hooves and gills. But hooves prevented the acquisition of manipulatory skills, and gills made land life impossible. In general, rapid specialization has usually entailed . ① loss of adaptability ② progress for the species ③ greater flexibility in development ④ preeminence in the animal kingdom 17. James Whittaker와 관련된 내용으로 옳지 않은 것은? How different it was 50 years ago when, on May 1, 1963, James Whittaker, accompanied only by Sherpa Nawang Gombu, became the first American to reach the summit of the world. Whittaker did it by climbing the Southeast Ridge, the same route pioneered in 1953 by the peerless New Zealander Edmund Hillary and Sherpa Tenzing Norgay. Whittaker had climbed Mount McKinley a few years before, and it was Gombus third trip to Everest. Three weeks after Whittaker and Gombu s ascent, in an unprecedented act of boldness, teammates Tom Hornbein and Willi Unsoeld clawed their way up a completely new route, the West Ridge. ① 에베레스트 산을 등정한 최초의 미국인이다. ② 힐러리 경이 개척해 놓은 남동쪽 능선을 이용했다. ③ 곰부(Gombu)와 함께 에베레스트 정상에 세 번 올랐다. ④ 그의 뒤를 이어 다른 팀들이 또 다른 루트를 개척하였다. 18. 밑줄 친 She 의 상황을 가장 잘 나타낸 것은? She can t make a sound, and when she tries to stand up, she finds she can t do that, either, but instead falls to the ground. She tries to crawl toward the opening, toward the door of the cooler that someone has just yanked open, the opening that all these people are now rushing toward. It s not working. It s like her body has abandoned her. It s like it won t do what she wants it to do, like the air in a nightmare. ① fortunate ② sacrificing ③ hopeful ④ helpless ※ 다음 글을 읽고 물음에 답하시오. (19~20) When LOL first appeared on computer and mobile phone screens, it caused ( ㉠ ) a little confusion. Some people were using it to mean lots of love . Others interpreted it as laughing out loud . It was an ambiguity that couldn t last. Who knows how many budding relationships ( ㉡ ) in the early 2000 s because recipients took the abbreviation the wrong way? Today it s ( ㉢ ). Almost everyone now uses LOL in its laughing sense. And it s one of the few text-messaging acronyms to have crossed the divide between writing and speech. 19. 다음에서 ㉠, ㉢에 들어갈 가장 적절한 것은? ㉠ ㉢ ① such twisted ② not complicated ③ such sorted out ④ not settled down 20. 위 글의 ㉡에 들어갈 가장 적절한 것은? ① were established ② floundered ③ were sustained ④ bloomed
영어_9급_A형.pdf 영어_9급_B형.pdf 2016 서울시 9급 영어 해설 강수정.pdf 2016 서울시 9급 영어 해설 김민수.pdf 2016 서울시 9급 영어 해설 김신주.pdf 2016 서울시 9급 영어 해설 김영국.pdf 2016 서울시 9급 영어 해설 성기건.pdf 2016 서울시 9급 영어 해설 성정혜.pdf 2016 서울시 9급 영어 해설 손재석.pdf 2016 서울시 9급 영어 해설 영스파.pdf 2016 서울시 9급 영어 해설 이리라.pdf 2016 서울시 9급 영어 해설 이영규.pdf 2016 서울시 9급 영어 해설 이충권.pdf 2016 서울시 9급 영어 해설 정수현.pdf 2016 서울시 9급 영어 해설 줄리아.pdf 2016 서울시 9급 영어 해설 한덕현.pdf Ⓐ - 3 ※ 다음 중 밑줄 친 단어와 뜻이 가장 가까운 것은? (1~3) 1. Parents must not give up on kids who act rebellious or seem socially awkward; this is a normal stage most youngsters go through and eventually outgrow. ① passive ② delirious ③ disobedient ④ sporadic 2. He was born to a wealthy family in New York in 1800 s. This circumstance allowed him to lead a prodigal existence for much of his life. ① perjury ② unstable ③ pernicious ④ lavish 3. Perhaps the brightest spot in the contemporary landscape of American higher education is the resurgence of interest in engaging students in civic life beyond campus. ① comeback ② disappearance ③ motivation ④ paucity 4. 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 가장 옳지 않은 것은? He acknowledged that ① the number of Koreans were forced ② into labor ③ under harsh conditions in some of the locations ④ during the 1940 s. 5. 다음 대화에서 어법상 가장 옳지 않은 것은? Ann : Your hair ① looks nice. Tori : I ② had it cut by the tall hairdresser in the new hair salon next to the cafeteria. Ann : Not that place where I ③ got my head to stick in the drier? Tori : ④ Must be, I suppose. Yes, that one. Ann : Huh, and they still let them open. ※ 어법상 빈칸에 들어가기에 가장 적절한 것은? (6~7) 6. Creativity is thinking in ways that lead to original, practical and meaningful solutions to problems or new ideas or forms of artistic expression. ① that generate ② having generated ③ to be generated ④ being generated 7. It was when I got support across the board politically, from Republicans as well as Democrats, I knew I had done the right thing. ① who ② whom ③ whose ④ that 8. 문맥상 빈칸에 들어갈 가장 적절한 것은? Usually several skunks live together; however, adult male striped skunks are during the summer. ① nocturnal ② solitary ③ predatory ④ dormant 9. 문맥상 빈칸에 들어갈 가장 적절한 것은? Language and spelling change. Crystal, one of the most prolific writers on English, has helped popularize that truth. If, as internet use suggests, people are now starting to write rhubarb as rubarb , that, he says, may one day become an acceptable . ① alternative ② obligation ③ risk ④ order 10. 다음 빈칸에 들어갈 표현으로 가장 적절한 것은? The reputation of Genghis Khan as may be worse than the reality. Much of our information comes from chroniclers of the time who often exaggerated the facts. It is possible that they were encouraged by their Mongol employers to exaggerate the tales of cruelty so that the Mongols appeared more frightening to their enemies. ① an exaggerating storyteller ② a courageous emperor ③ an influential figure ④ an utterly ruthless warrior 11. 다음 빈칸에 들어갈 가장 적절한 연결어를 고르면? Our brain processes and stores different kinds of information in different ways. Think about factual knowledge. Fact memory entails learning explicit information, such as names, faces, words and dates. It is related to our conscious thoughts and our ability to manipulate symbols and language. When fact memories are committed to long-term memory, they are usually filed along with the context in which they were learned: , when you think of your new friend Joe, you probably picture him at the basketball game where you met him. ① In short ② For instance ③ Above all ④ In addition 12. 문맥상 빈칸에 들어갈 가장 적절한 것은? As incredible as it sounds, there are some species of insects that will themselves to protect their nests. When faced with an intruder, the Camponotus cylindricus ant of Borneo will grab onto the invader and squeeze itself until it explodes. The ant s abdomen ruptures, releasing a sticky yellow substance that will be lethal for both the defender and the attacker, permanently sticking them together and preventing the attacker from reaching the nest. ① commit ② replace ③ expose ④ sacrifice 13. 문맥상 빈칸에 들어갈 가장 적절한 것을 고르면? E-waste is being produced on a scale never seen before. Computers and other electronic equipment become in just a few years, leaving customers with little choice but to buy newer ones to keep up. Thus, tens of millions of computers, TVs and cell phones are each year. ① efficient - documented ② obsolete - discarded ③ fascinating - reused ④ identical - thrown Ⓐ - 4 14. 다음 빈칸에 들어갈 가장 적절한 것을 고르면? In the last twenty years the amount of time Americans have spent at their jobs has risen steadily. Each year the change is small, amounting to about nine hours, or slightly more than one additional day of work. In any given year such a small increment has probably been . But the accumulated increase over two decades is substantial. ① dazzling ② vulnerable ③ imperceptible ④ compulsory ※ 다음 빈칸에 들어갈 단어를 순서대로 고르면? (15~16) 15. The country with the highest rate of crime in the world is Vatican City, with 1.5 crimes per resident. However, this high ratio is due to the country s tiny population of only around 840 people. It is likely that the vast majority of the crimes, which consist mainly of pick-pocketing and shop-lifting, are by outsiders. The Vatican has a special police force with 130 members responsible for criminal investigation, border control and protection of the pope. There is no prison in Vatican City, with the exception of a few detention cells to hold criminals before trial. The majority of criminals are by Italian courts. ① manipulated - sealed ② dominated - overruled ③ committed - tried ④ conducted - enforced 16. Albert Einstein s general theory of relativity is about to celebrate its 100th anniversary, and his revolutionary hypothesis has the test of time, despite numerous expert attempts to find . Einstein changed the way we think about the most basic things, which are space and time. And that opened our eyes to the universe, and how the most interesting things in it work, like black holes. ① withstood - flaws ② resisted - proofs ③ wasted - examples ④ squandered - pitfalls 17. 다음 글의 목적으로 가장 적절한 것은? Casa Heiwa is an apartment building where people can learn some important life skills and how to cope with living in a new environment. The building managers run a service that offers many programs to children and adults living in the building. For the children, there is a day-care center that operates from 7 a.m. until 6 p.m. There are also educational programs available for adults including computer processing and English conversation courses. ① to argue for a need for educational programs ② to recruit employees for an apartment building ③ to attract apartment residents toward programs ④ to recommend ways to improve the living standard 18. 다음 글을 문맥에 맞게 순서대로 배열한 것은? ㉠ Rosa Parks was arrested, jailed, convicted and fined. She refused to pay. Her experience set off a 382-day boycott of Montgomery city buses. ㉡ According to the segregation laws of the day, Rosa Parks, an African American, was required to sit in the back of the bus. She was accused of encroaching on the whites-only section, and the bus driver tried to convince her to obey the law. ㉢ Instead, Rosa Parks kept both her mien and her seat. At last, the driver warned her that he would send for the police. Go ahead and call them. Parks answered. ㉣ On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks took a city bus home from her job at a store in downtown Montgomery, Alabama. ① ㉡-㉠-㉣-㉢ ② ㉣-㉢-㉠-㉡ ③ ㉡-㉢-㉣-㉠ ④ ㉣-㉡-㉢-㉠ 19. 다음 글의 분위기로 가장 어울리는 것은? As Ryan Cox was waiting to pay for his coffee order at an Indiana, US fast food drive-through, he decided to try something he d seen on a TV news show ― he paid for the coffee order of the driver in the car behind. The small gesture made the young Indianapolis entrepreneur feel great, so he shared his experience on Facebook. An old friend suggested that rather than paying for people s coffee, Ryan put that money towards helping school students pay off their delinquent school lunch accounts. So the following week Ryan visited his nephew s school cafeteria and asked if he could pay off some accounts, and handed over ＄100. ① gloomy ② serene ③ touching ④ boring 20. 아래 글 바로 다음에 이어질 문장으로 가장 적절한 것을 고르면? The moon is different from the earth in many respects. First of all, there is no known life on the moon. And in terms of size, it is much smaller than the earth. You may think both of them have the same spherical shape. But strictly speaking, they are not the same. The moon is almost a perfect sphere; its diameter differs by no more than 1% in any direction. The faster an astronomical object spins, the more it becomes bulged at the equator and flattened at the poles. ① So spinning objects undergo some changes of their shape, except for the moon and the earth. ② Since the moon rotates more slowly than the earth, it is more nearly spherical. ③ Moreover, the moon s diameter has been varied for the last hundred years. ④ In fact, the moon s spherical shape is rather unexpected, considering its density and gravity.
영어-A.pdf 영어-C.pdf 2016 지방직 7급 영어 해설 김범재.pdf 2016 지방직 7급 영어 해설 문덕.pdf 2016 지방직 7급 영어 해설 성기건.pdf 2016 지방직 7급 영어 해설 성정혜.pdf 2016 지방직 7급 영어 해설 손진숙.pdf 2016 지방직 7급 영어 해설 이동기.pdf 영 어 A 책형 1 쪽 영 어 문 1. 밑줄 친 (A)에 들어갈 가장 적절한 것은? Judy: Will I see you at Mike's picnic tomorrow? Toni: Sure. What are you going to take? Judy: Potato salad. How about you? Toni: Oh, no! I was going to make potato salad as well. Now I'll have to (A) something else. One potato salad is enough. Judy: Don't worry. You still have time to think about what to take. ① catch up with ② keep up with ③ cover up with ④ come up with 문 2. 두 사람의 대화 중 가장 어색한 것은? ① A: I've just paid 20 dollars for a library fine. B: Let me sleep on it. ② A: Are you set for your trip tomorrow? B: No, I still have some packing to do. ③ A: Shall we split the bill? B: No, it's on me today. ④ A: Jim, the cafeteria is serving shrimp burgers for lunch. B: I think I'll pass. 문 3. 글의 내용과 일치하지 않는 것은? Mr. Harrison received notice from his company that he had to transfer to the branch office in Brussels. However, one of the issues now facing the Harrisons would be what to do about the children's schooling. Valerie, in particular, was at that point a junior in high school. She had, in fact, asked if she might stay behind in Washington D.C., so that she could complete her senior year and from there go about the business of applying to college. This proposal was greeted with an instantaneous response: Not on your life, we are a family and we will go on living as a family in Brussels. Valerie later expressed gratitude for her parents' refusal to countenance the idea that she remain behind in America, saying that the family's adventures in Europe had been not only a most enjoyable but an immensely important experience for her. ① The Harrisons relocated to Brussels. ② The Harrisons used to live in Washington D.C. ③ Valerie stayed in Washington D.C. during her senior year. ④ Valerie appreciated her parents' decision later on. 문 4. 글의 요지로 가장 적절한 것은? At school districts across the country, the chief technology officers responsible for safeguarding student data are tearing their hair out. Scores of education technology start-ups are marketing new digital learning tools directly to teachers－many are even offering them free to get a foothold in schools. That has enabled educators nationwide to experiment with a host of novel "adaptive learning" products, like math and foreign language apps that record and analyze students' online activities to personalize their lessons. But the new digital tools have also left school district technology directors scrambling to keep track of which companies are collecting students' information－and how they are using it. ① Schools are selecting apps carefully for maximum learning benefits. ② Students' privacy is at risk as education apps spread quickly in schools. ③ Some school administrators want teachers to have free access to the best learning apps. ④ Each school district is devising its own solution to the lack of digital learning tools. 문 5. 글의 주제로 가장 적절한 것은? Coffee, often known as "black gold," is the world's top-selling product after oil. It is grown in 60 countries and is worth around $ 80 billion per year. However, while affluent consumers pay several dollars for a cup of coffee and, in so doing, help international companies to make millions in profit, the coffee farmers themselves enjoy few benefits. An average coffee farmer receives less than 3 cents for a $ 3 cup of coffee. Because they are forced to sell their crops at the lowest possible price, the farmers remain trapped in poverty. ① enhanced quality control of coffee production ② coffee farmers' unrewarding toil ③ worldwide consumption of aromatic coffee ④ high cost of coffee production ※ 우리말을 영어로 잘못 옮긴 것을 고르시오. [문 6 ～ 문 7] 문 6. ① 당신이 그것을 더 잘 이해할 수 있게 제가 도표를 만들었습니다. → I made a chart so that you can understand it better. ② 제가 사무실에 없을지도 모르니까 제 휴대전화 번호를 알려 드릴게요. → In case I'm not in my office, I'll let you know my mobile phone number. ③ 선거에 대해서 말하자면 아직까지 누구에게 투표할지 못 정했어. → Speaking of the election, I haven't decided who I'll vote for yet. ④ 네가 여기에 오나 내가 거기에 가나 마찬가지다. → It's the same that you come here or I go there. 영 어 A 책형 2 쪽 문 7. ① 탄소배출은 가스, 석탄, 석유와 같은 화석연료 연소의 결과물이다. → Carbon emissions are a result of burning fossil fuels such as gas, coal, or oil. ② 모든 연령대의 사람들이 여왕에게 존경을 표하기 위해 차려 입었다. → People of all ages dressed up to show themselves their respect to the queen. ③ 당뇨병은 우리 건강에 심각한 위협이지만 완벽히 예방할 수 있다. → Although diabetes is a critical threat to our health, it can be completely prevented. ④ 토요일로 예정된 집회는 금세기에 가장 큰 정치적 모임이 될 것이다. → The rally scheduled for Saturday will be the largest political gathering in this century. ※ 밑줄 친 부분과 의미가 가장 가까운 것을 고르시오. [문 8 ～ 문 9] 문 8. A government plan to restrict the number of green housing standards imposed by local authorities on developers is not congruent with its commitment to localism, a report by a parliamentary committee has concluded. ① supplementary to ② asymmetrical to ③ incompatible with ④ consistent with 문 9. With grace and courage and an unabashed willingness to be his own man, Tim Duncan has pushed his business to unimaginable profitability－and greater social responsibility. ① self-disciplined ② unprincipled ③ audacious ④ genuine ※ 밑줄 친 부분 중 어법상 옳지 않은 것을 고르시오. [문 10 ～ 문 11] 문 10. Jazz originated from styles of popular music that ①were blended to satisfy social dancers. It began developing during the 1890s in New Orleans, and it was fully formed by the early 1920s when it was recorded in New York, Los Angeles, and Chicago. Several different trends led to the birth of jazz. ② One was the practice of taking liberties with the melodies and accompaniments of tunes. This led to ③ that we today call improvisation. Another was black Americans ④ creating new kinds of music such as ragtime and blues. 문 11. Each person defines his or her own space－the surrounding area ① reserved for the individual. Acute discomfort can occur when another person stands or sits within the space ②identifying as inviolate. Middle Easterners prefer to be no more than 2 feet from ③ whomever they are communicating with so that they can observe their eyes. Latinos enjoy personal closeness with friends and acquaintances. African Americans are likely to be offended if a person moves back or ④ tries to increase the distance between them. Intercultural communication is most successful when spatial preferences are flexible. 문 12. 다음 중 글 전체의 흐름과 무관한 것은? Perhaps the most damaging criticism of advertising is that it is generally deceptive. In everyday language, we think of deception as lying. Do ads lie? The answer is no in the sense that lying is presenting a blatant falsehood. ① Advertisers know that if they present a claim they cannot support with evidence, they can be fined, so they avoid making explicit claims that can be checked for truth. ② Also, major advertisers know that their products differ from their competitors' products in very minor ways, so there is no point in making claims that their product is clearly superior in some way. ③ Instead, advertisers are fond of using what is called "puffery," which is the making of implicit claims that cannot be tested for truth. ④ We can change our attractiveness, relationships, and degree of happiness by using certain products. For example, advertisers will claim that their product is the best in their class without specifying what that class is. 문 13. 밑줄 친 표현 중 글의 흐름으로 보아 가장 어색한 것은? Pope Francis made an emotional ① visit into the heart of Europe's ② migrant crisis on Saturday and took 12 Muslim refugees from Syria, including six children, with him back to Rome aboard the papal plane. The action punctuated the pope's pleas for ③antipathy to the plight of the refugees just as European attitudes are ④ hardening against them. 문 14. 다음 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은? Crops that are genetically modified (GM) have genes artificially added to them. These genes work in two ways. First, they make the crops resistant to weed killers. This means that farmers can spray all of their plants with poison, but the weeds will die and the crops will not. Secondly, the added gene or genes are designed to make the crop deadly to any pests that eat them, while being harmless to humans. Yet the use of GM crops is becoming controversial. Research has discovered that GM crops were harming the monarch butterfly, and also that GM food slowed growth and increased disease in rats. Opposition to genetically modified foods around the world is growing. ① Are GM Crops Safe? ② Who Produces GM Crops? ③ Nutritional Benefits of GM Food ④ Economic Impact of GM Crops 영 어 A 책형 3 쪽 ※ 밑줄 친 부분에 들어갈 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오. [문 15 ～ 문 16] 문 15. The achievement of material success is probably the most widely respected form of self-improvement in the United States. Many scholars believe that the nation's Protestant heritage is largely responsible for bringing this about. The idea of mixing materialism and religion may seem ___________; religion is considered to be concerned with spiritual matters, not material possessions. How can the two mix? ① contradictory ② incremental ③ marginal ④ multifaceted 문 16. The mistletoe plant typically attaches itself to the oak tree and uses the moisture and food from the tree for its survival. Sometimes the mistletoe can get so large that it ends up killing its host. This kind of example is called a(n) _____________ relationship. ① parasitic ② misanthropic ③ contingent ④ omnivorous 문 17. 우리말을 영어로 가장 잘 옮긴 것은? ① 부모의 지도는 학교 교육 못지않게 중요하다. → Parental guidance is no more important than school education. ② 그 책은 교육적 관점에서 바람직하지 못하다. → The book is undesirable from an educational point of view. ③ 그 교육 정책은 아동들이 빈곤에서 벗어나도록 도와 주었다. → The educational policy helped escape children out of poverty. ④ 그는 학습장애아동을 지도하는 교사다. → He is a teacher for children disability learning. 문 18. 주어진 글 다음에 이어질 글의 순서로 가장 적절한 것은? Ignite a candle, a cigarette, or a ball of cotton. You will note that each one will burn at different rates in air. (A) If each lighted object is placed in a jar of pure nitrogen, each one will stop burning. (B) The cotton will just smolder or burn very slowly. The cigarette burns steadily but shows little flame; the candle flame is obvious. (C) The composition of air is about 1/5 oxygen and 4/5 nitrogen. If you place each of these objects in turn into a jar of pure oxygen, the candle will burn brighter and the slowly burning cigarette or the smoldering cotton will burst into flame. ① (A) － (B) － (C) ② (A) － (C) － (B) ③ (B) － (C) － (A) ④ (C) － (A) － (B) 문 19. 밑줄 친 (A), (B)에 들어갈 가장 적절한 것은? Dada's original manifestation was intended as a classless "anti-art" that did not pander to bourgeois sensibilities. Adopting a stance of irrationality, in contrast to formalized painting and sculpture, Dada permeated a number of European cities such as Paris, Berlin and Zurich, before émigré European artists disseminated its ideas into American culture. These (A) ideas found form in collage and montage, motifs borrowed from Cubism. These collages were often words or pictures cut from popular magazines and pasted in absurd juxtapositions with other disparate images. There was also a high degree of chance and immediacy in these images that were intended to shock and disrupt the normality of bourgeois sensibilities and etiquette. Dada artists made "objects" with the same lack of (B) and were often involved in absurd events designed to disrupt the complacency of the status quo. (A) (B) ① rational sensibilities ② rational orderliness ③ irrational logicality ④ irrational immediacy 문 20. 다음 글을 한 문장으로 요약할 때 밑줄 친 (A), (B)에 들어갈 가장 적절한 것은? Attributions of beauty and ugliness are often due not to aesthetic but to socio-political criteria. There is a passage by Marx in which he points out how the possession of money may compensate for ugliness: "As money has the property of being able to buy anything, to take possession of all objects, it is therefore the pre-eminent object worth having. The extent of my power is as great as the power of the money I possess. What I am and what I can do is therefore not determined by my individuality in the slightest. I am ugly, but I can buy myself the most beautiful women." Now if we extend these observations on money to power in general, we can understand certain portraits of monarchs of centuries past, devotedly immortalized by fawning painters who certainly did their utmost to cover up the monarchs' defects. There is no doubt that their omnipotence lent them such charisma and glamour that their subjects saw them through adoring eyes. Wealth and power possess the ability to (A) any (B) people may have. (A) (B) ① annul resilience ② offset shortcomings ③ anticipate defects ④ impair virtues